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Its  Story  and  Biography 










Copyright,  1921 



As  the  lives  of  the  States  go,  Montana  has  had  a  short  record,  but, 
like  intense  personalities,  Montana  and  her  people  have  condensed  much 
achievement  into  a  brief  span  of  activities.  The  "Land  of  the  Shining 
Mountains"  and  of  Magnificent  Distances  commenced  to  be  sprinkled 
with  a  few  adventuresome  gold  seekers  during  the  early  years  of  the 
Civil  War,  albeit  her  diverse  and  wonderful  territory  lying  along  the 
great  range  of  northern  travel  between  the  Mississippi  Valley  and  the 
Pacific  Coast  had  been  traversed  by  such  government  agents  as  Lewis 
and  Clark  and  by  faithful  enthusiasts  of  the  Catholic  Church.  The  Jesuit 
fathers  and  the  pioneer  trappers  and  fur  traders  had  even  planted  the 
seeds  of  industry  in  the  valleys  of  the  Missouri  and  Yellowstone  before 
the  California  of  a  previous  generation  was  reproduced  with  all  its  excite- 
ment and  riot  within  the  confines  of  what  is  now  the  State  of  Montana. 

The  old  fur  traders  and  guides  of  the  older  days  led  the  seeker  of  gold 
to  Bannack  and  Virginia  cities,  to  Helena  and  the  Hell  Gate  regions  of 
western  Montana.  Mining  camps  and  towns,  with  their  crude  business 
houses  sprung  into  life,  with  small  cattle  ranches  and  farms;  but  the 
basis  of  the  first  period  of  progress  was.  laid  in  the  gold  mines.  Agricul- 
ture and  the  raising  of  live  stock  were  side  issues. 

Then  came  the  time  of  the  great  ranges  for  cattle,  horses  and  sheep, 
with  the  mining  of  gold,  silver  and  copper  as  still  the  powerful  agents 
of  advancement.  At  first  such  interests  were  removed  from  adequate 
transportation,  and  the  protecting  forces  of  civil  law  and  order  were  only 
weakly  organized.  Uncle  Sam  attempted  to  tide  over  this  critical  period 
with  his  military  arm.  then  still  weakened  by  the  stress  of  the  Civil  war. 
He  did  what  he  could,  but  until  the  railroads  "got  into  their  stride"  the 
potential  riches  of  Montana  were  yet  conjectural.  To  be  fair  to  the  great 
commonwealth,  the  truth  is  that  it  is  only  within  forty  years  that  she 
has  been  given  a  fair  chance  with  her  sisters  of  the  West.  At  that. 
Nature,  in  the  forms  of  drought  and  "bad  lands,"  has  been  most  unkind, 
so  that,  although  ^e  territory  of  Montana  is  w'thin  a  few  thousand  square 
miles  of  that  of  California,  the  home  areas  which  are  naturally  productive 
are  comparatively  restricted.  But  the  State  and  the  Nation  are  working 
together  so  strongly  and  persistently  that  both  arid  and  swamp  lands  are 
everywhere  being  reclaimed.  The  virile  spirit  of  Montana,  coupled  with 
the  engineering  and  scientific  solutions  of  irrigation,  draining  and  farming 
which  are  being  continuously  put  into  practice,  are  bound  to  give  the 
state  a  high  and  permanent  standing.  The  schools,  the  newspapers,  tl 



commercial  organizations,  the  libraries  and  the  churches  are  all  co-operat- 
ing in  the  work  of  both  advancing  and  uplifting  those  interests  which, 
as  a  whole,  make  the  state  what  it  is. 

The  History  of  Montana  which  is  here  presented  has  endeavored  to 
etch  this  record  of  struggles  and  real  achievements  in  such  a  way  that  its 
strong  lines  shall  be  preserved,  and  the  story  not  be  weighted  and  ob- 
scured with  details.  With  this  end  in  view,  countless  authorities,  private 
and  public,  officials  of  the  State  and  National  governments,  actors  in 
the  events  treated,  historians  and  scientists,  have  all  been  consulted  and, 
ofttimes,  their  very  words  have  been  reproduced.  In  fact,  such  treat- 
ment of  the  context  has  been  in  line  with  the  well  considered  policy  of 
the  editor  and  his  associates.  The  story  of  Montana  has  been  told,  as 
nearly  as  possible,  through  the  contributions  of  those  best  qualified  to 
speak  and  write.  In  this  connection,  the  supervising  editor  cannot  but 
express  his  profound  regret  that  two  of  his  most  valuable  associates 
should  have  been  cut  off  by  death  from  rendering  to  him  the  full  extent 
of  their  suggestions,  advice  and  co-operation.  The  venerable,  able  and 
historic  characters,  General  Charles  S.  Warren,  late  of  Butte,  and  ex- 
United  States  Senator  Paris  Gibson,  the  founder  of  Great  Falls,  fought 
a  good  fight  for  Montana,  although  they  could  not  live  to  see  this  record 
in  print  which  now  goes  forth  with  the  usual  feeling  of  misgivings  as 
to  the  perfection  of  anything  human.  These  misgivings  are  natural, 
despite  the  fact  that  no  effort  has  been  neglected  to  make  the  history 
correct  and  complete  in  the  essent:aK  To  the  many  who  have  co-operated 
in  this  task,  hearty  thanks  are  offered;  and  they  are  so  numerous  that 
the  mention  of  names  would  be  superfluous  and,  it  might  be  (by  uninten- 
tional omissions)  unfair. 







PATHFINDERS  OF  THE  MINING  CAMPS  ........................  '.,   103 

THE  FUR  TRADE  ERA  ....................  ......  .  .  .  ;  .........  .   I 

STEPS  LEADING  TO  SETTLED  CONDITIONS  ........................   142 

EXPEDITIONS  OF  A  DECADE  ..............  .  .  .............  .  .....   163 


FIRST  GOLD  DISCOVERIES  AND  WORKINGS  .......................   184 






*                                      CHAPTER  XIII 
DAWN  OF  LAW  AND  ORDER '.'. 278 













MODERN  MEANS  OF  COMMUNICATION  ....................  ere 

CONSERVATION  OF  LANDS  .....................................  577 

MILITARY  HISTORY  OF  MONTANA  ..............................  642 

















SILVER  Bow  COUNTY   (  BUTTE) 827 





Abbott,  A.  H.,  I,  7-2. 

Abbott,  P.  M.,  II,  362. 

Abel,  William  M.,  II,  179. 

Aber,   William    M.,    I,   544. 

Abrahamson,  John  C,   II,  228. 

Absaraka  (Home  of  the  Crows),  I,  340. 

Ab-sa-ra-ka  (Mrs.  Carrington),  I,  341, 

Absarokee,  I,  840. 

Absarokee  National  Forest,  I,  623,  778, 

Acher,  John  W.,  Ill,  965. 

Acquisition   claim,    I,   373. 

Adami,  Arthur  E.,  II,  560. 

Adams,  Burton  S.,  Ill,  727. 

Adams,  Charles  W.,  Ill,  1288. 

Adams,  E.  M.,  II,  231. 

Adams,  John  O.,  I,  654. 

Adams,   Sallie  M.,  Ill,   1062. 

Adams,  Stephen  J.,  Ill,  1201. 

Adams,  Thomas,  I,  188. 

Adams,  Walter  K.,  Ill,  1157. 

Adams,  William  P.,  II,  36. 

Adden,  Herbert  J.,  Ill,  1018. 

"Affairs  at  Fort  Benton"  (Bradley),  I, 
124,  183,  215. 

Afflerbaugh,  I.  R.,  Ill,  872. 

Agawam,  I,  843. 

Agricultural  College  Hall,  Bozeman 
(illustration),  I,  545. 

Agricultural  Experiment  Station  at 
Bozeman  established,  I,  478. 

Agricultural  Experiment  Station 
(Northern),  I,  476. 

Agricultural  Experiment  Stations,  I, 
529;  (branch),  529. 

Agricultural    Extension    service,    I,   520, 

Agriculture:  Indians  wonder  at  sprout- 
ing grain  (1840),  I,  149. 

Aiken,  Will,  I,  869. 

Aitken,   Walter,    II,  407. 

Akins,  Jefferson  H.,  II,   142. 

Alder  Creek,   I,  231. 

Alder  Gulch,  I,  192;  discovery  of,  200; 
Edgar's  account  of  discovery,  201-5; 
named,  203 ;  Peter  Ronan's  account  of 
discovery,  205;  210;  total  output  of, 
216;  219,  220,  222;  commemorate 
monument  at,  320;  329,  771. 

Alderson,  J.  J.,  I,  851. 

Alderson,  William  W.,   II,  359. 

Alexander,  James  G.,  IT.  589. 

Alexander,  J.  Newton,  II,  509. 

Alexander  (Kalispeh'ms  chief),  I,  157. 

Alexander,  Mary,  III,  1247. 

Alexander,  Thomas,  III,  1246. 

Alfalfa,  Second  Crop  of  in  Valley 
County  (illustration),  I,  401. 

Alfield,  Ed.,   I,  223. 

Alger,  I,  824. 

Algerian  (Shriner)  Temple,  Helena,  I, 

Alice  Mine,  I,  373,  834. 

Allen,  Charles  D.,  II,  300. 

Allen,  Clark  W.,  II,  45. 

Allen,  C.,  I,  252. 

Allen,  Elbert  K,  II,  31. 

Allen,  J.  F.,  I,  237. 

Allen,  Paul,  I,  20. 

Allen,  Robert  T.,  Sr.,  II,  306. 

Allen,  William  R.,   Ill,   1158. 

Allen,  W.  R.,  I,  471. 

Allen  &  Millard,  I,  285. 

Alley,  Roy  S.,  Ill,   1205. 

Allin,  Charles  W.,  II,  391. 

Allin,  William  G.,  II,  605. 

Allison,  P.,  I,  213. 

Allison,  William,  I,  222,  223. 

Allison,   William,  Jr.,   I,  833. 

Alma,    I,    768. 

Alta  Mine,  I,  765. 

Alton,  Robert  D.,  II,  423. 

Amalgamated  Copper  Company,  I,  377. 

American  Fork,  I,  190;  (Hangtown), 

American  Fur  Company,  I,  113,  121,  123, 
126,  127,  129,  131,  140,  164. 

"American  Fur  Trade  of  the  Far  West" 
(Chittenden),  I,  69. 

American  Horse  (Indian  Chief),  I,  358. 

American  Horse  (Sioux  Chief),  I,  345. 

American  Smelting  and  Refining  Com- 
pany, Helena,  I,  381,  763. 

Ames,  James  J.,  Ill,  858. 

Amundson,   Edon   A.,   Ill,    1077. 

Anaconda:    state   capital    contestant,    I, 

441,  712. 

Anaconda  Copper  Mining  Company,  I, 
377.  379.  381.  713;  saw  mill  at  Bonner, 
781 ;  790,  836. 

Anaconda  and  Butte  Copper  and  Zinc 
Mines,  I,  383. 

Anaconda  Hill,  I,  836. 

Anaconda  Hill  and  vicinity,  Butte  (il- 
lustration, I,  830. 

Anaconda  lead  mines,  I,  384. 

Anaconda-Neversweat  Mine,  I,  375. 

Anaconda  Reduction  Works,  I,  713;  (il- 
lustration), 712. 

Anarchism  denounced   (1019),  I,  483. 

Anderson,  Andrew  T.,   II,  591. 

Anderson,  Anton  I.,  Ill,  1223. 

Anderson,  Elmer  J.,  II,  604. 

Anderson,   Emory  A.,    Ill,  736. 

Anderson,  Glenn,  II,  604. 



Anderson,  James  W.,  Ill,  893. 

Anderson,  John  A.,  Ill,  708. 

Anderson,  John  G.,  Ill,   1084. 

Anderson,  Marius,  III,  850. 

Anderson,  Orville  L.,  I,  653. 

Anderson,  Peter,  III,  732. 

Anderson,  Ray,  II,  220. 

Anderson,  Reece,  I,  186,  192,  221. 

Anderson,   Robert   B.,   Ill,   709. 

Anderson,  William  W.,  I,  316. 

Andretta,    Fred   C,    III,   834. 

Andrews,   C.   K.,   I,  868. 

Andrews,  J.  W.,  Jr.,  I,  426. 

Andrieux,  Edgar  M.,  II,  476. 

Andrus,  Harry  E.,  II,  375. 

Angell,  Earle  F.,  II,  616. 

Angevine,  Frank  H.,  I,  335,  338. 

Angevine,  Fred  R.,  II,  445. 

Angstman,  Jess  L.,  II,  1438. 

Annin,  James  T.,  II,  299. 

Annin,  Joseph  B.,  II,  298. 

Antelope,  I,  826. 

Apgar,  H.  D.,  Ill,  795. 

Apgar,  Jessie,  III,  796. 

Appleton,  Fletcher  W.,  II,  32. 

Arbor  Day,  I,  465,  498. 

Are  these  young  Americans  being  fairly 

treated?    (illustration),   I,  520. 
Arena,  Peter,  III,  954. 
Argenta,  I,  237. 
Argo,  Neil  D.,  II,  73. 
Arick,  R.  E.,  I,  415. 
Arkwrtght,  Hartford  D.,  Ill,  1257. 
Arlee,  I,  792. 
Armington,   I,  609. 
Armitage,  Thomas  C.,  II,  230. 
Armstead,  I,  783. 
Armstrong,  Frarcis  K.,  II.  6. 
Armstrong,  George,  I,  703. 
Armstrong,  John,  I,  15. 
Armstrong,  Ory  J.,  Ill,  999. 
Armstrong,  Thomas  G.,  II,  65. 
Arnet,  Nick,  III,  TCKX. 
Arnette,   Frank   G.,   Ill,  921. 
Arnett.  F.  B..  Ill,  854. 
Arnold,  George  P.  T.,  Jr.,  II,  285. 
Arnold,  Harry  E.,  II,  33. 
Arnold.  Ralnh  L.,  II,  453. 
Arnold,  William,  I,  237. 
Arnott,  George,  Jr.,   II,  771. 
Asbridge,  Joseph   L.,  I.  868;  II,  522. 
Ashley.  Tames  M.,  I,  288;  his  residence 

in  Helena  (illustration).  313;  becomes 

governor,  314;   (portrait),  410;  868. 
Ashley.  William.   I.   108.    in.   I2<">. 
Ashley-Henry    Discoveries    of    1823,    I, 


Aslakson,   Orrar   R  .   IT    620. 
Aslakson,  Thomas  E..  Ill,  1308. 
Aspling.  Charles  E..  II,  336. 
AssaroVa  range,  I,  OT, 
Asselstire.  George  H..  II,  564. 
Assinihoines.  J,  T,  i-»6. 
Asteroid  rla;m,  I.  371. 
Astor,  Tohn   Tacr>b,  I,  113. 
AtrM^on,  To'-n  S.,  I,  2«V. 
Atkinson,    Alfred,    I,    cig,    731. 
AtHnson.    Targes  T  .,  TTI,  925. 
AttK.  Frederick  F..  II,  45. 
Audubon,   John   J.,   I,    124. 
Augusta,  I,  241,  749. 

Auld,  James  C,  II,  617. 

Aune,   George   D.,   II,  87. 

Austin,   Claud,   II,  474- 

Austin,  Harry  H.,  II,   117. 

Austin,  James  W.,  Sr.,  Ill,  877. 

Austin,  William  Charles,  II,  474. 

Australian   ballot  system   introduced,   I, 

Autobiographical  Notes    (1791-1816)    by 

McDonald,  I,  81. 

Axtell,  John  S.,  I,  725;  III,  1195. 
Ayers,  Leonard  P.,  I,  503. 
Ayers,  Roy  E.,  II,  422. 
Ayres,  D.  E.,  II,  601. 

Baatz,  Nick,  II,  575. 

Babcock,  Albert  L.,  II,  241. 

Babcock,  Lewis  C.,  II,  241. 

Babcock,  Paul,  III,  801. 

Babington,  W.  J.,  II,  446. 

Baboon   Gulch,   I,  222. 

Bach,  Thomas  C.  (portrait),  I,  428;  431. 

Bachelors  taxed,  I,  489. 

Bad  Lands :  General  Sully  describes,  I, 
293;  (illustrations),  295. 

Badger  Creek,  I,  112. 

Bagg,  Charles  S.,  I,  256,  257,  282,  283, 

Bailey,  H.  V.,  I,  869. 

Bailey,  James,  I,  209, 

Bainville,  I,  817. 

Bair,  Frank  B.,  II,  367. 

Pair,  John  G.,  Ill,  746. 

Baird,  David  E.,  II,  512. 

Baird,  Frank  P.,  II,  583. 

Baker,  I,  714. 

Baker,  Arthur  G.,  Ill,  1431. 

Baker,  David  A ..  ITT,  1280. 

Baker,  Eugene  M.,  I,  309,  345. 

Baker,  E.  D.,  Ill,  1198. 

Baker,  George  A.,  III.  1319. 

Baker,  Paul,  III,  1373. 

Baker  Battle  Fields  memorial,  I,  323. 

"AVer's  Battle"  of  1872,  I,  309. 

Baldwin,  Clement  J.,  II,  15. 

Baldy  Mountain,  I.  771. 

Pall,  Allen  M.,  Ill,   1269. 

Ball,   Jennie  C,  III,  838. 

Ball,  May,  III,  727. 

Pall,  Robert  J..  Ill,  8~7. 

Ballantine,  I,  856. 

Ballard,  William  E.,  Ill,  843. 

Pallou,  F.  H.,  TT.  ico. 

Bally,  W.  H.,  Ill,  086. 

Bancroft,  Hubert  Howe.  I,  159. 

Bannack  City:  early  diggings,  I,  loo; 
191,  220,  230,  250,  333,  783;  of  today, 

Bannack  Legislature.  I.  2^-288. 

Bannack  Mining  and  Milling  Company, 
I,  672. 

Pannack  Statutes,  I,  415. 

Bannack  Street  of  Today  (illustration), 
I,  191. 

Banks,  L.  B..  II.  203. 

Banks  and  Banking:  Helena  Brand  of 
F^der?1  Re^rve  R^nk  onened,  I, 
489;  Miles  City  Banks,  707:  Lewis- 
town  Banks.  720;  statues  of  Montana's 
state,  private  anH  rational  banks 
(1920),  870;  state  banking  laws,  871. 



Barclay,  J.   Arthur,   III,   1400. 

Barclay,  R.  Proctor,  II,  390. 

Barker,  Bud,   I,  213. 

Barker,  Samuel,  II,  516. 

Barnard,  William  E.,  Ill,  mo. 

Barnes,  Antrim  E.,  II,  98. 

Barnes,  Oscar  O.,  Ill,  962. 

Barrell,  Joseph,  I,  14. 

Barrett,  Alexander  H.,  I,  493. 

Barrett,  William,  I,  328. 

Bartles,   Frederick   R.,   II,  452 

Bartley,   Paris   B.,  Ill,  682. 

Bartz,  George,  II,  311. 

Basin  mining  district,  $6,635,000,  I,  766. 

Bateman,  Howard  W.,  Ill,  747. 

Batens,  Francis  X.,  Ill,  1226. 

Battey,  R.  C.,  II,  258. 

Battle  of  Kildeer  Mountain  (Sioux 
Campaign),  I,  292,  293. 

Battle  of  the  Big  Hole,  I,  643. 

Baume,  Tom,  I,  255. 

Baxter,  Ernest  C.,  JI,  592. 

Beall,  William  J.,  II,  76. 

Beall,  Mrs.  W.  J.,  II,  77. 

Bean,  Leo,  II,  1302. 

Bear  Gulch,  I,  213. 

Bearmouth,  I,  790. 

Bear   1  aw  Mountains,   I,  9-1,  94,  229. 
Bear  Tooth  Mountain  in  the  Coal  Region 
(illustration),  I,  101. 

Beartooth  National  Forest,  I,  624. 
Beatty,  James  H.,  I,  378. 
Beauharnois,  Charles  de,  I,  5. 
Beauty  Spots  for  tourists,  I,  634. 
Beaver  Hill,  I,  848. 

Beaverhead  county:  placer  mines  in 
1862-68,  I,  213 ;  early  silver  mining  in, 
238 ;  created,  281  ;  number  and  value 
of  cattle  (1884),  395;  irrigation,  595; 
natural  features  and  industries  of, 

Beaverhead  National  Forest,  I,  624. 
Beaverhead  River,  I,  230. 
Beaverhead  Rock,  I,  50;   (illustration), 


Beckers,   Hubert,   III,  858. 
Beckwith,  James,  I,  344. 
Bedford,   David  J.,  Ill,  911. 
Beebe,   I,  703. 
Beechey,  Hill,  I,  253. 
Been,  I,  848. 
Bees,  I,  403. 
Behrendt,  Paul,  II,  130. 
Beidler.   J.    X.,    I,   2*3,    259,   273. 
Beier,  F.  W.,  Jr.,  I,  869. 
Beiseker,  Chester  J.,  Ill,  1065. 
Belanski,  Fdgar  E.,  Ill,  1133. 
Belgrade,  I,  729. 
Belgum,  Henry  S.,  Ill,  803. 
Belknap,  I,  824. 
Bell,  Frances,  I,  282. 
Bell,  Frederick  A.,  II,  130. 
Bell,  George  H.,  Ill,  1127. 
Bell,  Henry  A.,  I,  192,  196. 
Bell,  John  K.,  Ill,  971. 
Belleflenr,  Irene  V.,  II,  631. 
Bellefleur,  W.  M.,   II,  631. 
Belt,  I,  699. 
Belt  range,  I,  91. 
Belzer,  William,  I,  655. 

Bench  and  Bar:  Miners  Courts  estab- 
lished, I,  218;  Sidney  Edgerton  at 
Miners  Court,  279;  sketch  of  Chief 
Justice  H.  L.  Hosmer,  288;  opening 
of  first  District  Court,  289;  Idaho 
code  of  practice  adopted,  290;  com- 
pletion of  first  term  of  court,  291 ; 
Judiciary  opposes  Assembly  as  to  con- 
stitutional capital,  298;  Territorial 
practice  act,  315,  414-438;  bar  at  close 
of  territorial  period,  431 ;  Justices  of 
First  Supreme  Court  retire,  416;  be- 
ginning of  systematic  judicature,  418; 
crude  legal  and  judicial  surroundings, 
420;  placer  mining  and  water  rights, 
421 ;  Henry  N.  Blake  ascends  Supreme 
Bench,  423;  quartz  mining  litigation, 
424;  quartz  lode  litigation  supreme, 
427 ;  railroad  cases,  429 ;  Montana  Bar 
Association  formed,  433;  under  state- 
hood, 434-438;  U.  S.  District  Judges, 
437;  State  District  Judiciary,  438; 
Heinze  overwhelms  the  courts,  459; 
Fair  Trial  Law  passed,  460;  legisla- 
tive elevation  of  bar,  477;  justices  of 
the  State  Supreme  Court  increased 
from  three  to  five,  485 ;  pending  codi- 
fication of  laws,  489. 

Bender,  Frank,  II,  42. 

Benetsee  Creek,  I,  184. 

Bennet,  Howard  G.,  Ill,  688. 

Bennett,  George  C.,  Ill,  1439. 

Bennett,  Jack,   III,  809. 

Bennett,   Sidney,   II,  626. 

Bennett,  Walter  E.,  II,  169. 

Benoit,   John   A.,   Ill,    1144. 

Benson,  Theodore  J.,  II,  237. 

Benton,  C.  H.,  I,  438. 

Penton,  Thomas  A.,  I,  128. 

Benton  City,  I,  215. 

Benton  group   (geological),  I,  95. 

Berkin,  John,   II,  380. 

Berkin,  Tborras  A.,  II,  II. 

Berkin,  William,  I,  286;   II,   to. 

Bernard  Pratte  &  Company,  I,  ill. 

Berry,  Albert  C.,   Ill,  914. 

Berthelote,  Joseph  T.,  Ill,  1132. 

Bertrand,   Joseph,   II,  286. 

Bessette,  Hypolite,  III,  764. 

Best,  Herbert  F.,  II,  344. 

Best,  Judson  P.,  II,  345. 

Pest,  Oly  M..  II,  360. 

Be%  John,  III.  1008. 

Bibee,  S.  C,  III,  867. 

Bickford,  Walter  M.,  II,  12. 

Bickle,  J.  Hiram,  III,  1370. 

B''ddle.  Joseph  W.,  I,  363. 

Bielenherg,  Howard   Z.,   II,    182. 

Big  Bellies    (Gros  Venires),  1,74. 

Big  Pelt   Mountains,   I,  9.1. 

Big  Blackfoot  country,  I,  754. 

Big  Blackfoot  River  I,  227. 

Big  Dry  Creek,  1,  32. 

Big  Dry  River,  I,  91. 

Big  Fork,   I,  724. 

Pig  Hole  River,   I,  230. 

Big  Horn,  I,  845. 

Big  Horn   Canyon,   I,  672. 

Big  Horn  country,  Government  evacu- 
ates, I,  345. 



Big  Horn  County,  created,  I,  281 ;  406, 
474 ;  irrigation,  595 ;  description  of, 
672,  673,  674. 

Big  Horn  Mountains,  I,  91. 

Big  Horn  River,  I,  63,  81. 

Big  Horn  town  located,  I,  195. 

Big  Knife  River,  I,  29. 

Big  Prickly  Pear  Creek,  I,  190. 

Big   Sandy,   I,   702. 

Big  Snowy  Mountain,  I,  91. 

Big  Timber,   I,  841. 

Big  Timber  irrigation  project,  I,  583. 

Bigelow,   Edward,   II,   58. 

Bigelow,  Wilbur  F.,  II,  200. 

Billings,   Frederick,  I,  851. 

Billings,  incorporated,  I,  409;  irrigation 
project,  I,  581,  582;  history  of  city,  851 ; 
business  houses,  industries  and  banks, 
854 ;  general  evidences  of  its  prosper- 
ity, 859- 

Billings  airport,   I,  853. 

Billings  Chamber  of  Commerce,  I,  857, 

Billings-Cody  Way.  I,  851. 

Billings  Coliseum,  I,  853. 

Billings  Commercial  Club:  home  of 
(illustration),  I,  855;  sketch  of,  856. 

Billings   Polytechnic  Institute,   I,  552. 

Billings  Street  Railway  Company,  I,  851. 

Billings  twenty-five  years  ago  (illustra~ 
tion),  I;  852. 

Billings  and  Central  Montana  Railroad, 
I,  568. 

Billmeyer,  Daniel   H.,   II,  71. 

Biography  of  James  Stuart  (Granville 
Stuart),  I,  221. 

Biological  Station,  Flathead  Lake,  I, 
529,  535,  53.6. 

Bird  Tail  divide,  I,  91. 

Birkland,   Andrew   C.,   Ill,    1404. 

Birum,  Albert  A.,  Ill,   1069. 

Bishop,  John  F.,  I,  316. 

Bissel,  G.  G.,  I,  217,  218. 

Bitter   Root   Mountain,   I,  227. 

Bitter  Root  National  Forest,  I,  624,  811. 

Bitter  Root  River,  I,  90. 

Bitter  Root  Valley  (illustration),  I, 
935  (illustration),  143;  144,  223,  225, 
227,  791;  historic  associations  of,  811. 

Biven's  Gulch,  I,  231. 

Bjorneby,  E.  G.,  III.  86r. 

Bjorneby,  George,  III,  861. 

Black,  Robert  R.,  Ill,  951. 

Black  Bear  (Indian  chief),  I,  173,  174, 

Black  Chief,  I,  371. 

Black   Href    lode,   I,   222. 

Black  Eagle  Power  Plant,  Great  Falls, 
I,  680. 

Black  Hills   (Cote  Noire),  I,  34. 

Black  Mountain  Trail,  I,  752. 

Black    Rock    Zinc    Mine,    I,   382. 

Black  Tailed  Deer  Creek,  I,  230,  231. 

Blackfeet  Indians  (Piegans),  I,  104; 
fur  traders  attempt  to  win  over,  in; 
again  reconciled  by  Culbertson,  126; 
trouble  with  the,  I,  140;  attempts  to 
convert  the,  I,  150;  still  warlike,  I, 
154;  attack  Hamilton-McKay  party, 
I,  172,  173,  174,  175,  176;  reclamation 
project,  I,  587,  589, 

Blackfeet    country    abandoned    by    fur 

traders,   I,   105. 

Blackfeet  Indian  Reservation,  I,  737. 
Blackfeet  National   Forest,  I,  624,  769. 
Blackfeet  Sun  Dance  (illustrations  of), 

I,  736. 

Blackfoot  Valley,  I,  790. 
Blackwell,   George  R.,   Ill,  958. 

Blaere,  Joseph,  II,  269. 

Blaine  County;  created,  I,  474;  irriga- 
tion in,  596 ;  description  of,  674. 

Blaine  County  Fair,  I,  675. 
Blair,   Harry   B.,   II,    196. 

Blair,  James  F.,  II,  341. 

Blair,  John  W.,  I,  316;  III,  1296. 

Blake,  A.  S.,  I,  189,  192. 

Blake,  Henry  N.,  I,  216,  415,  422;  sketch 
of,.  423;  434;  defeated  for  chief  jus- 
tice, 449J  459- 

Blake,   S.   R.,   I,  219. 

Blakeslee,  Glenn  B.,  II,  172. 

Blakeslee,  Harry  D.,  II,  172. 

Blanchet,  F.  N.,  I,  147. 

Blankenhorn,  Charles  E.,  II,  141. 

Blodgttt,  Francis  E.,   Ill,  895. 

Blodgett,  Louis  D.,  II,  351. 

Blomquist,  Walter  C,  III,  826. 

Blood,   Indians,   I,   140. 

Bloom,  Edward  B.,  II,  189. 

Blose,  J.  T.,  Ill,  1034. 

Blue  Joint  Hay  (illustration),  I,  846. 

Board  of  Administration  for  Farmers' 
Institutes,  I,  530. 

Board  of  Education,  Billings,  II,  236. 

Board  of  Examination  for  Nurses,  I, 

Board  of   Horticulture,  I.  883. 

Board  of  Railroad  Commissioners, estab- 
lished, I,  464. 

Boarton,  L.  W.,  I,  289. 

Boatman,   Robert  T.,  II,  287. 

Bodden,  Jacob   C.,   II,    199. 

Boden,  Henning  R.,  II,  20. 

Boden,  James,  III,  1243. 

Bodley,   Ralph  E.,  II,  26. 

Boggs,  George  S.,  Ill,  1183. 

Bogue,  John  C.,  Ill,   1249. 

Bohart,  William  O.,  II,  420. 

Bohm,  Angevine  &  Merry,  I,  338. 

Bole,  James  P.,  II,  379. 

Bole,  William  S.,  II,  313. 

Bellinger,  John,  II,   171, 

Bond,  John  C,  I,  643. 

Bond,  N.  J.,  I,  282. 

Bon  in,   I,   777. 

Bonita,   I,   790. 

Ponner,  I,  790. 

Bonner,  E.  L.,  I,  500,  532. 

Bonneville,  B.  L.  E. :  his  explorations, 
I,  113-119;  and  the  geysers,  116;  last 
years  of,  119. 

Boorman,  Benjamin  J.,  Ill,  744. 

Booth,  Edwin   S.,   Ill,   1428. 

Booth,  John  C,  III,  1448. 

Booth,  John  H..  III.   1448. 

Borough,  John  F.,  II,  534. 

Borreson,  Henry  E.,  Ill,   1052. 

Boschert,  Frnest  A.,  II,  76. 

Posshard,  Elmer,  II,  341. 

Boston  &  Colorado  Smelting  Company, 
I,  375- 



Boston  &  Montana  Consolidated  Com- 
pany, I,  377,  378. 

Boston  &  Montana  mine,  I,  375. 

Bostwick,  Ephriam,  I,  192,  197. 

Botkin,  Alexander  C.,  I,  405,  433. 

Boulder,  I,  745. 

Bourquin,  George   M.,   I,  437,  438,  868. 

Bouyer,  Mitch,  I,  349,  350. 

Bowden,  Malcolm,  III,  1176. 

Bowden,  Marguerita,  I,  760. 

Bowdoin,  I,  803. 

Bower,  G.  C.,  II,  610. 

Bower   Brothers  Ranch,   II,  610. 

Bowman,  Alfred  H.,  Ill,  1326. 

Bowman,  Carl,  III,  1275. 

Bowman,  Charles  H.,  I,  549. 

Bowman,  Dan  H.,  Ill,  1344. 

Bowman,  Thomas  E.,  Ill,  1148. 

Boyer,  Mary  L.,  Ill,  1300. 

Boyes,  Henry  O.,  Ill,  1264. 

Boyle,  Neil,  III,  1265. 

Boynton,  C.  H.,  I,  761. 

Box  Elder,  I,  744. 

Bozeman,  J.  M.,  I,  120,  189,  195,  221, 
306;  statue  of  (illustration),  307; 
grave  at  Bozeman,  323,  555 ;  sketch  of, 
730,  799,  840. 

Bozeman :  first  house  built  in,  I,  307 ; 
state  capitol  contestant,  441 ;  529, 
729,  732. 

Bozeman  Roundup,  I,  732. 

Brackenridge,  Henry  W.,  I,  69,  73. 

Brackett,  Ivory,  III,   1394. 

Brackett,  Oscar,  III,  1007. 

Brackett,  William   S.,   I,   114,   118,   119, 


Bradbrook,  L.  G.,  II,  40. 
Bradbury,   John  I,  69,  71,  73. 
Bradford,  Robert  B.,  II,  233. 
Bradford,  W.  M.,  II,  233. 
Bradley,  Abram.  L.,   II,  492. 
Bradley,  James   H.    (portrait),   I,   214; 
304,  343,  349 ;  his  account  of  the  Custer 
disaster,  350;   death   of,  360. 
Bradley,  Mrs.  James  H.,  I,  216. 
Bradley's,   J.    H.   Journal,    I,    104,    121, 
124,   128,   151,   159,   163,   164,  310,  348, 

Bradshaw,  William  J.,  Ill,  1390. 
Brady,  I,  804. 
Bramble,  John  K.,  Ill,  958. 
Brandon,   I,  231. 
Brandon,  Roswell  L.,  Ill,  m8. 
Brantly,    Theodore,   sketch   of,    I,   436; 


Brassey,  Edward,  II,  205. 
Brattin,  Carl  L.,  Ill,  1120. 
Bratton,'  William,  I,  28. 
Brazier,  Charles  R.,  Ill,  1059. 
Breeders'  Association,   I,  403. 
Preen,   Maurice  J.,  II,  247. 
Breitenstein,   Arthur   J.,    Ill,   829. 
Brenizer,  I.  848. 
Brennan,  William  H.,  II,  352. 
Prrrnen,   W.   J.,   Ill,   822. 
Brewster,  George  W.,  Ill,  1376. 
Bridge,  John  W.,  Ill,  1172. 
Brirlfpr.  Tames,  I,  108,  113,  114;  famous 
explorer  and  guide,  also  portrait  115; 
120,  306,  340,  343,  344,  798,  840. 
Bridger  range,  I,  91. 

Bndger's  Canyon,  Valley  of  the  Galla- 

tm   (illustration),  I,  232. 
Briggs,  Ansell,  I,  282. 
Brigiit,  Haden  H.,   Ill,   1281. 

Brimacombe,  John,  II,  492 
Brink,  H.  F.,  II,  320. 
Briscoe,  Jack,  II,  198. 
Broadbrooks,  Clarence  E.,  Ill,  941 
Broaddus,  John,  III,  1088. 

Broaddus,  Oscar,  III,  1087. 

Broaddus,  William  M.,  Ill,  1401. 

Broadview,  I,  856. 

Broadview  school,  Terry  District  (illus- 
tration), I,  859. 

Broadwater,  Arthur  J.,  Ill,  818. 

Broadwater,  Edward  T.,  Ill,  690. 

Broadwater  county;  as  a  copper  pro- 
ducer, I,  384;  irrigation  in,  597;  de- 
scription of,  675. 

Broadwater  County  High  School,  II, 

Broadwater  Hotel,  I,  751. 

Brockton,  I,  817. 

Brock  way,  I,  776. 

Brockway,  Bert  G.,  II,  230. 

Brockway,  Clarence  J.,  Ill,  967. 

Brooke,  Ben  C.,  II,  618. 

Brooks,  Clark  A.,  Ill,  898. 

Brooks,  Joseph,  III,   1120. 

Brophy,  John  A.,  II,  424. 

Brophy,  John  W.,  II,  427. 

Brophy,  Patrick  J.,  II,  424. 

Brown,  Arthur  H.,  II,  563. 

Brown,  Bella,  I,  698. 

Brown,  C.  V.,  II,  276. 

Brown,  Frank  D.,  I,  316,  320,  325. 

Brown,  Fred  M.,  II,  407. 

Brown,  George,  I,  256,  286. 

Brown,  G.  W.,  Missouri,  I,  247;  hanging 
of,  260. 

Brown,  Herbert  W.,  III.  718, 

Brown,  James  H.,  I,  419;  II,  483. 

Brown,  Joseph  T.,  I,  643;   III,   1193. 

Brown,  Leonard  A.,  Ill,  889. 

Brown,  Mary  G.,  II,  1194. 

Brown,  Perry  F.,  II,  152. 

Brown,  William  A.,   Ill,   1205. 

Browne,  David  G.,  Ill,  954. 

Brownfield,  William,  II,  503. 

Browning,  I,  739. 

Bruce,  James  L.,   II,  511. 

Bruce,  John  P.,  I,  415. 

Bryan,  Charles  L.,  II,  75. 

Bnchholz,  August  D.  F.,  Ill,  675. 

Buck,  Cyrus  W.,  II,  608. 

Buck,  F.  W.,  Ill,  853. 

Buck,  Horace  R.,  I,  434;  death  of  435, 

Buck,  Isaac  N.,  I.  282. 

Buck,  John  F.,  Ill,   1210. 

Puck.  Marion  E.,  II,  105. 

Bucksen,  F.  W.,  II,  636. 

Puerpi,  George  J.,  Ill,  1340. 

Buffalo,  wholesale  slaughter  of,  I,  36; 
a  surround,  138;  717. 

BnTalo  of  the  Plains  (illustration),  I, 

Buffalo  robes  replacing  beaver  skins,  I, 

Buffalo  Trail  Highway.  I,  740. 

Bull,  Carlton  B.,  II,  631. 



Bull  mountain  coal  field,  I,  240,  796. 

Bullard,  Oilman,  I,  868. 

Bullard,  J.  Oilman,  II,  619. 

Bullard,  Massena,  I,  419. 

Bullfinch,  Charles,  I,   14. 

Bullwhacker  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Bunker,  Eugene  F.,  II,  557. 

Bunker,   Park  J.,  Ill,   1317. 

Bunney,  William  H.,  II,  376. 

Buntin,  John  A.,   Ill,   1253. 

Bunton,  William,  I,  249. 

Burdick,  Henry,  I,  415. 

Burdick,  N.  H.,  I,  760. 

Bureau  of  Agriculture,  Labor  and  In- 
dustry: to  advertise  Montana,  I,  468; 
abolished,  476. 

Burger,  Norris  F.,  II,  73. 

Burke,  Daniel  J.,  II,  147. 

Burke,  Edward  F.,  Ill,  692. 

Burke,  John  J.,  II,  144. 

Burke,  Patrick  E.,  Ill,  1075. 

Burks,  Fred  C.,  Ill,  1437. 

Burlington  route,  I,  568. 

Burns,  Harry,  I,  289. 

Burns,  James  P.,  Ill,  834. 

Burns,  Lowell  C.,  Ill,  1299. 

Burpee,  L.  J.,  I,  78. 

Burn's,   N.  W.,  I,  335,  337- 

Burton,  W.  C,  I,  285. 

Busch,  Ernest  C.,  II,  88. 

Busche,  William  C.,  II,  272. 

Busha,  Charles  T.,  II,  51. 

Bussert,   Edgar  C.,   Til,   1239, 

Butler,  J-ames  W.,  Ill,  1126. 

Butler,  John  F.,  Ill,  920. 

Butler,  Lewis  S.,  II,  99. 

Butler,  Vernon,  III,  884. 

Butschy  &  Clark,  I,  254. 

Butte:  founding  of  (Warren),  I,  222; 
fails  as  a  gold  district,  371 ;  state  cap- 
ital contestant,  441 ;  a  world  famed 
mining  center,  828;  first?  smelter  and 
auartz  worked,  829;  as  a  city,  830; 
king  of  copper,  834 ;  copper  production 
in  district,  835 ;  mineral  production  of 
district  (1865-1915),  8?6;  its  intervals 
of  mining  inactivity,  837. 

Butte-Alex  Scott  Mining  Co..  I.  836. 

Butte,  Anaconda  &  Pacific  Railroad,  I, 
376,  568. 

Butte  and  surroundings  (illustration),  I, 

Butte-Bullaklava  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Butte  Daily  Post,  II,  471. 

Butte-Dnluth  Mining  Co.,  I,  876. 

Butte-Milwaukee  Copper  Company,  I, 

Butte  Mines   Company,  II,   1380. 

Butte-New  York  Copper  Company,  I, 

Butte  pumping  plant,  I,  832. 

Prtte  town   site  patent,  I,  427. 

Butte  Window  Glass  Works,  II,  492. 

Butte  &  Great  Falls  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Butte  &  London  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Butte  &  Superior  Copper  Company,  I, 
382,  ?8*. 

Butte  &  Snnerior  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Buzzetti,  Charles  J.,  II,  54. 

Buzzetti  and  Emmett,  II,  54. 

Byam,  Don  D.,  I,  259. 
Byam,  Don  L.,  I,  319,  320. 
Bynum,  I,  843. 
Byrne,  Frank  P.,  II,  362. 
Byrne,  Fred  M.,  II,  355. 

Cabinet  National  Forest,  I,  624,  769. 

Cable,  John  S.,  II,  314. 

Cain,  Elmer  L.,  Ill,  868. 

Calabar,  I,  703. 

Calder,  W.  L.  A.,  II,  17. 

Calderhead,  J.  H.,  I,  463. 

Calhoun,  Henry  J.,  II,  242. 

Calhoun,  William  B.,  II,  318. 

California  Gulch,  I,  231. 

Callaway,   James    F.,    I,   404. 

Callaway,  Lew  L,  I,  459. 

Calloway,  James  E.,  I,  419. 

Calvert,  George  B.,  Ill,  672. 

Cameahwait    (Sacajawea's   brother),    I, 


Camp  Baker,  I,  311. 
Camp  Cooke,  I,  311. 
Camp  Robert  B.  Smith,  I,  645. 
Campbell,  A.  J.,   I,  453. 
Campbell,   Charles   W.,   II,  268. 
Campbell,  Frank  B.,  II,  566. 
Campbell,  Guy  E.,  Ill,  814. 
Campbell,  Hugh  B.,  II,  449. 
Campbell,  John  L.,  II,  439. 
Campbell,  John   S.,  Ill,   1155. 
Campbell,  Mabel  L.,  II,  345. 
Campbell,  Ray  L.,  Ill,  1056. 
Campbell,  Robert,  I,  108,  120,  138. 
Campbell,  Samuel  K.,  II,  653. 
Campbell,  Thomas  F.,  I,  494. 
Campbell,  Will  A.,  Ill,  1177. 
Canton,    I,   676. 
Canyon  Ferry,  I,  749. 
Capitol;  corner-stone  laid,  I,  454;  (illus- 
tration), 455;  wings  commenced,  468; 

grand  stairway  of  (illustration),  473; 

as  completed,  477  (illustration),  458. 
Canlice,  John,  I,  316. 
Carbon  county:  as  a  coal  producer,  I, 

3%:   created,  452;   irrigation   in,   597; 

description   of,   676;    coal   mines   and 

first  oil  well,  677. 
Cardell,  Robert  C.,  II,  249. 
Carey,  Frank,  III.  842. 
Carey,  John  J.,  Ill,  759. 
Carey,  Matt  F.,  Ill,  1183. 
Carey    Land    Act:    biennial    report    of 

(1919-1920),  I,  581;  590. 
Carey  Land  Act  Board :  replaces   State 
Arid  Land  Grant  Commission,  I,  460; 


Carleton,  E.  A.,  I,  500. 
Carlson,  Alfred  C.,  II.  259. 
Carlson,  Kaare  O.,  Ill,  1018. 
Carlson,   O.   A.,   I,   869. 
Carlton,  I,  702. 
Carlyle,  I,  818. 

Carmony,  Fred  A.,   Ill,   1088. 
Carney,  John,  II,  374. 
Carpenter,  A.  M.  S.,  I,  403,  494. 
Carpenter,   B.   Platt,   sketch  of,   I,  409; 

a  12,  4?4,  868. 

Carnenter,  Harry  C.,  II.  303. 
fa  merger.  Mvron  S.,  II,  357. 
Carr,  R.  E.,  II,  257. 



Carrington,  Henry  B.,  I,!  340,  342;  ex- 
pedition turned  back  by  Fetterman 
Massacre,  I,  343;  345,  363. 

Carroll,  I,  306. 

Carroll,  John  P.,  II,  458. 

Carroll,  John  V.,  II,  578. 

Carroll,  J.  T.,  I,  869. 

Carroll,  William  E.,  II,  511. 

Carroll,  Matthew,  I,  215. 

Carroll  &  Steele,  I,  215. 

Carruth,  Edwin  C.,  Ill,  705. 

Carruthers,   Emmet  E.,   I,  653. 

Carter,  I,  702. 

Carter,  Alexander,  I,  249. 

Carter,  Elizabeth,  III,  785. 

Carter,  Thomas  H.,  I,  433,  445;  sketch 
of,  447,  448;  elected  U.  S.  Senator, 
451,  457- 

Carter  County :  created,  I,  482 ;  irriga- 
tion in,  599;  description  of,  679,  680. 

Cartwright,  Annie,  III,  1203. 

Cartwright,   Evert,   III,   1203. 

Carver,  Jonathan,  proposes  transconti- 
nental waterway,  I,  12. 

Cascade,  I,  699. 

Cascade  County :  created,  I,  41 1 ;  irriga- 
tion in,  598 ;  natural  features,  681 ; 
livestock  and  dairy  interests,  682 ;  min- 
ing of  coal  and  silver,  683;  Great 
Falls,  684-699;  origin  of  name,  686; 
schools  of,  687,  699. 

Cascade  County  school  children  (illus- 
tration), I,  507. 

Cashmore,  Alfred  I,  II,  555. 

Caspers,  H.  J.,  Ill,  844. 

Cassill,  Scott  K.,  Ill,  1222. 

Castle  Geyser,  Yellowstone  Park  (illus- 
tration), I,  117. 

Castles,  William,  II,  83. 

Castner,  John  K.,   Ill,  724. 

Castner,  Mattie,  III,  725. 

Casto,  William  H.,  Jr.,  II,   178. 

Cat  Creek  anticline,   I,  3874 

Cat  Creek  field,  i,  877. 

Cat  Creek  oil  field,  I,  716. 

Catholic  Missions  and  Missionaries,  I, 

Catlin,   Edwin   B.,   II,  415. 

Catlin,  George,  I,   113,   144. 

Catlin,  John  B.,  II,  467. 

Cattle  drives  (i868-'83),  I,  393,  394; 
wealth  by  counties  (1884),  394,  395; 
Miles  City  center  of  range,  395 ;  great 
sales  of,  396;  progress  of  industry, 
1885-1919,  3r6. 

Cavanaugh,  Miles  J.,  II,  511. 

Cave,  Alfred.  II,  555. 

Cave,  Will,  II,  555- 

Caven,  J.  B.,  1.^218. 

Caven,  Kate  Virginia,  I,  220. 

Cayuse  Hills,  I,  91. 

Centerville,    I,   827,  834. 

Central,  I,  2"2. 

Chaboillez,  Charles  J.  B.,  I,  74. 

Chadwick,  Walter  F.,  I,  415,  433. 

Chalmers,  Horace,   I,  252. 

Chalrrers,  Robert,  I,  252. 

Chamberlain,  Arthur  E.,  Ill,  762. 

Chamberlain.  D.  D.,  I,  2m. 

Chambers,  George  T.,   Ill,  979. 

Champlin,  James  L.,  Ill,  773. 

Chancellor  of  the  University,  I,  476. 
528,  530. 

Chapman,    Charles   F.,    II,   549. 

Chapman,  John  W.,  II,  60. 

Chapman,  Robert  H.,  I,  91. 

Charbonneau,  Toussaint,  I,  28,  43  55 
57,  61,  64,  65. 

Chardon,  F.  A.,  I,  124,  126;  death  of, 
127;  140. 

Charlesworth,  Arthur,  III,  1294. 

Charleswprth,  George,  III,  1150. 

Charleyoix,  I,  4. 

Chauvin,  Joseph,  II,  102. 

Cheadle,  Edwin  K.,  II,  197. 

Cheese  factories  of  Montana,  I,  873. 

Cheesman,  Henry,  II,  78. 

Cheney,  William  H.,   II,  655. 

Chessman,  William  A.,  II,  591. 

Chester,  I,  768. 

Chestnut,  Benjamin  F.,  Ill,  819. 

Chicago,  Burlington  &  Quincy  System: 
joint  purchase  by  Great  Northern  and 
Northern  Pacific,  I,  566. 

Chicago,  Milwaukee  and  St.  Paul  Rail- 
way, I,  566;  electrification  of,  567; 
630,  689. 

Chief  Joseph,  pursuit  of,  I,  359-369; 
and  the  Cowan  Party  (portraits),  361 ; 
his  last  stand,  362,  463. 

Chief  Paul  (Salish),  I,  157. 

Child  Welfare  division  established,  I, 

Chinook,  I,  588,  674,  675. 

Chinook  winds,  I,  76. 

Chittenden,  H.  M.,  I,  69. 

Choate,  Isaac  W.,  I,  489;  II,  617. 

Choisser,  Joe  E.,  Ill,  1003. 

Chouteau,  I,  843. 

Chouteau,  Auguste,   I,  700. 

Chouteau,  Chas.    (portrait),  I,  214. 

Chouteau,  Pierre,  I,  in,  113,  120,  700. 

Chouteau  brothers,  I,  103. 

Chouteau  County,  I,  241 ;  created,  281 ; 
number  and  value  of  cattle  (1884), 
395;  irrigation  in,  599;  physical  fea- 
tures of  and  general  industries,  700; 
transportation  facilities  of,  701. 

Chowen,  H.  O.,  I,  698. 

Chowning,  Charles  W.,  Ill,  Sir. 

Christensen,  Andrew,  III,  917. 

Christenson,  Harris  J.,  Ill,  1101. 

Christiansen,  Charles  G.,  Ill,   1163. 

Christinson,   Otto  M.,   Ill,   1045. 

Christler,  Leonard  J.,  II,  640. 

Chronicle  Publishing  Company,  II,  379. 

Crysler,  Walter  B.,   II,   209. 

Chumasero,  William,  I,  289,  291,  415, 

Church,   Irving  W.,   I,  696;   III,  694. 

Church,  Ray,  III,  760. 

Churches  of  Missoula,  I,  786. 

Churchill,  William,  II,  48. 

Circle,  I,  776. 

Clack,  Philip  D.,  Ill,  707. 

Clagett,  W.  H.,  I,  4*9- 

Claiborne,  William  C.  C.,  I,  18. 

Clancy,  William,  I,  377,  459- 

Clapp,  Charles  H.,  I,  535;  sketch  ot, 
534;  549;  III,  991. 

Clark,  A.  B.,  I,  706. 

Clark,  Charles  E.,  Ill,  1351. 



Clark,  George  R.,  I,  27. 

Clark,  George  W.,  Ill,  1092.        : 

Clark,  Helen  P.,  I,  497- 

Clark,  John  B.,  Ill,  1292. 

Clark,  John  D.,  Ill,  1321. 

Clark,  John  W.,  II,  70. 

Clark,  Leon  B.,  Ill,  1249. 

Clark,  Lewis  C.,  II,  186. 

Clark,  William,  I,  19;  sketch  of,  26,  40, 
42;  narrow  escape  of,  and  the  Bird 
Woman,  43;  discovers  the  Three 
Forks,  46,  54,  55,  58;  honorable  public 
career,  67;  his  nine  days'  journey,  60, 
61,  69,  73,  103,  120,  798. 

Clark,  William  A.:  on  Montana's  Val- 
leys, I,  92,  144,  190,  236,  237,  243,  316, 
321;  introduces  himself,  326;  arrives 
at  Bannack,  July,  1863,  328;  trip  to 
Salt  Lake  Citv  (November,  1863), 
332;  (portrait),  372,  373,  375,  376,  377, 
406,  409,  439,  440,  445,  447,  449,  45* ; 
U.  S.  Senatorship  again,  454,  457,  469, 
648,  754,  833,  834- 

Clark  City   (Livingston),  I,  799. 

Clark  and  Ulm,  I,  395. 

Clark's   (Flathead)   River,  I,  57,  S8,  60. 

Clark's  Fork  coal  field,  I,  240. 

Clark's  fork  of  the  Columbia,  I,  90. 

Clarke,  Malcolm,  I,   123,   126,   128,  282, 


Clarke,  Melvin  D.,  Ill,  1159. 
Clarke,  Walter  E.,  Ill,  1316. 
Classens,  William,  I,  1/17. 
Claxton,  John  K.,  II.  487. 
Clay,  George  W.,  Ill,  968. 
Clayberg,  John  B.,  I,  433,  459,  549, 
Clearwater,  I,  790. 
Clemens,  William  J.,  Ill,  1171. 
Clendennin,  George,  I,  304,  305,  306. 
Clendennin,  Richard,  I,  ''04. 
Cleveland,  George  W.,  Ill,  1301. 
Cleveland,  Jack,  I,  251. 
Clifford,  John  E.,  II.  372. 
Cline,  Frank  C.,  II,  87. 
Clinton,  I,  790. 
Clyde  Park,  I,  80  r. 
Coal,    I,    101 ;    Montana's    output    since 

1001,  386. 

Coal  and  lignites,  I,  238. 
Coates,  John  Q.,  Ill,  877. 
Cobleigh,  William  M.,  II,  91. 
Coburn,  John,  I,  427. 
Cochran,  Joseph,  I,  851. 
Code  Commission,  I,  411,  412. 
Code  of  Laws   (1879),  I,  408;    (1887), 

411;    (1895),  435,  451. 
Codification  of  the  Laws    (1871-72),  I, 


Codified   School   Laws   adopted,   I,  474. 
Codified  Statutes,  7th  Session  1871-2,  I, 

a  TO. 

Coffey,  George  M.,  Jr.,  Ill,  749. 
Coffey,  George  M..  Sr.,  Ill,  749. 
Coffey,  John  H.,  Ill,  774. 
Coggswell,  W.  R.,  I,  223. 
Cogswell,  Sherman  T.,   Ill,  004. 
Cohagen,  Chandler  C.,  II,  215. 
Cole,  Burton  R.,   II,   184. 
Cole,  F.  W.,  I,  412,  434. 

College  of  Agriculture  and  Mechanic 
Arts,  I,  529,  544,  731. 

College  of  Liberal  Arts  and  Science 
formed,  I,  535. 

College  of  Montana,  I,  496. 

Collett,  Samuel  W.,  II,  389. 

Collier,  Albert  F.,  Ill,  1207. 

Collier,  Joe,   III,   1200. 

Collins,  I,  843. 

Collins,  Carlos  P.,  Ill,  1117. 

Collins,  John,  I,  28. 

Collins,  John  A.,  Ill,  1056. 

Collins,  John  B.,  Ill,   1089. 

Collins,  Thomas  M.,  II,  612. 

Collins,  Timothy  E.,  I,  316. 

Collins,  W.  L.,  II,  401. 

Collins  and  Company,  I,  223. 

Colorado  and  Montana  Smelting  Com- 
pany, I,  375. 

Colorado  smelter:  first  successful  cop- 
per plant,  I,  835. 

Colter,  John,  I,  28,  68;  his  remarkable 
adventures,  71,  73. 

Colter's  "Hell  Hole,"  I,  69. 

Colton,  O.  C,  I,  732. 

Columbia  Falls,  I,  725. 

Columbia  Fur  Company,  I,   in. 

Columbia  Gardens,  Butte,  I,  833. 

Columbia  River,  Discovery  and  ex- 
ploration of,  I,  14. 

Columbus,  I,  840. 

Colwell,  Henry,  I,  851. 

Comanche,  I,  856. 

Combes,  William  M.,  Ill,  820. 

Comer,  Cloyde  E..  II,  282. 

Comet  Mine,  I,  765. 

Comly,  Harry  B.,  I,  406. 

Commission  form  of  government : 
adopted,  I,  469;  approved,  477. 

Compulsory  education  in  force  (1921), 

Comstock,  Henry  T.  P.,  I,  322. 

Comstock,  Jay  M.,  Ill,  1348. 

Confederate  Gulch,  I,  212,  754. 

Congdon,  John  H.,  II,  357. 

Conger,  Everton  J.,  I,  426,  427. 

Conkey,  J.  C.,  II.  86. 

Conley,  Frank,  II,  343. 

Conley,  J.  V.,  II.  225. 

Conlon,  James,  III,  1068. 

Connelly,  Frank  B.,  II,  q. 

Conner,  Jennie  M.,  I,  698. 

Conner,  Jesse,  III.  751. 

Conner,  John  T.,  I,  316. 

Connolly,  Thomas,  II,  318. 

Conrad,  I.  804. 

Conrad,  C.  D.,  I.  727. 

Conrad,  George  H.,  III.  io?o. 

Conrey  Placer  Mining  Company,  I,  771. 

Constitutional  conventions:  first  (1866) 
and  second  (1884),  I,  408,  409. 

Continental  Divide,  passage  of  the,  by 
Lewis  snd  Clark,  I.  52. 

Conway,  Daniel  R.,  III.  992. 

Conway,  George  B.,  Ill,  ITOO. 

Conynpham,  Fdward  F.,  II,  447. 

Cook,  Byron  H..  I,  61 S- 

Cook,  Charles  W.,  TI,  6*9. 

Cook,  George  W.,  II,  197. 

Cook,  James,  I,  12. 

Cook,  Jerry,  I,  289,  415. 



Cooke,  P.  St.  George,  I,  342. 

Cooke  city,  I,  798. 

Cooke    City   Mining   district,   I,   375. 

Cooke    (Jay)    and  Company:  ruined  by 

1873  panic,  I,  560. 
Cooney,  Frank  H.,  II,  166. 
Cooney,  Howard  C.,  Ill,  1174. 
Cooney,  Tom,  III,  1033. 
Cooper,  Charles  H.,  I,  436,  869. 
Cooper,   John,    I,   249. 
Cooper,  Ransom,  III,  835. 
Cooper,  Thomas  E.,  I,  211. 
Cooper,  Walter    (illustration   of  winter 
quarters    in    1865),    I,    212,    316,    547; 
II,  556. 

Copper  mining :  Rise  of,  I,  375 ;  produc- 
tion in  1899-1919,  379;  sampling  ores 
for  commercial  purposes,  380,  381  ; 
production  in  Butte  district  (1891-95), 

Coppo,  John   B.,  II,   126. 
Corbally,  Thomas  F.,  II,  586. 
Corbett,   Hal    S.,   I,  451. 
Corbin,  Harvey  A.,  II,  317. 
Corley,  Roy  M.,  II,  531. 
Cornwell,  Edward  A.,  Ill,  1321. 
Cornwell,  Harry,  III,   1322. 
Cornwell,  John  W.,  Ill,  1279. 
Corrington,  Glenwood  H.,  Ill,  684. 
Corrupt  Practice  Act,  I,  470. 
Corvallis,  I,  225,  792,  812. 
Corwin,  John  W.,  II,  251. 
Coryell,  Charles  E.,  IH,  810. 
Cosier,  Howard  M.,  Ill,  780. 
Cosner,  Harry,  III,  1219. 
Cotton,  Wendell,  III,  1314. 
Cottonwood  (Deer  Lodge),  I,  222. 
Couch,  Thomas,  II,  498. 
Couch,  Thomas,  Jr.,  II,  500. 
Coues,  Elliott,  I,  39. 
Coughlin,  Richard  J.,  Ill,  1080. 
Coulson  (Billings),  I,  851. 
Council  Grove,  I,  223. 
Counties:    (see  separate  counties),  area 
and  population   of,    1870-1920,    I,   861, 
862;    changes    in    boundaries    of,   862, 
863,   864;    county    seats    and    assessed 
valuation  of,  864,  865 ;  dates  and  facts 
as  to  creation,  866,  867 ;  business  es- 
tablishments of,  874,  875. 
County  boards  of  education  created,  I, 


County    Legislation :    bonded    indebted- 
ness regulated,  I,  478 ;  regulating  for- 
mation of  new  counties,  479. 
County     Organization     (Leighton)     bill 

passed,  I,  474. 
County  Poor  Farm,  I,  547. 
County  Superintendents,  I,  497. 
County  Unit  law,  I,  519. 
Courtright,  Milo,  I,  282. 
Cousins,  Frank  A.,  II,  213. 
Cover,  Thomas,  I,  199,  206,  208,  219,  307, 


Covington,  C.  C.t  II,  488. 
Cowan,  Arthur  J.,  Ill,  940. 
Cowan,  Elmer  L.,  I,  6^2. 
Cowan,  George  W.,   Ill,  885. 
Cowan,  G.  F.,  I,  360. 
Cowan,  John,  I,  210. 
Cowan,  Thomas,  I,  211. 

Cowan,  Winfield  S.,  Ill,  896. 

Cowles,  Roy  J.,  Ill,  1113. 

Cowman,  C.  P.,  Ill,  1075 

Cox,  Z.  T.,  Ill,  1108.     ' 

Coy,  Havelock  G.,  II,  388. 

Coy,  Reuben  E.,  II,  125. 

Crab,  John,  I,  210. 

Crabb,  George  M.,  II,  463. 

Craig,  I,  749. 

Craig,  James,  II,  27. 

Craig,  James  W.,  Ill,  1281. 

Craig,  Oscar  J     I,  532,  534,  787. 

Craig,  Robert  A.,  Ill,  1204. 

Craig,  William  T.,  Ill,  1413. 

Craighead,  Edwin  B.,  I,  532,  535,  789; 

III,  1255. 

Cralle,  Edward  A.,  II,  435. 
Cramer,  Ben,  III,  856. 
Cramer,  Clara,  III,  856. 
Crase,  Frank  A.,  II,  548. 
Craven,  Arthur  J.,  I,  215. 
Craven,  G.  W.,  I,  549;  II,  547. 
Crawford,  (Hank),  I,  252. 
Crazy   Horse    (Indian   chief   killed),   I, 


Creameries  of  Montana:  established 
1889-1919  (see  towns  and  cities),  I, 

Creel,  George  R.,  II,  191. 
Cremans,  J.  J.,  Ill,  870. 
Crippen,  Henry  C.,  II,  254. 
Cronk,  John  C.,  Ill,   1369. 
Crook,  George,  I,  347;  his  Southern  In- 
dian  campaign,   356,   357,   358. 
Croonquist,  Harold  S.,  II,  189. 
Crosby,  John   S.,   sketch   of,   I,  408. 
Crosby,  J.  Schuyler,  I,  868. 
Cross,  Sherwood  S.,  Ill,  999. 
Crosson,  Abe,  III,  697. 
Crouch,  Charles  D.,  Ill,  724. 
Crouch,  Samuel  J.,  II,  273. 
Crouley,  James  P.,  II,  506. 
Crow  Agency,  I,  673. 
Crow  Indian  Reservation,  first,  I,   158; 
public   schools   thrown   open   in,   526; 
640,  799. 

Crowley,  Annie  E.,  II,  67. 
Crowley,  Daniel  M.,  II,  67. 
Crowley,  Michael  H.,  Ill,  994. 
Crowley,  Timothy  E.,  Ill,  1442. 
Crowley,  William   E.,   Ill,  995. 
Crows,    I,    69;    Larocque's    account    of 
(1805),    78,    83;    breaking    camp    and 
smoking  regulations  (1805),  85;  a  na- 
tion of  horsemen  (1805),  86;  and  the 
fur  trade,  127,  129;  home  of,  340. 
Crows-Piegan  horse  race,  I,   170. 
Crum,  Paul,  III,  1081. 
Crum,  William  R.,  Ill,  764. 
Crutcher,  Lee  W.,  II,  559. 
Crutchfield,  Charles   M.,   II,   599- 
Cruzatte,  Peter,  I,  28. 
Culbertson,  I,  817. 

Culbertson,  Alexander,  I,  121,  123,  124, 
126,  127,  128;  sketch  and  death  of, 
I31 !  J32,  X39)  J4r»  ISI,  T58;  as  Indian 
treaty-maker,  159;  164,  185,  186;  (por- 
trait), 214;  216. 
Cullen,  W.  E.,  I,  419,  422,  431,  434,  758, 

Culver,  Boyd,  III,  849. 



Gumming,  Bruce  A.,  II,  103. 
Cummings,   H.   L.,   II,   162. 
Cummings,  H.  L.  &  Son,  II,  162. 
Cunningham,  Arthur,  III,  1192. 
Cunningham,  Harry  R.,  Ill,  948. 
Curley,  only  survivor  of  Curley  Disaster, 

I,  351- 

Curley  (portrait),  I,  352. 

Curran,  John,  III,  893. 

Currie,  Robert  C,  III,  686. 

Currier,  H.  L.,  II,  17 '• 

Curry,  Thomas,  I,  798,  799- 

Curry,  William  E.,  II,  479. 

Curry  Mining  District,  I,  799- 

Curtis,  Helena  E.,  II,  31 1- 

Cusick,  Helena,  III,  853. 

Cusick,  W.  M.,  Ill,  852. 

Cusker,  Hank  J.,  Ill,  817. 

Custer,  I,  856. 

Custer,  George  A.,  I,  349,  356.  406. 

Custer,  J.  W.,  I,  346. 

Custer  Battlefield  of  Today  (illustra- 
tion), I,  672. 

Custer  Battlefield  Highway,  I,  850. 

Custer  County :  Number  and  value  of 
cattle  (1884),  I,  395;  406;  irrigation 
in,  5995  description  of,  702;  railroad 
facilities  of,  703;  schools  of,  704;  an- 
nual fair,  707. 

Custer  County  Wool  Growers  Associa- 
tion, I,  397. 

Custer  Disaster,  first  tidings  of,  I,  350. 

Custer  Memorial  Monument  (illustra- 
tion), I,  355. 

Custer  National  Forest,  I,  624,  805. 

Custer's   River,   I,  406. 

Cut  Bank,  I,  738. 

Cut  Bank  Creek :  glacial  fragment  at,  I, 

Cuthbert,  D.  H.,  I,  404. 

Dacotah  lode,  I,  237. 

Dahl,  Oscar  A.,  Ill,  1213. 

Dahlgren,  Halver,  III,  971. 

Dahlgren,  John,  III,  970. 

Dailey,  John,  III,  889. 

Daily,  John  R.,  II,  468. 

Dairying  in  Montana,  I,  400,  401,  402. 

Dakota  group    (geological),  I,  95. 

Dale,  Owen,  I,  363. 

Daley,  Freeman  A.,  II,  640. 

Dallin,  Frank,  II,  572. 

Dalton,  Patrick,  II,  155. 

Daly,  Charles,  III,  1372. 

Daly,  Marcus,  comes  to  Butte,  I,  373, 
375 ;  develops  Anaconda  properties, 
376,  377,  449,  45i,  834. 

Daly  (Marcus)   Estate,  I,  791. 

Daly,  William  B.,  II,  446. 

Dance,  Walter  B.,  I,  283. 

Dance,  W.  B.,  I,  189. 

Daniel,  George  H.,  II,  399. 

Daniels,  Mabel  B.,  Ill,  881. 

Daniels,  Mansfield  A.,  Ill,  881. 

Daniels  County :  irrigation  in,  I,  600 ;  de- 
scription of,  708,  861. 

Danley,  Irving  U.,  II,  353. 

Darby,  I,  791,  792,  812. 

Darling,  Mrs.  D.  T.,  Ill,  1157. 

Daugherty,  George  M.,  Ill,  1335. 

Daugherty,  John  S.,  I,  376. 

Daughters,  Freeman,  I,  511. 

Daut,  John,  III,  918. 

d'Autremont,   Arthur  L.,   II,   161. 

Davee,  H.  A.,  I,  502. 

Davenport,  Arthur  J.,  II,  50. 

Davey,  Arthur  J.,  Ill,  794. 

Davey,  Catherine  A.,  Ill,  794. 

Davey,  John,  III,  793. 

Davidson,  Andrew,  III,  980. 

Davidson,  A.  M.,  Ill,  1429. 

Davies,   Paul  J.,   Ill,   1398. 

Davies,  William  E.,  I,  644. 

Davis,  Alexander,  I,  282,  289. 

Davis,  Andrew  J.,   I,  322,  395,  834. 

Davis,  Chester  C.,  I,  869. 

Davis,  Hauser  and  Company,  I,  395. 

Davis,  Irwin  F.,  Ill,  828. 

Davis,  John  H.,  Ill,  1167. 

Davis,  John  R.,  II,  250. 

Davis,  Nathaniel  J.,  I,  218. 

Davis,  Selena  R.,  Ill,  828. 

Davis,  Sheldon  E.,  I,  552. 

Davis,  William  A.    (Bozeman),  II,  405. 

Davis,  W.  A.,  Ill,  798. 

Davis,  William  B.,  Ill,  1081. 

Davis-Daly  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Davison,  Claud  E.,  Ill,  1342. 

Davitt   (Michael),  mine,  I,  378. 

Dawe,  Lossie,  III,  730. 

Dawes,  Hugh  R.,  HI,  1414. 

Dawes,  Willard  C.,  II,  317. 

Dawson,  Andrew,  I,  131,  152;  (portrait), 
153,  214. 

Dawson,  John  E.,  Ill,  830. 

Dawson  county :  created,  I,  281 ;  estab- 
lished, 312;  number  and  value  of  cattle 
(1884),  395;  irrigation  in,  600;  (Glen- 
dive),  description  of,  709. 

Day,  Edward  C.,  I,  464;  II,  530. 

Day,  Frank,  II,  207. 

Day,  George  H.,  II,  207. 

Day,  G.  W.,  II,  468. 

Day,  Jasper  W.,  II,  283. 

Dayton,  I,  725. 

Deacon,  William,  I,  669. 

Dean,  R.  H.,  II,  331. 

Dean,  Samuel,  III,  824. 

Dearborn,  Henry,  I,  45. 

Dearborn,  Mark  D.,  II,  589. 

Dearborn  River,  I,  45,  229. 

Deborgia,  I,  779. 

Decker,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  1260. 

Decker,  Frederick  S.,  Jr.,  II,  477. 

Decker,  Fred  R.,  Ill,  1062. 

Dedrick,  Warren  A.,  II,  244. 

Dee,  Martin,  I,  459. 

Deegan,  James,  III,   1123. 

Deer  Lodge  (town),  I,  161,  222,  807;  in 
1869  (illustration),  808;  division  point 
on  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul 
Railroad,  809. 

Deer    Lodge    County :    placer   mines    in 
1862-68,  I,  213 ;  early  silver  mining  in, 
237 ;  created,  281 ;  number  and  value 
of  cattle    (1884),  395,  408;   irrigation 
in,  600;  description  of,  711. 
Deer  Lodge  lode,  I,  222,  371. 
Deer  Lodge  National  Forest,  I,  624,  741, 



Deer  Lodge  Valley,  I,  161 ;  overland  trip 
to  (1862),  180;  placer  and  quartz 
mines,  228,  807. 

Deer  Lodge  Valley  Mining  Company,  I, 

de  Graffenreid,  Charles,  III,  1242. 

DeGroot,  Arie  W.,  II,  238. 

De  Hart,  Jacob  L.,  Ill,  1028. 

Deibel,  Randolph,  III,  1235. 

DeKalb,  H.  Leonard,  II,  90. 

DeLacy,  Walter  W.,  I,  200,  215,  283, 

DeLacy's  Lake,  I,  200. 

Delaney,  John,  III,  865. 

Delaware  Security  Company,  I,  377. 

De  L'Isle,  I,  3. 

Demars,  Joseph,  III,  757. 

De  Mers,  Elzeor,  III,  888. 

De  Mers,  Robert  J.,  Ill,  866. 

Dempsey,  Robert,  I,  222. 

Dempsey's  Cottonwood  Ranch,  I,  249. 

Dennis,  I,  848. 

Dennison,  James  A.,  Ill,  952. 

De  Noielle,  R.  W.,  Ill,  751. 

Denton,  I,  717. 

Department  of  Agriculture  and  Pub- 
licity, I,  468,  476. 

Department  of  Banking  created,  I,  479. 

Department  of  Farm  Loans  created,  I, 

Department  of  Labor  and  Industry,  I, 

Deputee,  George,  III,  1035. 

Derrick,  Walter  J.,  Ill,  843. 

Desy,  Irene,  III,   1281. 

De  Smet,  Peter  J.,  I,  151 ;  coming  of, 
146,  147,  148,  149,  150;  (portrait),  214. 

Devine,  John  H.,  Ill,  696. 

Detwiler,  George,  I,  282. 

De  Velder,  John  Baptist,  I,  147. 

Devlin,  Lawrence  K.,  I,  869;  III,  765. 

De  Voss,  Peter,  I,  150. 

Dewey,  James,   I,  209. 

DeWitt,  William  H.,  I,  431,  435. 

DeWolfe,  Stephen,  I,  430. 

Dexter,  Wheeler  O.,  Ill,  673. 

Diamond  City,  I,  213,  676. 

Dick,  George  K.,  Ill,  922. 

Dickerman,  A.  E.,  I,  698. 

Dignan,  Thomas,  III,  1013. 

Dillon,  I,  399;  incorporated,  I,  409,  669. 

Dillon,  Sidney,  I,  407,  558. 

Dills,  Clinton,  I,  851. 

Dimmick,  Bert  W.,  II,  526. 

Dimon,  John,  II,  361. 

Dimsdale,  Thomas,  I,  243,  254,  256,  266. 

Discovery  of  gold  monument,  I,  320, 

Dishno,  Silas  C,  III,  1186. 

Dittes,  Ben  R.,  I,  757,  760. 

Dixon,  I,  792,  824. 

Dixon,  Joseph  M.,  I,  459,  461,  471 ; 
sketch  of  and  inaugural  address 
(1921),  I,  485;  528,  868,  869;  II,  2. 

Dixon,  William,  I,  433. 

Dixon,  W.  W.,  I,  419,  430;  elected  to 
Congress  (1890),  I,  447;  448,  449,  548. 

Dixon,  Mrs,  W.  W.,  I,  540. 

Dobell,  J.   L.,   Ill,   1387. 

Docter,  John  C.,  II,   122. 

Dodge,  S.  E.,  II,  427. 

Dodson,  I,  588,  893. 

Dodson,  Philip  G.,  II,  316. 

Doggett,  Jefferson  D.,  II,  652. 

Doherty,  John,  III,  660. 

Dolan,  Aloysius,  III,  830. 

Dolin,  John  H.,   Ill,   1146. 

Dolin,  Joseph  F.,  Ill,  1133. 

Dominy,  William,  III,  1357. 

Donahue,  Dan  J.,  I,  649. 

Donaldson,  Charles  M.,  Ill,  1154. 

Donaldson,  George,  III,  890. 

Donaldson,  Mattie,  III,  890. 

Donlan,  Edward,  I,  469 

Donnell,  R.  W.,  I,  222. 

Donnelly,  Joseph  P.,  Ill,  1085. 

Donohue,  Daniel  J.,  Ill,  1434. 

Donohue,  M.  J.,  II,  74. 

Dooley,  William  D.,  Ill,  1136. 

Dorniz,  I,  841. 

Dorothy,  Sidney  J.,  Ill,  891. 

Dorr,  Arthur  C.,  Ill,  873. 

Dorsett,  Rudolph,  I,  250. 

Dorwin,  O.  G.,  I,  223. 

Dousman,  Charles  J.,  Ill,  1388. 

Douthett,  Lorin  F.,  II,  81. 

Dove,  Samuel  E.,  II,  149. 

Dow,  James  C.,  Ill,  1041. 

Dowe,  E.  E.,  Ill,  860. 

Dowlin,  W.  E.,  I,  856. 

Downing,  Walter  O.,  II,  105. 

Downs  and  Allen,  I,  395. 

Drainage  basins,  acreage  by,  I,  616. 

Drainage  enterprises,   I,  618-621. 

Drake,  Ben  F.,  II,  364. 

Drake,  C.  H.,  Ill,  672. 

Drake,  James  H.,  Ill,  1020. 

Drake,  James  W.,  II,  308. 

Draper,  Charles  H.,  I,  678;  II,  66. 

Draper,  Mark  I.,  Ill,  1419. 

Drennan,  James  W.,  I,  645. 

Drewyer,  George,  I,  28,  50,  51,  52,  59, 


"Drowned  Men's  Rapids,"  I,  179. 
Drumlummon  Mine,  I,  765. 
Drummond,   I,  741,  790. 
Dryden,  James   S.,  I,  426. 
Dry  fork  of  Maria's  River,  I,  99. 
Dublin,  I,  222. 
Duffy,  John  H.,  II,  338. 
Duke    of    Orleans    commences    western 

explorations,    I,   3. 
DuLuth,  Sieur  Greysolon,  I,  3. 
Duncan,  A.  J.,  II,  645. 
Duncan,  John,  III,  831. 
Duncan,  Leslie,   III,  867. 
Duncan,  O.  R.,  II,  74. 
Duncan,    Tyson   D.,    Ill,    1014. 
Duniway,  Clyde  A.,  I,  532,'  535,  788. 
Dunn,  John,  II,  262. 
Dunn,  John  C,  II,  184. 
Dupuyer,   I,  804. 

Durfee,   David  M.,  I,  438;   II,  284. 
Durston,  John  H.,  II,  471. 
Dutch,  Ralph  E.,  Ill,  1600. 
Dutro,  David  V.,  Ill,  978. 
Dutton,  I,  843. 
Dwyer,  John  C.,  Ill,  910. 
Dwyer,  W.  K.,  II,  396. 

Eagle  Nest  Rock,  Gardiner  Canyon   (il- 
lustration), I.  35. 



"Early  History  of  Western  Montana" 
(Woody),  I,  132;  224. 

Early  silver  mills  in  Butte  district,  I, 

East  Butte  Copper  Mining  Company, 
I,  379,  38i,  836. 

East  Ophir  Town  Company,  I,  287. 

East  Rosebud  Lake,  I,  840. 

Eastern  Central  Basin  of  Montana,  I, 

Eastman,  George  W.,  II,  10. 

Eastman,  T.  H.,  I,  301. 

Eaton,  Ashael  K.,  I,  286. 

Eaton,  Ernest  T.,  II,  266. 

Eaton,  Lewis  T.,  Ill,  1079. 

Eaton,  Robert  N.,  Ill,   1141. 

Eberschweiler,  Frederick  H.,  Ill,  698. 

Edgar,  Henry,  I,  199,  201,  205,  206,  208. 

Edgar,  Henry  F.,  I,  316. 

Edgehill,  I,  848. 

Edgerton,  Sidney,  coming  of,  I,  279;  in- 
terviews Lincoln,  I,  279;  leaves  Mon- 
tana, 281,  298,  868. 

Edmonds,  Herbert  D.,  Ill,  924. 

Education  :  consolidation  of  higher  insti- 
tutions, I,  475;  retirement  salary  fund 
created,  479;  free  text  books  pro- 
vided, 482 ;  vocational  training  intro- 
duced and  Junior  College  courses 
added  to  high  school  curriculum,  482; 
first  schools  and  superintendents,  493 ; 
University  foundation  laid,  496;  foun- 
dation of  State  system  laid  by  en- 
abling act,  498,  499;  State  Text  Book 
Commission  established,  500;  appor- 
tionment of  common  school  income 
fund  (1889-1920),  501;  income  from 
leased  lands,  502;  Montana's  rank 
among  the  states,  503;  enrollment  and 
attendance  (1908-1920),  504-509;  train- 
ing of  Montana  teachers,  509;  teacher 
shortage,  510;  county  school  admin- 
istration, 511;  high  school  normal 
training  departments,  513;  salaries  of 
high-grade  teachers,  514;  health  of 
school  children,  515;  vocational  work, 
516;  school  dormitories,  517;  rural 
schools  in  city  districts,  518;  standard- 
ization and  consolidation,  519;  state 
school  funds,  521 ;  finances  by  coun- 
ties, 524,  525,  526;  school  laws  enacted 
in  1921,  526;  Montana's  system  of 
higher,  528 ;  schools  of  Custer  county, 
704;  schools  of  Gallatin  county,  729; 
Bozeman  schools,  731 ;  schools  of  Lew- 
is and  Clark  county,  750;  Madison 
county  schools,  775 ;  McCone  county 
schools,  777 ;  Missoula  county  schools, 
782;  Missoula  schools,  787;  schools  of 
Silver  Bow  county,  831. 

Edwards,  Byrd  H.,  Ill,  950. 

Edwards,  Caldwell,  I,  459. 

Edwards,  David  R.,  Ill,  724. 

Edwards,  G.  B.,  I,  503. 

Edwards,  John  E.,  Ill,  1315. 

Edwards,  Thomas  B.,  II,  180. 

Edwards,  Thomas  R.,  I,  415. 

Egan,  James  S.,  Ill,  1231. 

Egan,  John,  II,  511. 

Ege,  Ralph  R.,  II,  274. 

Egerton,  Sidney,  I,  415. 

Eggleston,  Charles  H.,  II,  333. 

Eggleston,  Willis  J.,  I,  868. 

Eight-hour  day  for  female  labor,  I,  482. 

Eighteenth  amendment :  upheld  by  Uni- 
ted States  Supreme  Court,  I,  490. 

Einsel,  Charles  S.,  Ill,  1304. 

Eiselein,  Alfred  W.,  Ill,  991. 

Ekalaka,  I,  680. 

Eliot,  Charles  D.,  II,  570. 

Elk  Basin  Consolidated  Petroleum  Com- 
pany, I,  877. 

Elk  in  Montana  forests  (illustration), 
I,  481. 

Elkhorn  mining  district,  $15,215,000,  I, 

Elkins,  William  S.,  Ill,  1252. 

Elling,  Henry,  I,  316. 

Elling  State  Bank,  I,  772. 

Ellingson,  Henry,  II,  63. 

Elliott,  Edward  C,  I,  528,  869;  III,  1151. 

Elliott,  James  E.,  II,  61. 

Elliott,  John,  II,  470. 

Elliston,  I,  809. 

Elm  Orlu  Zinc  and  Copper  mine,  I,  383. 

Elrod,  M.  J.,  I,  878. 

Elwell,  Charles  B.,  Ill,  692. 

Embrey,  Austin  M.,  Ill,  869. 

Emerson,  Charles  I.,  II,  23. 

Emerson,   Frank,   III,  962. 

Emerson,  Lydia,  III,  962. 

Emigrant,  I,  801. 

Emigrant  Gulch,  I,  213,  233,  798,  799. 

Emigrants  attacked  by  Indians  (illus- 
tration), I,  182. 

Emilie  (Missouri  river  steamboat),  I, 
178,  179. 

Emmett,  Mackzy  F.,  II,  55. 

Enabling  Act :  provisions  of  the,  I,  442. 

Engebritson,  Edward,  III,  869. 

Englet,  Alfred  O.,  Ill,  1433. 

JEnnis,  I,  775. 

Ennis,  Katherine  S.,  Ill,  1284. 

Epler,  George  C.,  Ill,  1165. 

Epler,  John  C.,  Ill,  1391. 

Ereaux,  Adolph,  III,  984. 

Ereaux,  Ezra,  III,  982. 

Ereaux,  Lazare,  III,  936. 

Erickson,  Erick  A.,  II,  124. 

Erickson,   Ole,   III,   929. 

Erickson,  S.  Arne,  II,  279. 

Eschliman,  John,  III,  1297. 

Esgar,  Charles  C.,  II,  316. 

Esselstyn,  Elmer  E.,  II,  506. 

Eureka,  I,  770. 

Eureka  Gold  and  Silver  Mining  Com- 
pany, I,  286. 

Evans,  John  M.,  I,  459,  471,  480. 

Evans,  Lewis  O.,  II,  5. 

Evans,  Nathaniel  P.,  Ill,  1161. 

Evans,  William  C,  III,  1286. 

Evarts,  T.  C.,  I,  284. 

Everett,  T.  M.,  I,  471. 

Ewalt,  Hamilton  W.,  Ill,  1289. 

Ewing,  R.  C.,  I,  282. 

Expeditions  of  a  decade  (1854-64),  I, 

Faaborg,  Simon  C.,  Ill,  1187. 
Fabian,  Anna,  II,  127. 
Fabian,  Edward.  II,  127. 
Fabrick,  J.  P.,  II,  309. 



Failures  in  State  (1910-19),  I,  87$. 

Fairfield,  I,  843. 

Fairview  Milling  Company,  The,  III, 

Fairweather,  Bill,  I,  329. 

Fairweather,  William,  I,  199,  206,  208. 

Fallen,  I,  810. 

Fallen  County:  irrigation  in,  I,  600; 
description  of,  713. 

Farlin,  W.  L.,  I,  371,  373,  829. 

Farm  Loans :  delinquencies,  I,  488 ;  con- 
dition of  (1920),  581. 

Farmington,  I,  843. 

Farnum,  Abner  R.,  Ill,  1421. 

Farnum,  Archie,  I,  721. 

Farr,  Eli  M.,  .II,  53. 

Father  Ravalli  meeting  Indians  at  St. 
Mary's  (illustration),  I,  155. 

Faulds,  James  R.,  II,  510. 

Faulds,  William,  I,  282. 

Faulds,  Winfield  S.,  I,  654. 

Faust,  Henry  J.,  II,  131. 

Featherman,  H.  A.,  II,  114. 

Federal  Farm  Loan  bonds,  I,  482. 

Fefferman,  Sam,  II,  245. 

Felker,  Preston  R.,  II,  566. 

Fellows,  E.  B.,  II,  297. 

Felt,  Stanley  E.,  Ill,  1283. 

Felton,  Robert,  III,  711. 

Fenton,  Edwin  L.,  II,  90. 

Fernald,  Louise  M.,  I,  698. 

Fergus,  Andrew,  III,  1293. 

Fergus,  James,  I,  200,  217,  316;  and 
wife  (illustration),  318;  715;  III, 

Fergus  county :  as  an  oil  producer,  I, 
386 ;  created,  409 ;  irrigation  in,  601 ; 
description  of,  7155  development  of 
oil  fields,  716,  717;  United  States  Gov- 
ernment experimental  station,  717; 
education  and  population,  718;  water 
powers  and  public  "ways,  719. 

Fergus  County  Argus,  I,  723. 

Fergus  County  Democrat,  I,  723. 

Ferguson,  William  J.,  Ill,  1430. 

Ferris,  Arnold  D.,  Ill,  688. 

Ferris,  Joseph  A.,  Ill,  687. 

Fetterman  Massacre  (1866),  I,  342,  344, 

Field,  Charles,  III,  1109. 

Field  Brothers,  I,  59. 

Fields,  Joseph,  I,  28. 

Fields,  Reuben,  I,  28,  50. 

Fields  Creek,  I,  50. 

Fifteen  Mile  Creek  (Rattlesnake  Creek), 
I,  192. 

Filcher,  Joe  D.,  Ill,  1140. 

Finch,  George  P.,  II,  309. 

Finlay,  Francois :  Montana's  first  gold 
miner,  I,  184,  186.  . 

Firehole  River,  I,  118. 

First  bank  in  Montana,  Virginia  City 
(illustration),  I,  773. 

First  beef  driven  out  of  Montana,  I,  393. 

First  Big  Horn  exploring  party,  I,  323. 

First  brewery  in  Montana,  I,  775. 

First  discovery  of  oil  in  Montana,  I,  387, 


First  election,  I,  219. 
First  gold  miner  of  Montana,  I,  184. 
First  postoffice  in  Montana,  I,  219. 

First  railroad  in  Montana,  I,  407. 

First  road  law,  I,  283. 

First  silver  mining  in  Montana,  I,  237. 

First  steamboat  race  on  the  upper  Mis- 
souri,  I,  178. 

First  street  railway  in  the  territory,  I 

First  Texas  drive  to  Montana,  I,  393. 

First  Montana  Infantry:  commended  by 
Legislative  Assembly,  I,  454;  United 
States  Volunteers,  I,  644-48,  again  at 
San  Francisco  (illustration),  I,  647. 

First  National  Bank,  Dillon,  I,  670. 

First  National  Bank  at  Helena,  I,  409. 

First  National  Bank,  Scobey,  II,  54. 

First  Regiment  Infantry,  Montana  Na- 
tional Guard,  I,  644. 

Fish  and  game  law  enacted,  I,  483. 

Fishbeck,  Frank  G.,  Ill,  813. 

Fish  Creek,  I,  61. 

Fish  hatcheries,  I,  636. 

Fisher,  Daniel  R.,  II,  574. 

Fisher,  Harvey  D.,  II,  529. 

Fisher,  John  W.,  Ill,  856. 

Fisk,  Andrew  J.,  I,  298,  316. 

Fisk,  George  R.,  II,  533. 

Fisk,  James,  I,  298. 

Fisk,  James  L.,  I,  183. 

Fiske,  E.  W.,  I,  761. 

Fitton,  Harry  L.,  II,  136. 

Fitzgerald,  Thomas  A.,  II,  441. 

Flanagan,  Merritt,  II,  467. 

Flaten,  Ole,  III,  665. 

Flathead  county,  I,  241 ;  created,  I,  422 ; 
450 ;  irrigation  in,  601 ;  description  of, 
723 ;  population,  I,  726. 

Flathead  county  school  children  (illus- 
tration), I,  517. 

Flathead  Indian  Reservation,  I,  161. 

Flathead  Indians,  I,  87,  118,  142;  friends 
of  the  whites  (1858),  I,  167. 

Flathead  irrigation  project:  Assembly 
asks  Congress  to  aid,  I,  480. 

Flathead  Lake  (illustration),  I,  160,  227, 


Flathead  Lake  Bird  Reservation,  I,  536. 
Flathead  National  Forest,  I,  624,  749. 
Flathead    (Indian)    reclamation  project, 

I,  587,  589. 

Flathead  River,  I,  90,  226. 
Flathead  Valley,  I,  792. 
Flather,  Mrs.  Henry,  I,  324. 
Flatt,  Neil  B.,  Ill,  1395. 
Flatwillow  irrigation  project,  I,  584. 
Flaxville,  I,  708. 
Fleenor,  Isaac  N.,  II,  767. 
Fleming,  Joseph  B.,  II,  628. 
Fletcher,  Gayle  M.,  II,  328. 
Flinchpaugh,  I.  L.,  II,  633. 
Flint,  George  H.,  Ill,  818. 
Flint  Creek  Valley,  I,  790.    . 
Florence-Carlton    Consolidated    School 

(illustration),   I,   505. 
Flower,  Harold,  III,  796. 
Flowerree,  I,  702. 
Flowerree,  Daniel  A.  G.,  II,  582. 
Flowerree,  William  K.,  II,  583. 
Floyd,  Charles,  I,  21,  28. 
Floyd,  Harmon  H.,  Ill,  1188. 
Fluhr,  William  H.,  Ill,  1200. 
Fluss,  Alonzo,  III,  1368. 



Flynn,  Jerry,  III,  942. 

Foley,  John  E.,  II,  577. 

Foley,  John  J.,  Ill,  1296. 

Follensby,  Edmund  C.,  II,  622. 

Poor,  Arlie  M.,  Ill,  873. 

Foote,  L.  R.,  I,  549- 

Forbes,  Charley,  I,  242,  249. 

Forbes,  James,  I,  394. 

Forbes,  Jessee  F.,  II,  173. 

Forbes,  Thomas  R.,  Ill,  897. 

Forbis,  C.  J.,  II,  448. 

Forbis,  H.  T.,  II,  453- 

Ford,  Lee  M.,  IJ,  536. 

Ford,  Lewis  C.,  II,  334. 

Ford,  Robert  S.,  II,  535- 

Ford,  Samuel  C,  III,  1179. 

Ford,  Shirley  S.,  II,  607. 

Ford,  William  L.,  Ill,  1203. 

Forde,  Walter,  III,  1266. 

Forest  fire :  laws,  I,  627 ;  airplane  patrol, 


Forest  public  lands,  I,  621. 
Forest  service,  I,  623 ;  State  and  Federal 

co-operation,  628. 
Forestry:    organization    and   legislation, 

I,  626. 

Forestry  and  lumbering,  I,  621-30. 
Forestry  school  established,  I,  476. 
Forman,  Henry  H.,  II,  190. 
Forsyth,  I,  821. 
Forsyth,  Harold  F.,  II,  16. 
Forsythe,  George,  III,  1169. 
Fort  Alexander,  I,  127,  128,  129,  141. 
Fort  Assiniboine,  I,  743. 
Fort  Beauharnois,  I,  4. 
Fort  Belknap  Indian  Reservation,  I,  640. 
Fort  Benton,  I,  128;  ruins  of  old  (illus- 
tration), 130;   139;  Presbyterian  mis- 
sion,   158;    (old)     (illustration),    214, 
215;  (1900),  216;  during  ante-railroad 
days,  557. 

Fort  Benton  City,  I,  701. 
Fort  Brule  (Burnt  Fort),  I,  126,  139. 
Fort  Buford,  I,  138. 
Fort  Cass,  I,   113,   127,  141. 
Fort  Custer,  I,  359. 
Fort  Ellis,  I,  311. 
Fort  F.  A.  Chardon  built,  I,  125;  burnt, 

126;   140. 
Fort   Floyd    (Fort  Union)    founded,   I, 


Fort  Harrison,  I,  751. 
Fort    Philip    Kearney,   I,   307,   342,   343, 

Fort    Keogh,    I,    359;    remount    station, 

702;  705,  706. 
Fort  LaBarge,  I,   179;   decline  and  fall 

of,  181,  183. 
Fort  Laramie,  futile  Indian  council  at, 

I,  340. 

Fort  Lewis,  I,  126,  127;  becomes  Fort 
Benton,  128,  139;  missionary  work  at, 
I,  151- 

Fort  Lisa,  I,  69. 
Fort  Manuel,  I,  69. 
Fort  McKenzie:  built,  I,  112,  113,  123; 

burned,  125. 

Fort  Owen :  established,  I,  132  (old)  ; 
near  Stevensville  (illustration),  133; 
167  (1858)  ;  177,  227,  324. 

Fort  Peck  (Indian)  reclamation  project, 
I,  587;  589,  639,  815. 

Fort  Piegan :  abandoned,  I,  112. 

Fort  Reno,  I,  307. 

Fort  Sarpy,  I,  127,  128,  141. 

Fort  Shaw,  I,  311. 

Fort  Sheridan,  I,  305,  306. 

Fort  C.  F.  Smith,  I,  307,  342. 

Fort  Tullock,  I,  127. 

Fort  Union  (Fort  Floyd),  I,  in,  112; 
120,  135;  (second),  138;  first  steam- 
boat arrives  at,  138. 

Fort  Van  Buren,  I,  127,  140. 

Fort  William,  I,  120. 

Fortman,  Clemens  H.,  Ill,  1258. 

Foss,  Albert  J.,  II,  462. 

Foster,  Luther,  I,  500. 

Foster,  Rodney  E.,  II,  334. 

Fousek,  Albert  J.,  II,  588. 

Fowell,  Logan  V.,  Ill,  734. 

Fowler,  I,  804. 

Fowlie,  George,  II,  648. 

Fox,  Clarence  S.,  Ill,  1126. 

Fox,  Dominick,  II,  600. 

Fox,  Harry,  III,  1126. 

Fox,  John  F.,  Ill,  719. 

Fox,  J.  M.,  I,  270. 

Fox,  Magdalena  S.,  II,  600. 

Fox,  Maggie,  III,  1438. 

Fox,  S.  B.,  Ill,   1125. 

Foy,  John  H.,  Ill,  854. 

Foy,  Nancy  J.,  Ill,  855. 

Franklin,  Arad  H.,  II,  77. 

Franklin,  Ira  D.,  I,  427. 

Franks,  Sumner  St.  C.,  Ill,  674. 

Frantz  Corporation,  I,  388,  877. 

Franzke,  Arthur  A.,  Ill,  1362. 

Frazer,  I,  846. 

Frazier,  Robert,  I,  28,  50. 

Frazier,  William  H.,  Ill,  974. 

Frazier  creek,  I,  50. 

Frederick,  Ole  G.,  Ill,  1076. 

Frederick,  Oliver,  III,  1076. 

Freeborn,  Harrison  J.,  Ill,  990. 

Freeman,  August  J.,   Ill,  1318. 

Freeman,  Henry  C.,  I,  833. 

Freeman,  J.  M.,  II,  243. 

Frenchtown,  I,  225. 

Frenchtown  Valley,  I,  790,  791. 

Fresno,  I,  744. 

Friend,  Franklin,  I,  339. 

Friend,  George,  I,  339. 

Fringe    (Indian  warrior),  I,  168,  172. 

Froid,   I,  817. 

Frush,  Charles  W.,  I,  176. 

Fulkerson,  Grover  E.,  Ill,  1188. 

Fuller,  August,  III,  970. 

Fuller,  George  E.,  Ill,  882. 

Fuller,  Mary  A.,  Ill,  970. 

Fuller,  Samuel,  III,  970. 

Fulsher,  F.  R.,  II,  569. 

Fulton,  William,  III,  1306. 

Fur  companies :  pioneer,  I,  103-134. 

Fur  trade  era,  I,  135-142. 

Fur  traders:   pioneer,   I,   103-134;    their 

Indian  wives,  I,  152. 
Fur  trading:  methods  of,  I,  137. 

Gabb,  W.  W.,  Ill,  794. 
Gabriel,  Fred  C.,  Ill,  1228. 
Gaddis,  Charles  G.,  II,  597. 



Gaethke,  Paul  C,  II,  478. 

Gagnon,  George  L.,  II,  536. 

Gail,  William  W.,  II,  164. 

Gaines,  Edward  E.,  Ill,  1300. 

Gainor,  Harold  G.,  II,  551. 

Galbraith,  Thomas  J.,  I,  438. 

Galbraith,  William  J.,  I,  426  (portrait), 
428;  430. 

Galen,  Albert  J. :  sketch  of,  I,  436,  869. 

Gallagher,  Jack,  I,  242,  249. 

Gallatin  City,  I,  306,  336. 

Gallatin  county,  number  and  value  of 
cattle  (1884),  I,  395;  411;  finest  rural 
school  (Illustration),  508;  irrigation 
in,  601 ;  description  of,  727. 

Gallatin  County  High  School,  II,  400. 

Gallatin  National  Forest,  I,  624,  778. 

Gallatin  range,  I,  91. 

Gallatin  river,  I,  48,  61,  89,  230. 

Gallatin  Valley,  Scenes  in  the  (Illus- 
tration), I,  728. 

Gallatin  way,  I,  730. 

Gallwey,  Harry  A.,  II,  542. 

Galpin,  William,  I,  177. 

Gait,  D.  A.,  II,  338. 

Game  preserves,  I,  483,  637. 

Gannett,  I,  92. 

Gannon,  John,  I,  443,  499. 

Cans,  Edward  M.,  Ill,  1231. 

Garden,  Olaf,  II,  219. 

Gardiner,  I,  633,  801. 

Gardner,  Mary  C.,  I,  760. 

Garfield  county:  as  an  oil  producer,  I, 
386 ;  created,  483 ;  irrigation  in,  602 ; 
description  of,  734;  rural  flour  mill 
(Illustration),  735. 

Garland,  Richard  W.,  Ill,  935. 
Garlow,  Charles  R.,  I,  868. 
Garniell,  I,  717. 
Garrison,  I,  790. 
Carver,  Frank  H.,  II,  331. 
Gary,  John  P.,  II,  408. 
Gary,  Martin  A.,  II,  408. 
Gaskill,  Daniel  M.,  Ill,  1104. 
Gass,  Patrick,  I,  20,  28,  46,  50,  143. 
Gass  Creek,  I,  46. 
Gass  Journal,  I,  21,  27. 
Gate  of  the  Mountains,  I,  747. 
Gates,  Albert  W.,  II,  176. 
Gates,  Christopher,  I,  306. 
Gates   of  the  Rocky  Mountains    (Illus- 
tration), I,  45;  46. 
Gatiss,  Harry,  III,  853. 
Gatton,  Cyrus  J.,  I,  654. 
Gaucher,  Peter,  I,  145. 
Gazette  Printing  Company,  II,  161. 
Geary,  Michael,  III,  1166. 
Geery,  Henry  T.,  I,  192. 
Gemmell,  James,  I,  219. 
General   election  law  passed    (1888),  I, 


General  highway  law  passed,  I,  479. 
"Geological  Notes  on  Northern  and  Cen- 
tral Montana"   (Mortson),  I,  94. 
Geology  of  Montana,  I,  93. 
George,  A.  G.  P.,  I,  415. 
George,  W.  H.,  Ill,  800. 
Georgetown  Lake,  I,  713. 
Geraldine,  I,  702. 
Gerer,  Oswald  M.,  II,  561. 

German:  teaching  of,  reinstated  in  Uni- 
versity, I,  538. 
German  Gulch,  I,  213,  223. 
Gerondale,  J.  J.,  II,  190. 
Geyser,  I,  699. 

Giant  Geyser,  Yellowstone  Park  (Illus- 
tration), I,  117. 

Giant  Springs,  Great  Falls,  I,  686. 
Gibbon,  John,  I,  309,  347  (portrait),  348, 

352,  356,  360. 
Gibbon  Battlefield,  I,  784 
Gibbs,  William  B.,  Ill,  899. 
Gibson,  Fred  L.,  II,  68. 
Gibson,  George,  I,  28. 
Gibson,  Henry  B.,  II,  133. 
Gibson,  James,  II,  472. 
Gibson,  Jennie,  II,  473. 
Gibson,  Paris:  elected  U.  S.  Senator,  I, 
457 ;  coming  of,  to  Great  Falls,  I,  688 ; 
III,  657- 

Gibson,  Theodore,  I,  698. 
Gifford,  Albert  C,  III,  1208. 
Gifford,  Edgar,  II,  539. 
Gildford,  I,  744. 
Gilham,  George  W.,  Ill,  1196. 
Gilkerson,  John  O.,  Ill,  1291. 
Gillette,  Clarence  F.,  Ill,  1331. 
Gillette,  Frederick  B.,  1009. 
Gillette,  Warren  C,  I,  316. 
Gillie,  John,  I,  548. 
Gillis,  Malcolm,  II,  599. 
Gilman,  I,  749. 
Gilmore,  Michael,  III,  1345. 
Gist,  Duke,  III,  1170. 
Glacial  period  of  Montana,  I,  98,  100. 
Glacier:  county  created,  I,  451;  irriga- 
tion in,  602 ;  description  of,  737,  738. 
Glacier  National  Park,   I,  633,  634;   its 

lakes,  I,  637. 
Glade  Creek,  I,  60. 
Glasgow,  I,  588,  846. 
Glass,  George  W.,  Ill,  692. 
Glendenning,  William,  III,  739. 
Glendive,  sketch  of,  I,  710. 
Glenn,  Lewis  D.,  Ill,  1131. 
Click,  J.  S.,  I,  218. 
Gnose,  James  B.,  II,  602. 
Goble,  Wade,  III,  1352. 
Goddard,  O.  Fletcher,  II,  211. 
Godfrey,  E.  S.,  I,  356. 
Gohn,  George  E.,  Ill,  713. 
Gold  Creek,  I,  790. 
Gold  discoveries  and  workings  (first),  I, 


Gold  mining:  placer,  I,  234;  relation  of 
glaciers     to,     235;     development     of 
quartz,  237. 
Gold,  silver  and  copper  deposits  (Clark), 

L  236. 

Golden  Valley  County:  irrigation  in,  I, 
606;  description  of,  739;  population  of, 
740,  861. 

Good,  Henry,  III,  847. 
Good,  Thomas,  III,  1106. 
Goodale,  Charles  W.,  I,  548;  H,  514- 
Goodall,  Herbert,  I,  868. 
Goodfriend,  Sig,  II,  429. 
Goodman,  Edward  H.,  Ill,  997. 
Goodrich,  Silas,  I,  28. 
Good  Roads  Day  founded,  I,  478. 
Good  roads  movement,  I,  488. 



Good  roads  in  Western  Montana  (Illus- 
tration), I,  573- 

Goodsill,  M.  Max,  I,  761. 

Goodwin,  Phillip  C.,  II,  519. 

Gordon,  Louis  E.,  II,  151. 

Gordon,  William  R.,  Ill,  997. 

Gore,  St.  George,  I,  163,  164. 

Gormley,  A.  C.,  I,  461. 

Gosch,  Michael  J.,  II,  206. 

Goss,  James  R.,  II,  435. 

Gourley,  James,  I,  287. 

Government  fish  hatchery,  Billings,  I, 

Government  road  through  Jefferson  Na- 
tional forest  (illustration),!,  571. 

Governors  of  Montana,  I,  868. 

Cowrie,  Elizabeth,  III,  768. 

Cowrie,  Peter,  III,  768. 

Goza,  Samuel  D.,  Ill,  1424. 

Graeter,  Augustus  F.,  I,  286;  II,  347. 

Grafton,  Francis  M.,  II,  53. 

Graham,  Richard,  III,  734. 

Graham,  William,   I,  189,  209,  222,  282, 


Grain  Grading,  Inspection  and  Ware- 
housing Commission,  I,  484. 

Grain  inspection  laboratory,  I,  529. 

Grand  Canyon  of  the  Yellowstone  (Il- 
lustration), I,  639. 

Granite  Creek,  I,  192. 

Granite  County :  I,  241 ;  created,  442, 
451 ;  irrigation  in,  602. 

Grant,  Henry  I.,  II,  290. 

Grant,  James  J.,  Ill,  783. 

Grant,  Jesse  W.,  Ill,  1215. 

Grant,  John,  I,  181,  391. 

Grant,  John  F.,  I,  161,  187,  188. 

Grant,  Richard,  Sr.,  I,  187. 

Grant,  Richard,  I,  225. 

Grant,  Robert,  I,  222. 

Grantville,  I,  222. 

Grasshopper  Diggings  (Bannack  City), 
I,  230. 

Grassi,  Urbanus,  I,  161. 

Grass  Range,  I,  717. 

Grass  Valley,  I,  791. 

Gravelly  Range,  I,  98. 

Graves,  Andrew  C.,  Ill,  1038. 

Graves,  William,  I,  249. 

Gray,  Frank  M.,  II,  403. 

Gray,  Henry,  II,  629. 

Gray,  John,  I,  147. 

Gray,  Macomb  B.,  II,  252. 

Gray,  Robert,  I,  14,  15. 

Gray,  W.  H.,  I,  145. 

Grayson,  John,  III,  876. 

Grayson,  Richard,  III,  802. 

Great  Blackfoot  Glacier,  Glacier  Park 
(Illustration),  I,  635. 

Great  Falls  of  the  Missouri :  Lewis  finds, 
I,  40 ;  described  by  Captain  Lewis,  41 ; 
first  white  women  to  see  the,  180. 

Great  Falls:  state  capital  contestant,  I, 
441 ;  power  development  at,  684 ;  686 ; 
history  of,  687 ;  development  of  power 
in  its  area,  688;  689,  690;  city  of,  690; 
(Illustration)  691;  population  of,  691; 
business  and  industries  of,  692 ;  trans- 
portation facilities,  694;  churches, 
charities  and  fraternities,  696;  city 
public  schools,  697;  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  696; 
Y.  W.  C.  A.,  697 ;  public  library,  698. 

Great  Falls  coal  field,  I,  241. 

Great  Falls  Commercial  Club,  I,  695. 

Great  Falls  Packing  Plant,  I,  694. 

Great  Falls  Reduction  Works,  I,  684. 

Great  Falls  water  power :  development 
of  (also  illustration),  I,  630;  631. 

Great  Northern  Railway,  I,  560;  electri- 
fication of,  568,  588,  630. 

Great  St.  Mary's  Lakes,  I,  638. 

Great  Western  Sugar  Company  Plant, 
Missoula,  I,  784. 

Greeley,  Horace,  I,  303. 

Green,  Andrew,  III,  1299. 

Green,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  1140. 

Green,  E.  J.,  II,  637. 

Green,  George  R.,  II,  291. 

Green,  James,  III,  803. 

Green,  Jennie  M.,  Ill,  1140. 

Green,  Melissa,  III,  804. 

Greenan,  Philip,  II,  643. 

Greenback  Mining  Company,  I,  771. 

Greene,  John  J.,  II,  575. 

Greene,  W.  H.  C.,  Ill,  1206. 

Greenfield,  Charles  D.,  I,  387,  468,  869, 

Greening,  Charles  W.,  Ill,  1303. 

Greery,  H.  T.,  I,  196. 

Gregg,  W.  A.,  Ill,  793. 

Greig,  Richard,  III,  963. 

Grein,  Phil,  II,  253. 

Griffin,  George  N.,  II,  586. 

Griffin,  James,  III,  879. 

Griffin,  Lewis  M.,  Ill,  1103. 

Griffith,  Joseph,  I,     219. 

Grigg,  Elmer  R.,  II,  394. 

Grigg,  Thomas  A.,  U,  393. 

Grigsby,  Melvin,  I,  643. 

Grimes,  Henry  J.,  II,  158. 

Grimstad,  O.  King,  II,  200. 

Groene,  Merle  C.,  II,  430. 

Groff,  H.  C,  II,  531. 

Groff,  Lawrence  S.,  II,  524. 

Grover,  George  E.,  II,  612. 

Gruber,  Edward  P.,  Ill,  994. 

Gruwell,  Hugh  C.,  II,  411. 

Guinn,  Charles  C.,  Ill,  1328. 

Guinzy,  V.  F.,  II,  321. 

Gunn,  Milton  S.,  I,  438;  III,  1131. 

Gunther,  Joseph  J.,  Ill,  1123. 

Gussenhoven,  Joseph,  III,  779. 

Gustafson,  Richard  E.,  Ill,  1063. 

Guthard,  Charles  H.,  II,  201. 

Guthrie,  Andrew  L.,  II,  237. 

Guthrie,  Lou,  I,  758,  760. 

Gutz,  Walter  T.,  Ill,  1158. 

Gwinn,  Hubert  H.,  II,  450. 

Gwinn,  James  L.,  Ill,  1434. 

Hackley,  James  F.,  Ill,  1399. 
Hadzor,  James  H.,  Ill,  717. 
Hagan,  D.  J.,  I,  393. 
Hagelie,  Helmer,  II,  354. 
Hagen,  Sever,  III.  1412. 
Hagge,  Carl  D.,   II,  153. 
Hahn,  George  D.,  Ill,  1036. 
Hain,  Volney  J.,  Ill,  719. 
Haley,  John  R.,  II,  404. 
Haley,  Josephine  M.,  I,  760. 
Half  Century  of  Conflict  (Francis  Park- 
man),  I,  7,  8. 
Halgren,  Warner  L.,  II,  104. 



Halgrims,  C.  O.,  II,  167. 

Hall,  I,  741. 

Hall,  Charles  H.,  II,  458. 

Hall,   DeLoss   T.,   Ill,    1214. 

Hall,  Henry  C,  III,  1025. 

Hall,  Hugh,  I,  28. 

Hall,  J.  H.,  I,  468. 

Hall  &  Simpson,  I,  217. 

Hall,  W.  A.,  II,  278. 

Halloran,  Patrick  M.,  II,  304. 

Halter,  Charles,  II,  121. 

Hamblin,  I,  777. 

Hamilton,  I,  792,  812. 

Hamilton,  Dick,  I,  217. 

Hamilton,  James  M.,  I,  548;  II,  350. 

Hamilton,  Kosciusko,  III,  977. 

Hamilton,  Leslie  H.,  II,  610. 

Hamilton,  Robert  J.,  Ill,  1206. 

Hamilton,  Robert  S.,  Ill,  1362. 

Hamilton,    William    T. :    Scout    "Sign- 
Man"  and  investigator,  I,  164-176. 

Hamilton-McKay  party:  returns  to  Wal- 
la Walla,  I,  176. 

Hamilton  schools,  II,  68.. 

Hamlin,  Robert  M.,  Ill,  1390. 

Hample,  Jbhn  E.,  II,  494. 

Hamrick,  C.  P.,  II,  373. 

Hancock,  Charles,  II,  150. 

Handel,  Fred  W.,  II,  464. 

Handley,  Robert  W.,  Ill,  759. 

Hangman's  Gulch,  I,  783. 

Hanley,  Daniel,  II,  558. 

Hanley,  Marcus  R.,  II,  559. 

Hanley,  Robert  J.,  II,  216. 

Hanna,  William,  II,  118. 

Hanover,  I,  719. 

Hansen,  Al,  III,  1338. 

Hanson,  Charles  M.,  Ill,  1057. 

Hanson,  Philo  C.,  I,  514. 

Harader,  John  A.,  II,  64. 

Hardin,  I,  673. 

Hardy,  Frank  E.,  Ill,  988. 

Hardy,  Henry  W.,  Ill,  661.  . 

Hardy,  Samuel  J.,  Ill, '1143. 

Hargadine,  Edward  C.,  II,  598. 

Harkness,  James,  I,  177. 

Harkness,  Margaret,  I,  180. 

Harlan,  John  M.,  I,  411. 

Harlem,  I,   588,  674. 

Harlowton,   I,  847. 

Harmon,  W.  E.,  I,  502,  504;  II,  100. 

Harney,  Edward  W.,  I,  459. 

Harper,  George,  III,  833. 

Harrington,  Arthur  J.,  Ill,  1139. 

Harrington,  J.  V.,  II,  609. 

Harrington,  Nellie,  II,  610. 

Harris,  B.  M.,  Ill,   1128. 

Harris,  William  E.,  II,  56. 

Harris  Gulch,  I,  231. 

Harrison,  I,  775. 

Harrison,  J.  Scott,  I,  869;  HI,  664. 

Hart,  Harlon  L.,  Ill,  669. 

Hartley,  Charles  E.,  II,  59. 

Hartman,  C.  S.,  I,  448,  451,  452,  465. 

Hartman,  J,  L.,  II,  571. 

Hartzell,  Lester  J.,  II,  537. 

Harvat,  John  H.,  II,  327. 

Harvey,    Alexander,    I,    123,    124,    126; 

death  of,  127,  152. 
Harvey,  Charles  L.,  II,  409. 

Harwood,  Benjamin  P.,  I,  657. 

Harwood,  Edgar  N.,  I,  4.31,  435. 

Haskell,  Henri  J.,  I,  431,  443 

Hastings,   Parker   W.,   II,  348. 

Hasty,  John  H.,  Ill,  1237. 

Hatch,  Joseph  A.,  Ill,  938. 

Hauck,  Lawrence,  II,  141. 

Hauser,  Samuel  T.,  I,  189,  192,  193,  196, 
197,  221,  284,  286;  sketch  of,  409; 
(portrait),  410;  412;  resigns  as  gov- 
ernor, 411,  868. 

Hauswirth,  Simon,  I,  725;  III,  831. 

Hauxhurst,  James,  I,  192. 

Haverfield,  Orville  S.,  Ill,  1032. 

Haviland,  David  J.,  II,  438. 

Havre,  I,  743. 

Hawk,  Joseph  V.,  Ill,  767. 

Hawkesworth,  Arthur  L.,  III,  1173. 

Hawley,  Herbert  C.,  II,  632. 

Hawley,  Swope,  I,  222. 

Hayes,  Martin  F.,  I,  120. 

Haywood,  Guy  T.,  Ill,  1425. 

Head,  Clinton,  II,  169. 

Healy,  John  J.,  I,  287. 

Hcaly,  J.  Peter  P.,  Ill,  987. 

Heaney,  Arthur  P.,  II,  614. 

Heath,  L.  W.,  I,  761. 

Hebb,  Frank  M.,  Ill,  1097. 

Heber,  George  F,  III,  1204. 

Hedge  &  Company,  I,  220. 

Hedges,  Cornelius,  I,  211,  316,  404,  415, 
422;  as  superintendent  of  public  in- 
struction, 494;  (portrait),  495;  497, 
757,  76o. 

Hedges,  Daniel  J.,  Ill,  1012. 

Hedges,  Harry  H.,  Ill,  1012. 

Hedges,  Judd  P.,  Ill,  ion. 

Hedges,  Oliver  G.,  Ill,  1012. 

Hedges,  Willys  A.,  I,  757,  758,  760;  II, 

Hedgesville,  I,  848. 

Hefferlin,  Charles  S.,  II,  236. 

Heidel,  A.  W.,  I,  869. 

Heidel,  C.  S.,  I,  581. 

Heidel,  E.  L.,  II,  353- 

Heidelman,  John  H.,  II,  406. 
Heikkila,  Emil,  II,  29. 
Heilbronner,  Adolph  H.,  II,  577. 
Heinze,  F.  Augustus :  enters  Butte  field, 
I»  376,  377;  suits  against  the  Amalga- 
mated  Copper  Company,   I,  377,  378, 


Heldt,  F.  George,  I,  164. 

Helena  (see  also  Last  Chance  Gulch)  : 
altitude  of,  I,  92;  209;  named  by  John 
Somerville,  211,  >2i2;  incorporated, 
312;  becomes  territorial  capital,  315; 
territorial  capital  contest,  422;  capital 
to  remain  at,  441 ;  751 ;  sketch  of,  755  ; 

Helena  branch  of  the  Federal  Reserve 
Bank  of  Minneapolis,  I,  871. 

Helena  Catholic  Cathedral,  I,  755. 

Helena  Commercial  Club,  I,  761,  763. 

Helena  district :  entered  by  Lewis  and 
Clark,  I,  45;  its  mountains  (illustra- 
tions), 97. 

Helena  Free  Public  Library,  I,  757. 

Helena  in  1870  (illustration),  I,  756. 

Helena  Library  Association,  I,  757. 

Helena  National  Forest,  I,  624,  745,  749. 



Helena  region,  typical  mines  in  the  (il- 
lustration), I,  762,  764;  mineral  pro- 
duction of  the,  765,  766. 

Helgeson,  Henry  C,  III,  1288. 

Heller,  August,  II,  637. 

Hell  Gate  (Missoula),  I,  223. 

Hell  Gate  canyon,  I,  228. 

Hell  Gate  River,  I,  go,  227. 

Hell  Gate  Ronde,  I,  177,  ,223. 

Helm,  Boone,  I,  249. 

Helmville,  I,  790,  809. 

Helsing,  John  O.,  II,   116. 

Henderson,  Charles  S.,  II,  539. 

Henderson,  William  C.,  Ill,  1366. 

Hendrickson,  Otto,  III,  804. 

Hennessy,  John  H.,  Ill,  862. 

Hennessy,  John,  III,  1064. 

Henry,  Andrew,  I,  103;  abandons  Three 
Forks  Trading  Post,  104;  108. 

Henry,  Frank,  I,  438. 

Henry's  Fork  of  Snake  River,  I,  105. 

Henry's  Lake,  I,  105. 

Henry's  Post  in  1870,  I,  106. 

Henter,  Leo  A.,  II,  145. 

Hepner,  H.  Sol,  II,  621. 

Hepperle,  Karl,  III,  1355. 

Herd  districts  created,  I,  482. 

Hereford,  Robert,  I,  185. 

Heron,  I,  824. 

Herren,  William,  I,  255 

Herrick,  Una  B.,  II,  349. 

Herring,  Presley  L.,  Ill,  1026. 

Hershey,  Elmer  E.,  II,  466. 

Hewett,  Arthur  L.,  II,  212. 

Hexom,  Peter,  III,  1021. 

Hickey,  Edward,  I,  829;  III,  1205. 

Hickman,  R.  O.,  I,  443. 

Hickox,  Willard,  II,  82. 

Hier,  Albert  S.,  Ill,  902. 

Higgins,  Christopher  P.,  I,  223,  282,  784. 

Higgins,  Francis  G.,  I,  532. 

Higgins,  Frank  G.,  I,  643. 

Higgins,  F.  G.,  I,  500. 

Higham,  John  O.,  II,  21. 

Higher  education,  I,  528-552. 

Highland  Park  School,  Lewiston  (illus- 
tration), I,  720. 

Highway  Law :  passed,  I,  474,  475. 

Highways :  transcontinental,  I,  570. 

Highways  and  bridges :  federal  aid  in 
building,  I,  572. 

Highwood,  I,  702. 

Highwood  Mountains,  I,  91. 

Hilburn,  Samuel,  III,  864. 

Hilger,  David,  II,  18. 

Hilger,  Nicholas,  describes  Sioux  battle 
of  Kildeer  Mountain,  I,  294-97. 

Hill,   Charley  W.,  II,   192. 

Hill,  Harry  D ,  III,  1224. 

Hill,  James  J.,  I,  552;  gives  history  of 
Great  Northern  Railway,  560-66;  re- 
signs presidency  of  Great  Northern 
system,  566;  688. 

Hill  County:  created,  I,  474;  irrigation 
in,  602;  description  of,  742. 

Hill  county  potatoes  (illustration),  I, 

Hillman,  J.  R.,  I,  725. 

Himsl,  Victor  S.,  Ill,  1354. 

Hinchilwood,  J.  P.,  Ill,  797. 

Hind,  Bert  S.,  II,  38. 

Hingham,  I,  744. 

Hinsdale,  I,  588. 

Hirst,  John  D.,  II,  276. 

Hirst,  Tom,  II,  27. 

History  of  Montana  (Granville  Stuart), 
I,  226. 

"History  of  Washington,  Idaho  and 
Montana"  (Bancroft),  I,  159. 

Hitzfeldt,  Fred,  III,  1259. 

Hoback,  Richard,  I,  298. 

Hobbins,  James  R.,  II,  615. 

Hobensack,  Isaac  M.,  II,  84 

Hobson,   Simeon   S.,   II,  567. 

Hodge,  Pearl  D.,  II,  410. 

Hodgskiss,  William,  III,  999. 

Hodgson,  Arthur  M.,  Ill,  1037. 

Hodgson,  George  T.,  Ill,  864. 

Hodson,  Alvin,  III,.722. 

Hodson,  Dale,  II,  455. 

Hoeken,  Adrian,  I,  150,  161. 

Hoecken,  I,  161. 

Hoenck,  Richard  P.,  II,  487. 

Hofer,  Bert,  III,  846. 

Hoff,  Norbert  C.,  Ill,  1138. 

Hoffman,  Charles  W.,  I,  316. 

Hogan,  T.  S.,  I,  453;  II,  371. 

Hogeland,  Abraham,  III,  1203. 

Holladay,  Ben,  I,  556. 

Holland,  James,  III,  707. 

Holland,  Robert  W.,  II,  594. 

Hollenbeck,  Frank  K.,  Ill,  1246. 

Holliday,  Dell  H.,  II,  226. 

Hollier,  Lewis  S.,  II,  184. 

Holloway,  William  L.,  I,  436,  869;  II, 

Holmes,  Ernest  S.,  II,  455. 

Hoist,'  J.  H.,  II,  43. 

Holt,  Laurence  A.,  II,  533. 

Holt,  Stephen  A.,  Ill,  1273. 

Holter,  Anton  M.,  I,  285,  316;  II,  517. 

Holter,  Norman  B.,  I,  489,  761 ;  II,  518. 

Holter  Gulch,  I,  219. 

Holy  Family  Mission,  I,  162. 

Hood,  Samuel  L.,  Ill,  683. 

Hooks,  Frank  T,  III,  661. 

Hootenais,  I,  173. 

Hopkins,  David  R.,  II,  373. 

Hopkins,  Patrick  A.,  II,  588. 

Hori,  M.  M.,  Ill,  866. 

Horkan,  George,  III,  1406. 

Horkan,  George  A.,  I,  471 ;  III,  1392. 

Horn,  J.  H.,  Ill,  860. 

Horntvedt,  Ludvig,  III,  1075. 

Horse  Creek,  I,  777. 

Horse  market  at  Miles  City  (illustra- 
tion), I,  706. 

Horse  Plains,  I,  177. 

Horse  Prairie  Creek,  I,  230,  231. 

Horse  raising:  decline  in,  I,  309. 

Horticulture:  in  Rattlesnake  Valley,  I, 
785;  in  Bitter  Root  Valley,  791;  878; 
present  conditions  of,  882 ;  close  in- 
spection of  fruit  and  orchards  in  Mon- 
tana, 883,  884;  prevalent  fruit  diseases 
and  pests  in  Montana,  884. 

Hosmer,  Hezekiah  L.,  I,  64;  282; 
reaches  Virginia  City,  288;  sketch  of, 
288;  first  charge  to  grand  jury,  289; 
291,  298;  leaves  Montana,  299,  414. 

Hosmer,  James  K.,  I,  27. 



Hot  Springs,  Sanders  County,  I,  823,  824. 

Hotchkiss,  Arthur  N.,  Ill,  1251. 

Hotchkiss,  Samuel  A.,  Ill,  1380. 

Hough,  George  E.,  Ill,  1349. 

Houghlan,  Samuel  A.,  Ill,  1086. 

House  and  Bivins,  I,  219. 

Houston,  Elizabeth  L.  A.,  II,  360. 

Hoven,  Ole  B.,  Ill,  806. 

Hover,  Herbert  A.,  Ill,- 1127. 

Hovey,  Verne  T.,  Ill,  659. 

Howard,  Doc,  I,  252. 

Howard,  Harry  H.,  II,  179. 

Howard,  O.  H.,  1,  359. 

Howard,  O.  O.,  I,  360,  368. 

Howard,  Thomas  P.,  I,  28. 

Howe,  Clarence  D.,  II,  363. 

Howe,  John  G.,  II,  567. 

Howe,  John  S.,  Ill,  1261. 

Howe,  J.  K.,  Ill,  872. 

Howell,  Ethan  A.,  Ill,  1329. 

Howell,  H.  S.,  I,  725. 

Howell,  Richard  C.,  II,  495. 

Howey,  R.  W.,  I,  496,  497. 

Howland,  H.  N.,  II,  295. 

Howland,  John  M.,  II,  24. 

Hoyt,  Mark  D.,  Ill,  1013. 

Hruza,  William,  II,  271. 

Hubbard,  Paul  E.,  Ill,  1336. 

Huber,  Philip  H,  II,  624. 

Huckins,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  930. 

Hudson,  Clarence  W.,  II,  344. 

Hudson,  John,  I,  463. 

Hudson,  Samuel  E.,  Ill,  1089. 

Hudson  Bay  Company,  I,  132,  134,  140. 

Huet,   Charles,  I,   147. 

Huffaker,  Wila,  I,  282. 

Huffer,  Arthur  J.,  II,  239. 

Hughes,   Barney,   I,    199,  200,   206,  207, 


Hughes,  James  H.,  Ill,  1059. 
Hughes,  Roy,  III,  1054. 
Hughes,  Samuel,  III,  1059. 
Hughes  Brothers,  III.  1059. 
Hull,  W.  T.,  I,  761. 
Humphreys,  G   O.,  I,  222,  223,  833. 
Hunsberger,  John,  III,  770. 
Hunt,    Williams    H.,    I,    431,    434,    435, 
T  437,  438. 
Hunter,  A.  J.,  I,  799. 
Hunter,  Bill,  last  of  road  agents  to  be 

executed,  I,  274,  275. 
Hunter,  Joseph  C.,  Ill,  806. 
Hunter,  William,  I,  249. 
Hunters'   Hot   Springs,   I,  801. 
Hunting  and   fishing,   I,  636 ;   in   Lewis 

and    Clark  county,   754;    in    Missoula 

county,  783. 
Huntley,  I,  856. 

Huntley  reclamation  project,  I,  587. 
Huntoon,  John  C.,  II,  208. 
Kurd,  George  E.,  Ill,  675. 
Kurd,  Walter  L.,  II,  290. 
Hurdy-Gurdy  House,  I,  245. 
Hurley,  Charles  C.,  Ill,  943. 
Hurly,  John,  II,  596. 
Husband,  William  C,  II,  653. 
Huseth,  S.  O.,  Ill,  832. 
Hutchinson,  Myron  W.,  Ill,  700. 
Hutchinson,  William  O.,  II,  324. 
Huxsol,  Alfred  W.,  Ill,  778. 
Huyck,  Claude  C.,  II,  487. 

Hydro-electric  conservation,  I,  630-33. 

Hydro-electric  plants:  of  Lewis  and 
Clark  county,  I,  751. 

Hydro-electric  water  powers  (illustra- 
tion), I,  685. 

Hymer,  Elbert,  II,  62. 

Hysham,  I,  845. 

Iceberg  Lake  (illustration),  I,  638. 

Iliff,  Thomas  C.,  I,  786. 

Imislund,  Herbert  P.,  II,  370. 

Immaculate  Conception  Church,  III, 

Imoda,  C.,  I,   162. 

In  the  Lumber  Country  (illustration), 
I,  823. 

Income  tax  bill  passed,  I,  489. 

Independence  Mining  district,  I,  223. 

Indian  Camping  Ground  (illustration), 
I,  148. 

Indian  Ceremonial,  Old-Time  (illus- 
tration), I,  819. 

Indian  Chiefs  and  Warriors  (illustra- 
tion), I,  56. 

Indian  picture  of  1742  (Parkman),  I,  7. 

Indian  reservations,  I,  639. 

Indian  Sentinel:  Flathead  number  of, 
I,  142. 

Indians :  Crows,  I,  85 ;  86,  87 ;  Flatheads 
(1805),  87;  exploiting  through  whis- 
key, 120,  140;  name  "Flatheads,"  142; 
Blackfeet  still  warlike,  154;  Flathead 
treaty  of  1855,  223;  Sioux  battle  of 
Killdeer  Mountain,  292;  Sioux  cam- 
paign (1864),  292-98;  Sioux  again 
checked  (1872),  308-310;  Sioux  vs. 
Crows,  340;  341,  342;  council  at  Fort 
Laramie  (1866),  341 ;  government  pro- 
nouncement against  enemy  (1866), 
341;  depredations  of  (1866),  342; 
"agency"  plan  not  a  success,  345,  347; 
united  campaign  against  enemy,  347; 
Drawing  Rations  (illustration),  346; 
Crooks'  southern  campaign  against, 
356;  warfare  of  1876-77,  357. 

Industrial  Accident  Board  created,  I, 

Ingham,  Thomas  C.,  II,  34. 

Ingle,  Chester  R.,  II,  228. 

Ingomar,  I,  821. 

Ingraham,  Albert  J.,  Ill,  972. 

Ingraham,  Philip  A.,  Ill,  972. 

Ingraham,  Sarah  C.,  Ill,  972. 

Ingram,  George  F.,  Ill,  1000. 

Initiative  and  Referendum  bill  popularly 
approved,  I,  470. 

Initiative  and  Referendum  law  passed, 
I,  463 ;  extended,  464. 

Innes,  Walter  B.,  II,  244. 

Irons,  Ort,  III,   1046. 

Irrigated  Orchard  near  Missoula  (illus- 
tration), I,  781. 

Irrigation:  under  the  Cary  Act,  I,  581; 
state  works  and  projects,  59!-S;  coun- 
try surveys,  595-614;  acreage  by  drain- 
age basins,  615;  farms  irrigated  in 
state,  615;  works  built  since  1860,  617; 
irrigated  lands  as  producers,  618; 
projects  in  Rosebud  county,  820. 

Irrigation  districts  established,  I,  464, 



Irvin,  George  W.,  II,  I,  316. 
Irvine,  Caleb  E.,  I,  177,  829,  833. 
Irvine,  W.  M.,  Ill,  859. 
Irving,  Washington,  I,  116,  119. 
Irwin,  0.  E.,  I,  283. 
Isachsen,  Albert  J.,  Ill,  928. 
Isch,  John,  III,  844- 

Ives,  George,  I,  192,  196,  198,  247,  253; 
trial  and  execution  of,  255. 

Jaccard,  Eugene,  I,  177. 

Jackson,  David  E.,  I,  108,  ill. 

Jackson,  George  C.,  II,  422. 

Jackson,  Harvey  F.,  Ill,  840. 

Jackson,  John  W.,  II,  388. 

Jackson,  Robert  G.,  Ill,  1363. 

Jacobs,  Henry,  I,  406,  834. 

Jacobs,  John  M.,  I,  188,  195,  306. 

Jacobs,  William  F.,  Ill,  1047. 

Jacobs  and  Bozeman  cut-off,  I,  195. 

Jacobson,  Paul,  III,  671. 

James,  Edwin  E.,  Ill,  797. 

Jameson,  C.  C,  II,  35. 

Janssen,  John  W.,  Ill,  1270. 

Jaquette,  Walter  P.,  Ill,  981. 

Jeff  Davis'  Gulch,  I,  329. 
•  Jefferson,    Thomas :    checkmating    Eng- 
land in  the  West,  I,  13;  15,  19,  48. 

Jefferson  county:  placer  mines  in  1862- 
68,  I,  213 ;  created,  281 ;  as  a  copper 
producer,  384;  number  and  value  of 
cattle  (1884),  395;  irrigation  in,  603; 
description  of,  744. 

Jefferson  County  High  School,  II,  616. 

Jefferson  Forest,  I,  777. 

Jefferson  National  Forest,  I,  624. 

Jefferson  (Beaverhead)  River,  Lewis 
ascends  the,  I,  48,  50,  61,  89,  90,  230. 

Jeffries,  Garry  J.,  Ill,  820. 

Jenkins,  Leonard  V.,  Ill,  1320. 

Jennings,  George  M.,  II,  447. 

Jennison,  Warren  J.,  Ill,  1170. 

Jensen,  Chris,  III,  782. 

Jensen,  Otto,  III,  852. 

Jensen,  Peter  C.,  Ill,  1411. 

Jerome,  C.  W.,  Ill,  786. 

Jocko  River,  I,  227. 

Jocko  Valley,  I,  227,  792. 

Johannes,  R.  J.,  II,  164. 

Johns,  Albert  M.,  II,  386. 

Johnson,  Charles  M.,  II,  562. 

Johnson,  E.  B.,  I,  282. 

Johnson,  Edwin  L.,  II,  41. 

Johnson,  Elmer,  II,  529. 

Johnson,  Emil  M.,  Ill,  1378. 

Johnson,  Francis  G.,  II,  626. 

Johnson,  Fred  A.,  Ill,  998. 

Johnson,  Harry  M.,  II,  52. 

Johnson,  Henry  H.,  Ill,  1056. 

Johnson,  J.  Charles,  II,  417. 

Johnson,  Mary  C.,  II,  125. 

Johnson,  Ole  C.,  Ill,  771. 

Johnson,  Pete,  III,  715. 

Johnson,  Peter  E.,  Ill,  1181. 

Johnson,  Richard  E.,  Ill,  1446. 

Johnson,  Richard  S.,  Ill,  1363. 

Johnson,  Roy  H.,  Ill,  1446. 

Johnson,  Thomas  S.,  Ill,  969. 

Johnson,  Wilford  J.,  II,  3. 

Johnson,  The  Abstract  Man,  III,   1445. 

Johnston,  A.  P.,  II,  412. 

Johnston,  Charles  C.,  Ill,  1445. 

Johnston,  James  L.,  II,  641. 

Johnston,  Thomas  Jr.,  Ill,  1396. 

Johnstone,  Thomas,  III,  1285. 

Jones,  Arthur  C.,  II,  491. 

Jones,  A.  H.,  I,  771. 

Jones,  D.  Augustus,  III,  686. 

Jones,  Edward  C.,  II,  195. 

Jones,  L.  E.,  I,  696. 

Jones,  Paul,  III,  1247. 

Jones,  T.  C.,  first  probate  judge,  I,  290. 

Jones,  Thomas  R.,  Ill,  1022. 

Jones,  Robert  N.,  Ill,  1038. 

Jones,  William  E.,  Ill,  689. 

Jones  and  Immell :  killing  of,  by  Black- 
feet,  I,  109,  no. 

Joplin,   I,  768. 

Jordan,  I,  735. 

Jordan,  Arthur,  II,  620. 

Jordan,  Erwin  E.,  Ill,  1381. 

Jordan,  James  H.,  II,  127. 

Joseph  Peak,  I,  362. 

Josselyn,  Horatio  S.,  Ill,  1334. 

"Journal  of  Larocque"  (Burpee),  I,  78, 

Judith  Basin,  I,  715. 

Judith  Basin  County:  irrigation  in,  I, 
603;  723;  description  of,  746;  861. 

Judith  Gap,  I,  848. 

Julian,  I,  708. 

Junod,  Orla  H.,  Ill,   1283. 

Juttner,   Charles   F.,   II,   152. 

Kaiserman,  J.  R.,  II,  281. 
Kalispell,  I,  724;  sketch  of,  726;  bird's- 
eye  view  of   (illustration),  727. 
Kampf,  Ray  L.,  Ill,  1341. 
Kane,  Edward  G.,  Ill,  1167. 
Kanouse,  James  E.,  Ill,  679. 
Karnop,  Jacob  H.,  II,  654. 
Kassner,  O.  G.,  II,  134. 
Kastelitz,  John,  'II,  181. 
Kay,  John  M.,  Ill,  772. 
Kearns,  W.  L.,  II,  275. 
Keene,  Eliot  W.,  II,  227. 
Kehoe,  Thomas  M.,  II,  306. 
Keith,  F.  P.,  I,  786. 
Keith,  H.  C.,  I,  727. 
Keith,  John  M.,  II,  469. 
Kelch,  Albert  E.,  III.  755- 
Kelch,  William  D.,  Ill,  741. 
Kelley,  Cornelius  F.,  I,  459;  HI,  987. 
Kelley,  E.  L.,  Ill,  966. 
Kelley,  Rufus  B.,  II,  287. 
Kelley,  Thomas,  III,   1053. 
Kelley,  Tom,  III,  1180. 
Kelly,  Charley,  L  250. 
Kelly,  Dan  M.,  II,  30. 
Kelly,  Harry  J.,  II,  385. 
Kelly,  Hugh,  II,  457- 
Kelly,  Tames  E.,  II,  30. 
Kelly,  Peter  J.,  II,  437. 
Kelly,  R.  A.,  II,  392. 
Kelly,  Robert  B.,  II,  540. 
Kelsey,  Arthur  R.,  Ill,  1101. 
Kelsey,  Frank  T.,  Ill,  1343. 
Kemmis,  Walter  D.,  Ill,  744. 
Kemp,  James  S.,  Jr.,  II.  475. 
Kempton,  Berney  E.,  Ill,  1369. 
Kempton,  Henry  N.,  Ill,  1298. 
Kendall,  I,  717. 



Kendrick,  John,  I,  14. 

Kenkel,  J.  E.,  II,  607. 

Kennedy,  John,  III,  865. 

Kenney,  E.  A.,  I,  443. 

Kennon,  R.  T.,  I,  329. 

Kenny,  E.  A.,  I,  445. 

Kenyon,  Daniel  C.,  Ill,  912. 

Kercheval,  F.  B.,  I,  284. 

Kerchival  City,  I,  304. 

Kerr,  John  W.,  II,  485. 

Kerrigan,  John  H.,  Ill,  738. 

Kessler,   Harry    C.,    I,   644;    (portrait), 


Kessler,  Nicholas,  I,  316,  761. 
Ketcham,  Gilbert  A.,  II,  463. 
Ketcham,  Harry  G.,  Ill,  729. 
Kill-the-Deer-Butte,  I,  292. 
Killorn,    George   L.,    II,   330. 
Kimball,  Edwin  L.,  Ill,  657. 
Kindschy,  Emil  O.,  II,  no. 
King,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  1298. 
King,  Irving  G.,  Ill,  1271. 
King,  James  I,  757,  760. 
King,  Mary  F.,  Ill,  1272. 
King,  Wiley,  III,  1294. 
King  and  Gilette,  I,  288. 
Kingmont,  I,  714. 
Kingsbury,  Adkin  W.,  Ill,  825. 
Kinkel,  George,  I,  547. 
Kinmonth,  Charles  F.,  II,  63. 
Kinsella,  John  B.,  Ill,  712. 
Kinsella,  Lawrence   L,   III,   713. 
Kinsey,  I,  703. 

Kinsman,  (Mrs.)  E.  E.,  I,  786. 
Kipp,  James,  I,  112. 
Kirby,  Charles  N.,  II,  398. 
Kirkwood,  W.  F.,  I,  419. 
Kiskadden,  J.  H.,  I,  335. 
Kittson,  Norman  W.,  I,  561. 
Klein,  George  H.,  Ill,  1250. 
Klein,  Henry,  I,  552. 
Kleve,  S.  Lawrence,  III,  903. 
Kline,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  1105. 
Kline,  Henry  S.,   Ill,  690. 
Klinkhammer,  Joseph  H.,  Ill,  874. 
Knapp,  Daniel,  III,   1332. 
Knight,  Albert  B.,  I,  549. 
Knight,  Arthur  C,  II,   128. 
Knight,  E.  W.,  I,  446. 
Knowles,  Hiram,  I,  378,  420,  421 ;  retires 

from  Supreme  Bench,  426;  sketch  of, 

437,  444- 

Knott,  E.  B.,  Ill,  863. 
Knudsen,  William  P.,  II,  377. 
Kobelin,  George  J.,  II,  22. 
Koch,  Edwin,  III,  1195. 
Koch,  Peter,   I,  306,  547. 
Kohrs,  Conrad,  I,  316,  394,  395;  III,  1061. 
Kohrs  and  Bielenberg;  I,  395. 
Kommers,  Louis  H.,  Ill,  827. 
Kootenai  National  Forest,  I,  624,  769. 
Kootenai  mines,  I,  225. 
Kootenais    (1858),   I,   172. 
Kopp,  John  J.,  II,  400. 
Kopsland,  T.,  Ill,  1034. 
Kraft,  I,  708. 

Kramer,  Henry  J.,  Ill,  1339. 
Kranz,  Mathias,  II,  576. 
Krauss,  Andrew  G.,  II,  314. 
Kremer,  J.  Bruce,  II,  419. 
Kremlin,  I,  744. 

Kress,  Ben,  I,  878. 
Kress,  William  J.,  II,  356. 
Kroeger,  Fred  W.,  Ill,  975. 
Krohne,  B.  Thorwald,  II,  235. 
Krom,  S.  R.,  II,  350. 
Kronkright,  Orrel  H.,  Ill,  1046. 
Krueger,  Karl  P.,  Ill,  1154. 
Kutzner,  C.  M.,  II,  242 
Kuykendall,  E.  H.,  II,  242 
Kyle,  Daniel  C.,  Ill,  992. 
Kyle,  Mary  A.,  Ill,  993. 
Kyle,  William  L.,  II,  292. 

La  Bar,  Albert  A.,  II,  130. 
LaBarge,  Harkness  &  Company:  Busi- 
ness expedition  of,  I,  177-183. 
LaBarge,  John,  I,   177. 
LaBarge,  Joseph,  I,  177. 
LaBarge,  Madam,  I,  180. 

LaBarge  City  (Deer  Lodge),  I,  222. 

LaBeau,  Henri,  I,  471. 

Labiche,  Francis,  I,  28. 

Lacy,  Francis  M.,  Ill,  1192. 

Ladd,  George  B.,  II,  395. 

Ladd,  Jessie  S.,  I,  698. 

Ladd,  William  P.,  II,  262. 

Lafrance,  J.  B.,  I,  74. 

Lagoni,  Peter,  II,  603. 

Lagoni,  Sylvia,  II,  604. 

La  Honran,  I,  i,  3. 

Laird,  I,  768. 

Laist,  Frederick,  II,  337. 

Lake  McDonald,  I,  637. 

Lake  Scenery  near  Helena  (illustration), 
I,  753- 

Lake  Yellowstone   (illustration),  I,  636. 

Lamb,  John  A.,  Ill,  852. 

Lamb,  Wm.  A.,  I,  869. 

Lambard,  Irby,  II,  530. 

Lambert,  John  K.,  Ill,  1393. 

Lamoureux,  Edward,  III,  863. 

La  Mousse,  Charles,  I,  148. 

La  Mousse,  Francis,  I,   148. 

La  Mousse,  Ignace  (Big  Ignace),  I,  144. 

Land  of  the  Shining  Mountains,  I,  I. 

Lands :  conservation  of,  577-641. 

Lane,  Charles  H.,  II,  109. 

Lane,  George  (Clubfoot  George),  I,  249. 

Lane,  James  E.,  II,  5. 

Lang,  Edward  H.,  Ill,  1399. 

Lang,  Gregor,  III,  1043. 

Lang,  Janet,  III,  1044. 

Lang,  John,  II,  606. 

Lang,  Margaret  S.,  II,  606. 

Lang,  William  G.,  Ill,  1043. 

Langford,  Nathaniel  P.,  I,  119,  243;  (il- 
lustration), 244,  253,  283. 

Lanius,  Charles  H.,  II,  633. 

Lanouette,  Louis  P.,  Ill,  mi. 

Lanstrum,  George  W.,  I,  869;  III,  736. 

Lanstrum,  O.  M.,  Ill,  735. 

Lantis,  Horace  G.,  Ill,  1445. 

Lapage,  Baptiste,  I,  28. 

Laredo,  I,  744. 

Largest  gold  nugget  in  the  world,  I,  752. 

Larocque,  Francois  A.,  I,  73,  74;  meets 
Rocky  Mountain  Indians,  75,  80. 

Larpenteur,  Charles,  I,  127. 

Larrivee,  Arthur,  III,  792. 

Larson,  Anne  K.,  I,  503. 

Larson,  Thomas  O.,  Ill,  748. 



Lassus,  Don  Carlos  de  Haut  de,  I,  18, 

Last  Chance  Gulch,  I,  209;  named  Hel- 
ena, 210,  234,  288,  765. 

Last  Fallen  County  Sod  School  (illus- 
tration), I,  714. 

Laswell,  James  Q.,  Ill,  913. 

Lathom,  Ray  A.,  II,  16. 

Lathrop,  A.  G.,  I,  494. 

Lathrop,  Wm.  T.,  I,  869. 

Lauer,  Charles  M.,  II,  497. 

Laurel,  I,  856. 

Laussat,  Pierre  Clement,  I,  18. 

Lausted,  Emil  R.,  II,  595. 

Laux,  Philipp,  II,   158. 

Lavelle,  James   P.,   II,  31. 

Law  School  established  at  Missoula,  I, 

Lawrence,  A.  J.,  I,  359. 

Lawrence,  Robert,  I,  282. 

Lawson,  William  L.,  II,  19. 

Leach,  James  R.,  Ill,  1202. 

Lead,  Output  of,  1883-1918,  I,  383. 

Leard,  Samuel  E.,  II,  274. 

Leary,  Dennis,  I,  222,  372,  833. 

Leary,  Grace  M.,  Ill,  1230. 

Lease,  Newton  T.,  Ill,  836. 

Leavitt,  Erasmus  D.,  I,  282. 

Leclerc,  Narcisse,  I,  120. 

Ledger,  I,  804. 

Ledyard,  John,  I,  21,  22. 

Lee,  Albert,  III,  856. 

Lee,  Edgar,  III,  984. 

Lee,  Harold  F.,  Ill,  696. 

Lee,  Otis,  II,  505. 

Legal  holidays   for   schools,   I,  527. 

Leggat,  Rod  D.,  I,  316. 

Lehfeldt,  Hermann  J.,  Ill,  883. 

Lehmicke,  O.  E.,  Ill,  860. 

Leighton  bill;  passed,  I,  475,  535. 

Leinenweber,  George  P.,  Ill,  716. 

Lemert,  Rae  J.,  Ill,  956. 

Lemire,  Joseph  A.,  II,  509. 

Lemon,  Allan  C,  III,   1154. 

Lemon,  Robert  H.,  I,  183. 

Lentz,  Edward  O.,  Ill,  1395. 

Lentz,  Theodore,  II,  461. 

Lenz,  Frank  A.,  II,  160. 

Leo,  Willard  A.,  Ill,  1117. 

Leonard,  B.  A.,  II,  433. 

Leonard,  Charles  R.,  II,  520. 

Leonard,  Nathan  R.,  I,  549. 

Leonard,  William  M.,  Ill,  934. 

Le  Sage,  Frank  H.,  II,  132. 

Leslie,  J.  B.,  I,  698. 

Leslie,  H.  P. 

Leslie,  Jere  B.,  I,  411. 

Leslie,  Preston  H.;  sketch  and  death 
of,  I,  411;  868. 

"Letters  and  Sketches,"  by  Father  De 
Smet,  I,  146. 

Leverenz,  Carl  C.,  Ill,  791. 

Lewellen,  F.  M.,  II,  95. 

Lewis,  Charles  A.,  II,  397. 

Lewis,  Clyde  E.,  Ill,  1416. 

Lewis,  E.  P.,  I,  335. 

Lewis,  Frank  B.,  II,  13. 

Lewis,  John  E.,  Ill,  1002. 

Lewis,  Mark  E.,  Ill,  950. 

Lewis,  Meriwether,  I,  18,  19;  Jefferson's 
sketch  of,  21-23;  Jefferson's  first  in- 

structions to,  23;  27;  his  romance,  39; 
42,  46,  47,  50,  51,  54,  555  his  home- 
ward trip,  58;  59;  severely  wounded, 
60;  64;  death  of,  65. 

Lewis,  Reuben,  I,   103. 

Lewis,  Vernon  E.,  Ill,  769. 

Lewis  and  Clark  county:  placer  mines 
in  1862-68,  I,  213 ;  number  and  value 
of  cattle  (1884),  395;  irrigation  in, 
603;  general  description,  747;  via  the 
U.  S.  Census,  750;  water  powers  and 
public  ways,  751 ;  picturesque  excur- 
sions in,  752. 

Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition  in  Montana 
(illustration),  I,  2;  19-67;  reach  the 
mouth  of  the  Yellowstone,  29;  return 
trips  eastward,  58. 

Lewis-Clark  Journal,  I,  28,  29,  69. 

Lewis  and  Clark,  heroic  bronze  statutes 
of.  Great  Falls,  I,  320,  323,  482. 

Lewis  and  Clark  National  Forest,  I,  624, 
749,  804. 

Lewis   and   Clark   Rod   and    Gun   Club, 

I,  754- 

Lewis   River,    I,  57. 
Lewistown,  I,  719-23. 
Lewistown  Chamber  of  Commerce,  I,  720. 
Lewistown  Public  Library,  I,  721. 
Lewistown   of    Today    (illustration),   I, 


Leyson,  J.  H.,  I,  548. 
Lhotka,  J.  F.,  II,  482. 
Liberty  County :  irrigation  in,  I,  604 ; 

description  of,  767. 
Liberty    Loan    Campaigns    in    World's 

War :  Chairman  and  Chairwomen  of, 

I,  663-65. 
Libby,   I,  770. 
Liddell,  Moses  J.,  I,  431. 
"Life     of     James     Stuart"      (Granville 

Stuart),  I,  187,  209. 
Lignites   (coal),  I,  238,  386. 
Lincoln,  I,  749,  790. 
Lincoln,  Fred  T.,  I,  856. 
Lincoln  county:  created,  I,  451,  469;  ir- 
rigation in,  604;   description  of,  768; 

scene  in  (illustration),  769. 
Lindeberg,  Charles  A.,  Ill,  1090. 
Lindemann,  Leo  C.,  Ill,  1079. 
Lindsay,  F.  S.  P.,  I,  761. 
Lindsay,  John,  II,  515. 
Linfield,  F.  W.,  I,  869. 
Linn,  Carl  A.,  Ill,  1278. 
Lisa,  Manuel,  I,  68,  103,  104;  last  years 

of,  107. 

Lisa   (Manuel)  &  Company,  I,  107. 
Listerud,  John,  III,  1067. 
Literary  sources  of   information,  I,  20. 
Little,  Mose,  II,  243. 
Little  Belt  range,  I,  91. 
Little    Big    Horn    Battle,    casualties    at, 

I,  354,  356. 

Little  Black  Foot  River,  I,  167. 
Little  Creek  Mountains,  I,  32. 
Little  Dog  (Piegan  chief),  I,  167,  168, 

169,  170,   179. 
Little  Dry  Creek,  I,  32. 
Little  Face  (Crow  scout),  I,  351,  352. 
Little  Missouri  irrigation  project,  I,  584. 
Little  Missouri  River,  I,  29. 
Little   Rocky  mountains,   I,  91,  229. 



Little  St.  Mary's  Lakes,  I,  638. 

Littlewolf    Mountains,    I,   63. 

Live  Stock  Commission,  I,  482. 

Live  Stock  interests,  I,  391-403. 

Livingston:  state  capital  contestant,  I, 
441;  first  house  erected  in  (illustra- 
tion, 800;  history  of,  799;  of  the  pres- 
ent, 800. 

Livingston,  Frank  H.,  Ill,  939. 

Livingston,  Robert  R.,  I,  16. 

Livingston,  Walter  W.,   II,  395. 

Livingston-Bozeman  coal  field,  I,  240. 

Livingston  Marble  and  Granite  Com- 
pany, II,  601. 

Livingston  Publishing  Company,  II,  367. 

Llafet,  Joseph  E.,  II,  442. 

Lloyd,  Charles  F.,  I,  643. 

Lloyd,  Walter  E.,  II,  342. 

Loble,  Lester  H.,  Ill,  1198. 

Lockey,  Richard,  II,  526. 

Lockhart,  Charles,   II,  363. 

Lodge  Grass,  I,  673. 

Lofgren,  Everett  E.,  II,  216. 

Logan,  Arthur  C.,  I,  497. 

Logan,  Edgar  W.,  II,  263. 

Logan,  Ernest  A.,  II,  238. 

Logan,  James  E.,  II,  178. 

Logan,  John,  II,  289. 

Logan,  John  T.,  Ill,  1358. 

Logan,  Sidney  M.,  Ill,  1145. 

Logan,  William,  I,  354,  360. 

Lohmiller,  Charles  B.,  Ill,  925. 

Lolo,  I,  792. 

Lolo  National  Forest,  I,  624,  811. 

Loma,  I,  702. 

Lombard,  I,  676. 

Long,  G.  B.,  II,  406. 

Long,  J.  B.,  I,  696. 

Long,  Thomas  D.,  I,  465. 

Long  Drive  (Cattle),  I,  393,  394. 

Longest  bridge  in  the  State,  I,  824. 

Longley,  Thomas  W.,  II,  1410. 

Lorance,  Clyde  H.,  II,  67. 

Loranger,  Henry  E.,  Ill,  703. 

Lord,  Reuben  J.,  II,  61. 

Losekamp,  John  D.,  I,  552. 

Lothair,  I,  768. 

Lott,  John  S.,  I,  286. 

Lott,  Mortimer  H.,  I,  286,  316. 

Loucks,  John  T.,  Ill,  952. 

Loughran,   Michael  J.,  II,  502. 

Louisiana,  United  States  acquires,  I,  16. 

Loveland,  Russ  A.,  Ill,   1361. 

Lovell,  William  Y.,  I,  289,  415. 

Lowe,  Henry  P.,  Ill,  787. 

Lowe  &  Powers,  I,  815. 

Lower  Yellowstone,  reclamation  project, 
I,  587;    (illustration),  588. 

Lowery,  Charles  R.,  Ill,  1055. 

Lowery,  Robert  W.,  Ill,  1055. 
,Lowry,  Bill,  I,  252. 

Lowry,  John  A.,  Ill,  1441. 

Lowry,  Thomas  J.,  I,  415,  422. 
Lucas,  Frederick  D.,  II,  296. 

Lucas  lode,  I,  220. 

Luce,  Sarah  S.,  II,  503. 

Luce,  T.  L.,   I,  218. 

Luce,  Thompson  W.,  II,  503. 

Lucke,  Lou,  III,  703. 

Ludtke,  P.  E.,  Ill,  1114. 

Lumber  Stand  of  Montana,  I,  625. 

Lumbering  in  Missoula  County,  I,  781. 
Lump  Gulch  mining  district,  $2,500,000, 

I,  766. 

Lund,  Hartwig,  III,  1248. 
Lundeen,  Gustav  A.,  Ill,  785. 
Lundevall,  Torjus,  II,  355. 
Lyle,  Thomas  L.,  Ill,  1159. 
Lyman,  Elias  F.,  Ill,  821. 
Lynch,  Neptune,  III,  1300. 
Lyndes,  John  C.,  Ill,  1392. 
Lyon,  Clyde  M.,  II,  414. 
Lyon,  Frederick  A.,  Ill,  1443. 
Lyon,  George  D.,  II,  443. 
Lyons,  George  R.,  II,  121. 
Lyons,  Haze,  I,  249. 
Lyons,  John,  I,  218. 

Mabie,  J.  F.,  I,  471. 
MacCallum,  Charles  A.,  II,  308. 
Macdonald,  John  J.,  Ill,  1130. 
MacDuffie,  William  J.,  Ill,  839. 
Mace,  George,  III,  1405. 
MacFarlane,  William  D.,  Ill,  761. 
Machemer,  Frank  W.,  II,  74. 
Mack,  Forest  M.,  Ill,  677. 
Mackenzie,  Charles,  I,  74. 
MacLaren,  Gilbert  D.,  II,  528. 
MacMillan,  Hugh  A.,  II,  322. 
MacPherson,  Harry  A.,  II,  333. 
Macrum,  E.  A.,  I,  761. 
Madison,  Bill,  I,  185. 
Madison,  Ed.,  I,  222. 
Madison,  Frank,  I,  222,  371. 
Madison,  James,  I,  48. 
Madison  county;  placer  mines  in  1862- 

69,  I,  213 ;  created,  281 ;  number  and 

value  of  cattle  (1884),  395;  irrigation 

in,  604;  description  of,  771. 
Madison  National  Forest,  I,  624. 
Madison  range,  I,  91. 
Madison  River,  I,  48,  61,  89,  230. 
Madison  State  Bank,  I,  772. 
Madoc,  I,  708. 
Madsen,  Jacob  P.,  II,  248. 
Magee,  George  W.,  II,  478. 
Maggie   (Missouri  River  steamboat),  I, 

Maginnis,    Martin,    I,    316;    sketch    of, 

404;  445,  447. 

Magraw,  Henry  S.,  II,  520. 
Magruder,  Lloyd,  I,  252. 
Maguire,  John  C.,  II,  129. 
Maher,  John  C,  III,  836. 
Mahon,  Archibald  W.,  I,  581;  III,  953. 
Mail  and  telegraph  lines,  first,  I,  556. 
Maillet,  Herbert  A.,  Ill,   1222. 
Main,  Clara,  I,  721. 
Mains,  Frank,  III,  1347. 
Mair,  John  F.,  II,  562. 
Major,  Adolph  A.,  Ill,  811. 
Malloy,  Dan  T.,  II,  471. 
Malone,  Francis  M.,  II,  432. 
Maloney,  William  H.,  II,  397. 
Malta,  I,  588,  803. 
Mammoth     Hot     Springs,     Yellowstone 

Park  (illustration),  I,  634. 
Man    Afraid    of    His     Horses     (Sioux 

Chief),  I,  341,  343,  344,  345- 
Mandan     Villages :     Lewis     and     Clark 

journey  to,  I,  27. 
Mandans,  I,  74. 



Mangan,  Louis  A.,  Ill,   II35- 
Manganese,  properties  suffer .  when  war 

ends,  I,  382. 
Manhattan,  I,  729. 
Manitou,  I,  pi. 
Manix,  J.  Clarence,  III,  693. 
Manley,  John  E.,  II,  330. 
Manson,  I,  804. 
Mantle,  Lee:  rejected  from  U.  S.  Senate, 

I,   449;    elected   U.   S.    Senator,   451; 

sketch  of,  456. 
Manuel's  Fort,  I,  69. 
Marbois,  Barbe,  I,  16. 
Margetts,  Leslie  R.,  II,  484. 
Margry,  Pierre,  I,  4. 
Maria's    River,    romance   of,   I,   39;    59. 

229;  post  at  the  mouth  of,  138. 
Maring,  John  C,  II,  378. 
Marks,  Rufus,  III,  1094. 
Marks  and  Brands,  I,  391. 
Markuson,  Nels  K.,  Ill,  1097. 
Marlow,  Thomas  A.,  I,  489. 
Marlowe,  Thomas  N.,  II,  418. 
Marques,  Oscar,  III,  796. 
Marques,  Scott,  III,  796. 
Marron,  Hugh  N.,  Ill,  875. 
Marrs,  Charles  B.,  Ill,  1375- 
Marrs,  Fred  P.,  II,  593- 
Marsh,  Charles  H.,  II,  445- 
Marsh,  Cromwell,  III,  857. 
Marshall,  Charles  L.,  Ill,  815. 
Marshall,  C.  S.,  I,  438. 
Marshall,  Thomas  C.,  I,  453. 
Marshall,  W.  R.,  I,  243. 
Marsland,  Steven,  I,  249. 
Marston,  William  J.  R.,  Ill,  1350. 
.Martin,  Harry  T.,  Ill,  926. 
Martin,  James  L.,  II,  179. 
Martin,  Martin,  III,  1278. 
Martin,  N.  L.,  II,  222. 
Martin,  Roscoe  G.,  II,  266. 
Martine,  Isaac  S.,  Ill,  671. 
Marvin,  Ernest  L.,  II,  49. 
Marysville,  I,  749. 
Marysville  mining  district,  $57,140,000,  I, 


Mason,   Dwight  N.,   II,  456. 
Mason,  James,  I,  319. 
Masonry :  cradle  of,  in  Virginia  City,  I, 


Masters,  Harry  S.,  II,  389. 
Mathewes,  Barnard  J.,  Ill,  1032. 
Mathews,  Ed,  II,  552. 
Mathews,  O.  C.,  I,  217. 
Mathews,  Thomas  J.,  Ill,  1443. 
Matkin,  Judson  D.,  Ill,  808. 
Matlock,  S.  W.,  II,  232. 
Matney,  J.  H.,  Ill,  685. 
Matson,  Howard  E.,  II,  580. 
Matteson,  B.  R.,  Ill,  1381. 
Matthews,  Charles  A.,  Ill,  835. 
Matthews,  John  A.,  II,  642. 
Matthews,  Thomas,  II,  565. 
Maudru,  Joseph,  II,  417. 
Maury,  Henry  L.,  Ill,  1075. 
Maxey,  Robert  J.,  I,  659. 
Maxham,  Frank  A.,  Ill,  1420. 
Maximilian,  Prince,  I,  122. 
Maxson,  Lewis  L.,  Ill,  1114. 
May,  George,  I,  419. 
Mayer,  Jacob  A.,  Ill,  700. 

Mayhew,  Alexander  E.,  I,  282,  289. 

McAboy,  Charles  D.,  II,  489. 

McAdow,  Perry  W.,  L,  219,  851. 

McAdow,  P.  S.,  I,  189. 

McAdow,  William,   I,    198. 

McAfee,  Harry  E.,  Ill,  1031. 

McAlister,  Glenn  C.,  II,  210. 

McArthur,  Neil,  I,  225. 

McCabe,  I,  817. 

McCafferty,  Richard,  I,  192. 

McCalman,  James,  II,  185. 

McCarten,  Robert  E.,  II,  616. 

McCarthy,  Eugene,  III,  996. 

McCarthy,  P.  H.,  II,  123. 

McClammy,  Quincy  P.,  Ill,  1019. 

McClarty,  James,  II,  429. 

McClelland,  Robert  P.,  II,  416. 

McClellan's   (Pacific  City),  I,  213. 

McClurg,  J.  E.,  I,  217. 

McCone  County :  created,  I,  483 ;  irri- 
gation in,  605 ;  description  of,  775. 

McConnell,    N.   W.,    I,   430,   431. 

McConnell,  Odell  W.,  Ill,  659. 

McConochie,  Stewart,  II,  303. 

McConville,  Edward,  III,  861. 

McCormick,  John  E.,  Ill,  1059. 

McCormick,  Paul,  I,  316. 

McCormick,  W.  H.,  II,  2. 

McCormick,  Washington  J.,  I,  282,  286, 
289,  868;  II,  579- 

McCormick  of  Montana,  II,  2. 

McCuiston,  Joshua  P.,  Ill,  1409. 

McDaniel,  Myron,  III,  944. 

McDole,  Edward  I.,  II,  491. 

McDonald,  I,  134. 

McDonald,  Angus,  I,  176,  184. 

McDonald,  Benjamin,  III,  1404. 

McDonald,  E.  H.,  I,  549. 

McDonald,  John  D.,  II,  572. 

McDonnell,  J.  L.,  II,  222. 

McDonough,  Joseph  A.,  Ill,  685. 

McDonough,  Thomas  J.,  Ill,  1426. 

McDowell,  Wilkin  C.,  Ill,  1374. 

McDowell,  William  W.,  II,  150. 

McEnery  &  Packard,  I,  373. 

McFatridge,  Arthur  E.,  Ill,  668. 

McGee,  George  T.,  Ill,  1220. 

McGee,  L.  E.,  Ill,  848. 

McGehee,  Edward,  III,  1254. 

McGinley,  Hugh  S.,  Ill,  676. 

McGinnis,  James,   I,  304. 

McGrath,  D.  J.,  Ill,  1226. 

McGrath,  Leo  J.,  Ill,  1172. 

McGrath,  Thomas  P.,  II,  297. 

McGregor,  Harry  J.,  II,  639. 

McHatton,  John  J.,  I,  433,  438,  540. 

Mclntire,  Oliver  V.,  II,  525. 

Mclntosh,  John  H.,  II,  115. 

Mclntyre,  James,  III,  1010. 

McKay,  Charles  J.,  Ill,  1243. 

McKay,  Joseph  R.,  Ill,  1269. 

McKay  (Scout),  I,  166,  167,  171;  scalps 
three  Blackfeet,  I,  172,  173. 

McKee,  John  W.,  Ill,  1310. 

McKenna,  Nina,  I,  760. 

McKenzie,  Charles,  I,  73. 

McKenzie,  George  F.,  Ill,  1260. 

McKenzie,  Kenneth,  I,  in;  inaugurates 
steamboat  navigation  to  the  Yellow- 
stone, 113;  end  of  Montana  career  and 



death  of,  121;  122,  135,  139,  140;  last 
years  and  death  of,  141,  152. 

McKenzie,  Roderick,  I,  73. 

McKenzie,  Thomas  J.,  II,  335. 

McKenzie,  Thomas  W.,  Ill,  697. 

McKnight,  Roy  E.,  II,  545. 

McLain,  Mathew,  III,  766. 

McLaren,  John,   III,  886. 

McLaughlin,  Angus  L.,  II,  188. 

McLean,  Samuel,  I,  207,  218,  219,  281, 
282,  286. 

McLeary,  James  H.,  I,  427;  (portrait), 
428;  430. 

McLemore,  Clyde,  III,  1365. 

McLeod,  Charles  H.,  II,  469. 

McLure,  A.  K.,  I,  286. 

McMahon,  William  J.,  II,  498. 

McMannamy,  William  P.,  Ill,  1006. 

McMath,  William  L.,  I,  282,  289,  415. 

McMillan,  John  A.,  II,  99. 

McMullen,  W.  J.,  II,  104. 

McNair,  Benedict  P.,  II,  539. 

McNamara's  Landing,  I,  790. 

McNamee,  James  F.,  Ill,  1060. 

McNaughton,  William  W.,  II,  150. 

M'Neal,  Hugh,  I,  28. 

McPherson,  Howard  P.,  II,  37. 

McTaggart,  Archie,  II,  473. 

McVay,  Oscar  R.,  II,  587. 

McVey,  William  C.,  Ill,  1102. 

Mead,  C.  A.,  I,  761. 

Meade,  D.  P.,  II,  117. 

Meader,  Charles  T.,  I,  834. 

Meaderville,  I,  827,  834,  837. 

Meagher,  Thomas  F.,  acting  governor, 
I,  280;  298,  299;  death  of,  300-303; 
408,  416,  417;  memorials  to  (illustra- 
tion), 466. 

Meagher  County :  placer  mines  in- 1862- 
68,  I,  213;  number  and  value  of  cattle 
(1884),  395;  irrigation  in,  605;  de- 
scription of,  777. 

Meagher  County  School,  old  box-car 
type  (illustration),  I,  512. 

Medicine  Lake,  I,  826. 

Medicine  River,  I,  42,  59,  62. 

Melchert,  Bertram  P.,  Ill,  1414. 

Meldrum,  Robert,  I,  129;  sketch  of,  130; 
(portrait),  214. 

Melton,  J.  Thomas,  II,  367. 

Melstone,   I,   797. 

Mendenhall,  Henry  S.,  II,  168. 

Menetry,  Joseph,  I,  786. 

Mengarini,  Gregory,  I,  147,  150,  154. 

Menzemer,  H.  J.,  Ill,  762. 

Meredith,  James  E.,  II,  365. 

Merkle,  Arthur  W.,  II,  472. 

Merkle,  George  W.,  Ill,  708. 

Merrick,  Joseph,  III,  1174. 

Merrill,  Franklin  T.,  Ill,  706.      . 

Merrill,  T.  G.,  I,  287. 

Merriman,  Nathaniel,  I,  282. 

Metcalf,  John,  II,  635. 

Metcalf,  Margaret  E.,  II,  635. 

Methodist  missionaries,  I,  145. 

Metropolitan  Police  law,  I,  464. 

Mettler,  Edgar  W.,  II,  28. 

Mettler,  J.  M.,  Ill,  1095. 

Meyer,  Carl  R.,  II,  210. 

Meyer,  W.  F.,  I,  471. 

Meyerhoff,  Emmett  F.,  Ill,  1245. 

Michels,.  James  J.,  Ill,  1121. 

Midland  Empire  Fair  Association,  I, 

Milburn,  George  R.,  I,  436,  438. 

Miles,  Arthur  W.,  II,  260. 

Miles,   G.   M.,   I,  704,  707. 

Miles,  Nelson  A.,  attempted  assassina- 
tion  of,  I,  359 ;  362,  363,  364. 

Miles  City :  great  center  of  range  cattle, 
!»  395 ;  399 ;  municipal  light  and  water 
systems,  703;  public  institutions  at, 
704;  center  of  horse  trade,  705; 
churches  and  fraternities,  705;  stage 
lines  and  highways,  706. 

Miles  City  Club,  I,  705. 

Miles  City  Hospital,  I,  704. 

Milk  River:  Lewis  and  Clark  discover, 
If  33;  229. 

Milk  River  reclamation  project,  I,  587, 

Milk  River  Valley,  I,  801. 

Mill  Creek,  I,  231. 

Millar,  Joseph  H.,  I,  285. 

Miller,  Charles  H.,  Ill,  1238. 

Miller,  Curtis  M.,  Ill,  1168. 

Miller,   D.  J.,   I,  210. 

Miller,  Henry  A.,  Ill,  747. 

Miller,  Henry  B.,  Ill,  1402. 

Miller,  Joaquin,  on  placer  deposits,  I, 
234;  412;  on  quartz  mining  litigation, 

Miller,  J.  K.,  II,  157. 

Miller,  John  R.,  I,  645. 

Miller,  J.  V.,  Ill,  1168. 

Miller,  John  W.,  II,  416. 

Miller,  Leslie  F.,  II,  1146. 

Miller,  Lillian  G.,  II,  568. 

Miller,  Marshall  E.,  II,  192. 

Miller,  Sidney,  II,  620. 

Miller,  Thomas  B.,  Ill,  763. 

Miller,  William  D.,  Ill,  1153. 

Miller,  W.  H.  H.,  I,  430. 

Milliken,  Elizabeth  D.,  Ill,  767. 

Mills,  C.  C,  II,  44. 

Mills,  Fred  G.,  Ill,  1163. 

Mills,   James   H.,   I,  497. 

Mills,  James   S.,   I,   213. 

Mills,  William  S.,  Ill,  848. 

Mineral  County:  as  a  copper  producer, 
I,  384;  irrigation  in,  606;  description 
of,  778. 

Mineral  output  of  Montana,  value  and 
qualities  of  (1919),  I,  384. 

Mineral   Range,  I,  90. 

Miners  Courts  established,  I,  218. 

Mining,  smelting  and  ore  testing,  in  Hel- 
ena District,  I,  761. 

Minnesota  &  Montana  Improvement 
Company,  I,  851. 

Minnick,  Robert  P.,  Ill,  972. 

Minnie  Healy  mine,  I,  377,  378. 

Missoula:  natural  advantages  (1858),  I, 
166;  incorporated,  409;  state  capital 
contestant,  441 ;  (city  of  the  five  val- 
leys), sketch  of,  784;  her  parks,  I, 


Missoula  County:  I,  190;  created,  225; 
281 ;  number  and  value  of  cattle 
(1884),  395;  irrigation  in,  606;  of  the 
five  valleys,  780 ;  lumber,  drainage  and 
water  supply,  781 ;  evolution  of,  782 ; 



development     of     its     valleys,     7QO; 
dairying  in,  792. 

Missoula  County  High   School,  I,  787; 
II,  463- 

Missoula  Creamery,  I,  785. 

Missoula  Free  Public  Library,  I,  785. 

Missoula  Light  and  Power  Company,  I, 

Missoula  lode,  I,  222. 

Missoula  Mills,  I,  225. 

Missoula  National  Forest,  I,  624,  741, 

Missoula  River,  I,  90,  226,  227. 

Missoulian  Publishing  Company,  II,  465. 

Missouri  Fur  Company,  I,  103,  104,  108; 
its  expedition  wiped  out,  109;  no. 

Missouri  River:  its  true  source,  the  Jef- 
ferson, I,  88;  geological  origin  of,  96; 

Mitchell,  Alonzo  L.,  Ill,  1383. 

Mitchell,  David  D.,  I,  112,  121;  death 
of,  123;  139. 

Mitchell,  Robert  M.,  II,  604. 

Mitchell,  Harry  B.,  II,  608. 

Mitchell,  William,  I,  251. 

Mo,  Elmer  J.,   II,   163. 

Modern  Wolf  Point  Schools  (illustra- 
tion), I,  818. 

Mohn,  Mathis,  II,  625. 

Mohrherr,  John,  III,  1115. 

Molleur,  L.  F.,  Ill,  716. 

Molt,  I,  840. 

Monarch,  I,  699. 

Monberg,  Morris  P.,  II,  270. 

Mondak,  I,  708,  817. 

Monroe,  Hugh,  I,  638. 

Monroe,  James,  I,  16. 

Monroe,  Joseph  E.,  I,  551 ;  II,  339. 

Monroe,  Mary,  III,  1435. 

Montague,  I,  702. 

Montana  ("Land  of  the  Shining  Moun- 
tains"), I,  i;  its  natural  features,  88- 
102;  comparative  area  and  low  altitude 
as  a  Rocky  Mountain  State,  92;  its 
valleys  (by  William  A.  Clark),  93;  its 
geology,  94;  post  tertiary  (glacial) 
period,  96;  variety  and  wealth  of  its 
geological  deposits,  100;  its  coal  and 
precious  stones,  101 ;  first  election  in, 
190;  bar,  212;  its  first  post  office  and 
election,  219,  220;  its  name  and  great 
basins,  226-234;  dawn  of  law  and 
order,  I,  278-315;  territory  organized 
and  first  Bannack  Legislature,  281  ; 
clash  between  assembly  and  judiciary, 
298;  memorials  proposed,  324;  last 
epoch  of  territorial  government,  404- 
413 ;  Supreme  Court  reports,  418,  425 ; 
State  Constitution  of  1889,  439;  appor- 
tionment of  state  senators  and  repre- 
sentatives (1889),  441;  becomes  a 
state,  442 ;  first  state  officers,  443 ;  sec- 
ond legislative  assembly,  448;  final 
contest  for  location  of  state  capital, 
451;  finances  in  1920-21,  486,  488;  her 
system  of  higher  education,  528;  mili- 
tary history  of,  642-666;  merchants: 
increase  in  snet  work  (1900-1920), 
Montana  Bar  Association,  I,  433,  435. 

Montana  Bridge  and  Ferry  Company,  I, 


Montana  buffalo  still  ranging   (illustra- 
tion), I,  783. 
Montana  Building,  Louisiana  Exposition 

(illustration),  I,  461. 
Montana  Central  Railway,  I,  375. 
Montana  City,  I,  190,  212;  in  early  days 

(illustration),  287;  288. 
Montana  Club,  Helena,  I,  761. 
Montana  coal  mine  (illustration),  I,  240. 
Montana  Collegiate  Institute,  I,  496. 
Montana  Deaconess  School,  I,  553. 
Mountain  District,  I,  342. 
Montana   Fish   Hatchery,   Anaconda,    I, 


Montana  Flour  Mills  Company  (illustra- 
tion), I,  693. 
Montana  Game  and  Fish  Commission,  I, 

Montana  Hide  and  Fur  Company,  I,  304, 

Montana  Horticultural   Society,   I,  878- 

Montana    Infantry,    First    Regiment,    I, 


Montana    Irrigation    Commission :    cre- 
ated, I,  484;  report  of,  for  1920,  586. 
Montana  Mercantile  Company,  II,  555. 
Montana  Mining  Association,  I,  765. 
Montana   Ore   Purchasing  Company,   I, 

376,  377,  378. 

Montana  Pioneers'  Society,  I,  483. 
Montana    Power    Company,    I,   630;    its 
hydro-electric    plants,    632;    689,    719, 
772;  plant  at  Thompson  Falls,  8*24. 
Montana  Quicksilver  Company,  I,  287. 
Montana  School  for  Deaf  and  Blind  and 

Backward  Children,  I,  553. 
Montana    State    Bureau   of    Mines    and 

'Metallurgy;  established,  I,  484;  831. 
Montana  State  College,  I,  500,  528. 
Montana  State  Fair  established,  I,  460. 
Montana  State  Humane  Society  created, 


Montana  State  Industrial  School,  I,  479. 
Montana   State   Normal   School,  I,  500, 

528,  551. 
Montana   State   Prison,   Deer  Lodge,   I, 


Montana    State    Reform    School:    name 
changed  to  Montana  State  Industrial 
School,  I,  479. 
Montana  State  Tuberculosis  Sanitarium 

located,  I,  470. 
Montana  Stock  Growers'  Association,  I, 


Montana  Trade  Commission,  I,  485. 
Montana  Union  Railroad,  I,  375. 
Montana  Volunteer  Militia,  I,  642. 
Montana   Wesleyan    University,    I,    552, 

553;  HI,  II53- 

Montana  Western  Railroad,  I,  568. 
Montana,  Wyoming  and  Southern  Rail- 
road, I,  568. 

Mooney,   Daniel  F.,   II,  600. 
Moore,   I,  717. 
Moore,  Charley,  I,  251. 
Moore,  Elanson  C,  I,  415. 
Moore,  George  F.,  Ill,  1221. 
Moore,  Perry  J.,  Ill,  1220. 



Moorman,  Edward  H.,  II,  272. 

Moran,  John  E.,  Ill,  834. 

Morck,  Fred  D.,  Ill,  1005. 

Morgan,  Edward  F.,  Ill,  1141. 

Morgan,  Heber  G.,  II,  289. 

Morier,  Henry,  I,  218. 

Morony,  Mary  E.,  I,  322. 

Morrell,  Fred,  I,  869. 

Morrill  Acts  of  Congress,  I,  546. 

Morrill,  Almeron  D.,  Ill,  1141. 

Morrill,  Robert  A.,  Ill,  720. 

Morris,  Claude  F.,  Ill,  1004. 

Morris,  Jennie  M.,  Ill,  1029. 

Morrow,  Bayard  S.,  II,  402. 

Morrow,  Thomas  M.,  Ill,  876. 

Morse,  Averill  P.,  II,  281. 

Morse,  Elmer  J.,  Ill,  717. 

Morse,  Frank  M.,  II,  in. 

Morse,  George  W.,  I,  316;  II,  280. 

Morse,  Sherburne,  III,  689. 

Morton,  C.  D.,  Ill,  858. 

Morton,  John  O.,  I,  725. 

Mortson,   O.   C.,   I,   94. 

Mosby,  I,  735. 

Mosby,  O.  P.  J.,  Ill,  846. 

Mosby  Oil  fields,  I,  797. 

Moser,  Gust,  II,  570. 

Mosher,  Esek  R.,  II,  344. 

Moss,  Preston  B.,  II,  218. 

Mother  St.  Joseph,  III,  872. 

Motor  Vehicles  registered,  I,  575. 

Mouat,  Thomas  H.,  Ill,  1382. 

Mount   St.   Charles   College,   Helena,   I, 

553;  755;  HI,  1138. 
Mount  Sentinel,  Missoula,  I,  788. 
Mountain  Crows,  I,  141. 
Movius,  Arthur  J.,  II,  193. 
Movius,  Rex  M.,  Ill,  1065. 
Movius,  Walter  R.,  II,  229. 
Mowatt,  Wilbert,  III,  1067. 
Moulton,  Benjamin  F.,  II,   181. 
Moyer,  H.  D.,  I,  249. 
Moyle,  John  R.,  II,  .421. 
Mueller,  Oscar  O.,  II,  89. 
Muffley,  Theo.,  I,  289. 
Muffly,  Thomas,  I,  415. 
Mullan,  John,  I,  158,  159,  321,  324,  555, 

687,  785- 

Mullan  Government  Road,  I,  555. 
Mullan   Monuments,  I,  320,  321. 
Mullan's  military  road  (1862),  I,  180. 
Mulroney,  Edward  C.,  II,  468. 
Munger,  Frederick  R.,  II,  170. 
Munson,    Lyman    E.,    I,    298,    414,    416, 

417,  418. 

Murn,  Thomas  M.,  Ill,  1343. 
Murphey,  John  M.,  II,  541. 
Murphy,  Charles,  I,  209,  222,  371. 
Murphy,  Charles  F.,  II,  267. 
Murphy,  Franklin  J.,  Ill,  1236. 
Murphy,  George  J.,  Ill,  1241. 
Murphy,  James  K.,  II,  20. 
Murphy,  John  L.,  I,  419. 
Murphy,  Joseph  R.,  Ill,  945. 
Murphy,  Patrick  B.,  Ill,  1078. 
Murphy,  William  L.,  I,  320;  II,  465. 
Murray,  James  A.,  I,  334. 
Murray,  Mathieson,  III,  932. 
Murray,  S.  G.,  I,  459. 
Murtry,  James,  I,  702. 
Musselshell,  I,  797. 

Musselshell  county:  as  a  coal  producer, 
I,  386;  as  oil  producer,  386;  organ- 
ized, 469;  county  irrigation  in,  606; 
settlement  of,  794;  agriculture  and  live 
stock  raising,  795 ;  coal  mines  and  rail- 
roads, 796. 

Musselshell  River :  Lewis  and  Clark  dis- 
cover, I,  33. 

Mussigbrod,  James,  I,  406. 

Muzzy,  J.  E.,  II,  175. 

Myers,  I,  845. 

Myers,  Adolphus  D.,  II,  109. 

Myers,  George  W.,  Ill,  1422. 

Myers,  Guy  C.,  II,  156. 

Myers,  Henry  L.,  sketch  of,  I,  492;  868. 

Myers,  Otto  K.,'  II,  109. 

Nagues,  George  B.,  II,  649. 

Napoleon,  I,  16. 

Napton,  Thomas  L.,  I,  419. 

National  Forests,  Areas  and  locations  of, 
I,  623 ;  funds  to  support,  624. 

National  Guard,  nucleus  of,  I,  642. 

National  Park  Bank,  Livingston,  II, 

National  Park-to-Park  Highway,  I,  571. 

Navajo,  I,  708. 

Nealy,  E.  B.,  I,  289. 

Needles,  Arthur  S.,  II,  627. 

Neese,  John  T.,  Ill,  681. 

Neihart,   I,  699. 

Neill,  E.  D.,  I,  4. 

Neill,  Henry,  II,  204. 

Nell,  Henry  H.,  II,  159. 

Nelson,  Clarence  W.,  Ill,  1049. 

Nelson,  Cornelius  S.,  II,  232. 

Nelson,  David,  III,  1378. 

Nelson,  Franc  C.,  Ill,  694. 

Nelson,  H.  F.,  Ill,  668. 

Nelson,  John  A.,  Ill,  694. 

Nelson,  N.  L.,  Ill,  792. 

Nelson,  Soren,  II,  486. 

Neubert,  John,  III,  662. 

Nevada,  I,  232. 

Nevin,  Charles  P.,  II,  386. 

Nevin,  John,  III,  1444. 

Nevin,  W.  H.,  Ill,  1227. 

Nevins,  Joseph  H.,  Ill,  901. 

New  Powell  County  High  School  (illus- 
tration), I,  502. 

New  World  mining  district,  I,  798. 

New  York-Montana  Testing  and  Engi- 
neering Company,  Helena,  I,  763. 

Newcomb,  Albert  S.,  Ill,  959. 

Newell,  John  H.,  II,  151. 

Newlon,  Lewis  E.,  Ill,  897. 

Newman,  Louis,  III,  828. 

Newstrom,  Manning  C.,  Ill,  1289. 

Nez  Perces,  I,  118.   • 

Nichols,  Alice,   I,  497- 

Nichols,  Edmund,  II,  48. 

Nickwall,  I,  777. 

Nihill,  I,  848. 

Nims,  William  P.,  Ill,  1185. 

Nina,  I,  777. 

Ninth  Federal  Reserve  District,  I,  663. 

Nissler,  Carl  C.,  II,  12. 

Noble,  Frank  C.,  II,  332. 

Nohle,  Andrew  F.,  Ill,  988. 

Nolan,  Cornelius  B.,  Ill,  664. 

Nolan,  J.  M.,  Ill,  1030. 



Nordtome,  Clifford,  III,  841. 

Nordtome,  Milford,  III,  841. 

Nordtome,  Robert,  III,  841. 

Norelius,  O.,  I,  285. 

Normile,  John,  II,  250. 

Norris,  I,  771. 

Norris,  Edwin  L.,  I,  464,  868;  III,  674. 

North,  Austin,  III,  1137. 

North,  J.  A.,  II,  94. 

North,  Jo  R.,  II,  145. 

North,  William  P.,  Ill,  859. 

North  Butte  Copper  Company,  I,  379. 

North  Butte  Extension  Development 
Company,  I,  383. 

North  Butte  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Northern  Cheyenne  (Tongue  River)  In- 
dian Reservation,  I,  640;  819. 

Northern  Idaho  &  Montana  Power 
Company,  I,  632. 

Northern  Montana  Agricultural  and 
Manual  Training  College  and  Agri- 
cultural Experiment  Station  estab- 
lished, I,  476. 

Northern  Pacific  Railroad :  surveys 
(1853-54),  I,  158;  3755  its  mineral 
land  in  dispute,  429,  430;  559;  crippled 
by  Jay  Cooke  failure,  560 ;  electrifica- 
tion of,  568;  630,  794;  hospital,  Glen- 
dive,  710;  hospital  at  Missoula,  786. 

Northwest  Fur  Company  of  Canada,  I, 


Northwest  Tribune  Publishing  Co.,  Ste- 
vensville,  III,  1381. 

Northwestern  basin  of  Montana,  I,  226, 
228,  229. 

Noxon,  I,  824. 

Noyes,  James  M.,  II,  426. 

Nutt,  Richard  S..-III,  731. 

Nutting,  Lucius  A.,  II,  257. 

Nutting,  W.  B.,  II,  50. 

Nye,  Samuel  M.,  II,  366. 

Nye,  Ward  H.,  II,  236. 

Oakwood,  Jacob  F.,  Ill,  842. 

Obergfell,  Albert  R.,  Ill,  726. 

O'Boyle,  James,  III,  976. 

O'Brien,  Alfred  L.,  II,  605. 

O'Brien,  Edward,  II,  46. 

O'Brien,  Edward  P.,  Ill,  1347. 

O'Brien,  George  T.,  Ill,  1364. 

O'Brien,  James  D.,  Ill,  723. 

O'Brien,  Joseph  P.,  Ill,  704. 

O'Brien,  Michael  T.,  II,  541. 

O'Connell,  Margaret  F.,  Ill,  1323. 

O'Connell,  Michael  J.,  II,  434. 

O'Connell,  W.  H.,  Ill,  1323. 

O'Connor,  James  F.,  II,  368. 

O'Connor,  Thomas  F.,  II,  549. 

O'Donnell,  Charles,  II,  3. 

O'Donnell,  Charles,  II,  312. 

O'Donnell,  I.  D.,  II,  383. 

O'Fallon,  Benjamin,  I,  no. 

O'Flynn,  Edward  F.,  II,  484. 

Ogden,  Earl,  II,  638. 

O'Hern,  Daniel  L.,  Ill,  1091. 

Oie,  Gustav,  III,  1073. 

Oil  development,  I,  386-390;  Golden  Val- 
ley county,  I,  739;  in  state,  876,  877, 

Oil,  gas  and  coal  leases,  I,  389. 

Oil  shales,  I,  388. 

Oka,  I,  848. 

O'Keefe,  Davis  C.,  I,  321. 

O'Laughlin,  William,  III,  1336. 

Old  Ignace,  I,  144;  killed  by  Sioux,  145. 

Old  Lewistown  School  (illustration), 
I,  501. 

Oldest  School  in  Montana,  still  in  use 
(illustration),  I,  498. 

O'Leary,  Albert  P.,  II,  265. 

Oleson,  J.  P.,  I,  285. 

Oliver,  A.   J.,   I,   557. 

Oliver  (A.  J.)  and  Company,  I,  219. 

Oliver,  John,  III,  1212. 

Oliver,  Robert  S.,  II,  602. 

Olsen,  June  G.,  Ill,  1184. 

Olson,  Andrew  J.,  Ill,  1229. 

Olson,  George  N.,  II,  457. 

Olson,  Ole  N.,  Ill,  1119. 

O'Neil,   C.   D.,   Ill,  851. 

O'Neil,  Michael  A.,  Ill,  751. 

O'Neill,  Charles  E.,  II,  139. 

O'Neill,  Frank  D.,  Ill,  1236. 

O'Neill,  John  J.,  II,  513. 

Ophir,  I,  335-39;  town  ruined  by  Indian 
massacre,  339. 

Ophir  Gulch,  I,  213. 

Ophir  Town  Company,  I,  335. 

Ordway,  John,  I,  28,  45,  58,  59. 

Oregon   Short   Line,   I,  405,  558,   559. 

Oregon  Steam  Navigation  Company,  I, 

Oiiginal  lode  (Butte),  I,  222. 

O'Rourke,  James  S.,  II,  543. 

O'Rourke,  John  K.,  II,  443. 

Orr,  George,  I,  199. 

Orr,  Sample,  I,  282,  415. 

Orville,  I,  708. 

Orvis,  John  M.,  II,  441. 

Osborne,  John  N.,  II,  324. 

Osburn,  Roy,  II,  412. 

Osenbrug,  Jacob,  II,  451. 

Osgood,  Lattie  'M.,  Ill,  1256. 

Oswego,  I,  846. 

Osweiler,  Peter  J.,  II,  207. 

Otten,  Elise  R.,  II,  121. 

Otten,  Herman,  II,  120. 

Outline  of  Indian  Operations  and  con- 
ferences (Carrington),  I,  341;  358. 

Ovando,  I,  790,  809. 

Owen,  John,  I,  132;  last  years  of,  134; 
I59,  167,  176,  227,  282. 

Oxford,  I,  848. 

PaTblo  herd  of  buffalo,  I,  784. 

Page,  Billy,   I,  252. 

Page,  Hugh  D.,  II,  323. 

Page,  James  M.,  I,  316. 

Page,  John  M.,  I,  316. 

Pagenkopf,  Herman  C.,  II,  17. 

Pah-sam-er-ri    (Stinkwater),   I,  222. 

Paige,  Merritt  C.,  I,  426. 

Palmer,  Allen  B.,  Ill,  725. 

Palmer,  Wealthy  E.,  Ill,  726. 

Pampel,  Byron  L.,  II,  195. 

Pappin,  Isaac,  III,  826. 

Paradise,  I,  824. 

Parent,  William,  III,  960. 

Paris,   I,   777. 

Parish,  Frank,  I,  249. 

Parish  of  Lewistown,  II,  25. 

Park  City,  I,  840. 



Park  County,  I,  411;  irrigation  in,  607; 

description   of,   797;    mining   days   in, 

798;  created,  799. 
Parker,  Hazen  M.,  II,  301. 
Parker,  Perry  M.,  II,  410. 
Parker,  Samuel,  I,  145. 
Parkin,  Ernest  J.,  II,  400. 
Parkins,  William  E.,  II,  358. 
Parmly    Billings    Memorial    Library,    I, 


Parrent,  J.  M.,  I,  721. 
Parrot,  R.  R.,  I,  372. 
Parrot  Lead,  I,  372. 
Parrot  mines,  I,  829. 
Parrott,   R.  B.,   I,  289,  415. 
Parsons,  John  M.  Ill,  766. 
Part-time  schools,  I,  527. 
Patch,  Ralph  E.,  Ill,  781. 
Patten,  Frank  C.,  I,  758,  760. 
Patten,  Truman  M.,  Ill,  1023. 
Patterson,  Ernest  R.,  II,  113. 
Patterson,  George  D.,  Ill,  740. 
Patterson,  John  E.,  II,  464. 
Patterson,  Oliver  B.,  Ill,  678. 
Patton,  Clyde,  III,  775. 
Patton,  Ulysses  C.,  Ill,  1267. 
Patton,  W.  H.,  I,  256. 
Pattonhill,  I,  777. 
Paul,  George,  III,  833. 
Paul,  Goodwin  T.,  Ill,  1415. 
Paul,  Spurgeon  E.,  Ill,  1020. 
Pauly,  Peter,  II,  340. 
Pauwelyn,  Cyril,  II,  214. 
Pearce,  Robert,  III,  1029. 
Pearson,  Frank  M.,  II,  439. 
Pease,  Fellows  D.,  Ill,  1050. 
Pease,  Sarah  W.,  Ill,  1052. 
Peays,  Clara  T.,  Ill,  948. 
Peays,  William  H.,  Ill,  948. 
Peck,  Walter  H.  (Lewistown),  II,  92. 
Peck,  Walter  H.,  Ill,  1216. 
Peckover,  Frederick  W.,  Ill,  1426. 
Peeler,  D.  R.,  I,  727. 
Peeso,  F.  E.,  Ill,  799. 
Peet,  Herbert  M.,  II,  590. 
Peltier,  Joseph,  III,  816. 
Peltier,   Lottie  A.,   Ill,  816. 
Pemberton,  Calvin  W.,  Ill,  1319. 
Pemberton,, William  Y.,  I,  256,  259,  282, 

284,  289,  316,  324;  sketch  of,  435;  II, 


Pence,  Laverne  K.,  II,  29. 
Pender,  Peter  A.,  II,  160. 
Pendroy,  I,  843. 
Penson,  Thomas,  III,  1417- 
Penwell,  M.  W.,  II,  294. 
Pepin,  Exzelia  J.,  Ill,  750. 
Perham,  Arthur,  II,  576. 
Perham,  George  B.,  Ill,  799. 
Perham,  Josiah,  I,  559. 
Perier,  Garfield  B.,  II,  493- 
Perkins,   Grover   C.,   II,   633. 
Perkins,  Harry  E.,  II,  101. 
Perkins,  James  R.,  Ill,  1116. 
Perm  a,  I,  792,  824. 
Perrine,  Arnold  M.,  Ill,  740. 
Perrine,  James  W.,   Ill,  740. 
Perrine,  Lillian  M.,  Ill,  740. 
Peterson,  Amos  T.,  II,  616. 
Peterson,  Axel  M.,  II,  46. 
Peterson,  John  E.,  Ill,  699. 

Peterson,   Peter  M.,  Ill,  845. 

Peterson,  S.  L.,  I,  503. 

Petit,  Eloise,  I,  698. 

Petrashek,  Mina,  I,  503. 

Petrie,  Donald  A.,  Ill,  993. 

Pfaus,  Mrs.  A.,  I,  721. 

Pfouts,  Paris  S.,  I,  260,  286. 

Phelan,  William  P.,  Ill,  742. 

Philbrick,  Freeman,  III,  1263. 

Philbrick,  Newell  G.,  Ill,  1191. 

Philipsburg,  I,  237,  741. 

Phillips,  Albert  L.,  II,  no. 

Phillips,  Samuel,  III,  1063. 

Phillips  County,  irrigation  in,  I,  607; 
description  of,  801. 

Pickens,  Joseph  E.,  II,  374. 

Pickett,  H.  G.,  I,  761. 

Pickett-Journal,  I,  678. 

Picturesque  Helena  District  (illustra- 
tion), I,  748. 

Piedalue,  Joseph,  II,  312. 

Piegan  Sun  Dance  (illustration),  I,  169. 

Piegans,  I,   140. 

Pierre  group    (geological),  I,  96. 

Pierre's  Hole,  I,  116. 

Pierse,  Allen,  II,  558. 

Pierson,  George  W.,  II,  32. 

Pietila,  John  J.,  II,  225. 

Pigot,  Creswell  T.,  II,  585. 

Pigott,  W.  T.,  I,  435,  436. 

Pilot-Butte  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Piney  Buttes,  I,  91. 

Piniele,  I,  680. 

Pinney,  George  M.,  I,  243. 

Pioneer   (village),  I,  189. 

Pioneer  City,  I,  220. 

Pioneer  Day,  I,  460,  465. 

Pioneer  Gulch,  I,  189,  220. 

Pioneer  Home,  I,  319. 

Pioneer  lawyers  of  Montana,  I,  415. 

Pizanthia,  Joe  (The  Greaser),  I,  249, 

Place  of  Skulls  (Bradley's  "Journal"), 
I,  310. 

"Place  of  the  Bitter  Root,"  I,  142. 

Placer  mining  and  water  rights,  I,  421. 

Placer  production  in  Helena  Region,  I, 

Plains,  I,  824. 

Plassman,  Martha  E.,  I,  278. 

Platz,  Albert  E.,  II,  167. 

Plentywood,  I,  825. 

Plevna,  I,  714. 

Plew,  William  R.,  II,  431. 

Plume,  D.  J.,  Ill,   1141. 

Plummer,  F.  M.,  Ill,  1069. 

Plummer,  Henry,  I,  218,  242,  247,  249, 
251,  252;  execution  of,  264,  266;  332. 

Plummer,  Stinson  and  Ray,  execution  of, 
I,  263. 

Plummer-Stinson-Ray  Scaffold  (illus- 
tration), I,  265. 

Poe,  Clinton  J.,  Ill,  1150. 

Point,  Nicholas,  I,  147,  150,  151,  152, 

Polglase,  Lester  R.,  II,  476. 

Pollard,   Charles   R.,   I,   427. 

Polleys  Lumber  Company,  I,  781. 

Pollinger,  Warren  E.,  Ill,  1287. 

Poison,  I,  724. 

Polytechnic  Institute,  Billings,  I,  855. 



Pompey's  Pillar ;  named  by  Clark,  I,  63 ; 
Larocque  describes,  83;  reached  by 
Stuart  expedition,  194;  856. 

Pond,  Robert  E.,  II,  479. 

Pondera  County:  created,  I,  483;  irriga- 
tion in,  608;  description  of,  803. 

Pontiac,  I,  848. 

Pony,  I,  771,  775- 

Poore,  James  A.,  II,  513. 

Poorman,  W.  H.,  I,  459. 

Pope,  Joseph,  II,  97. 

Poplar,  I,  817. 

Porcupine  Creek,  I,  31,  32. 

Porter,  Frank,  III,  1428. 

Porter,  George  P.,  I,  869;  III,  1403. 

Porter,  Henry,  I,  829. 

Porter,  H.  H.,  I,  222,  833. 

Post,  Mark,  I,  209. 

Posts  and  Forts  along  the  Yellowstone, 
I,  127. 

Potomac,  I,  790. 

Potter,  Anson  S.,  I,  282,  299. 

Potter,  John,  I,  287;  II,  651. 

Potts,  Benjamin  F.,  becomes  governor, 
death  of,  I,  314;  404,  408;  (portrait), 
410;  868. 

Potts,  John,  I,  28. 

Poultry  raising,  I,  402. 

Powder  River  County :  irrigation  in,  I, 
608;  description  of,  804. 

Powell,  Curtis  W.,  Ill,  1027. 

Powell,  John  W.,  I,  190. 

Powell  County:  irrigation  in,  I,  608; 
description  of,  806. 

Power,  I,  843. 

Power,  T.  C:  elected  U.  S.  Senator 
(1889),  I,  446. 

Power,  Wilber  I.,  II,  138. 

Powers,  Edward  S.,  Ill,  1066. 

Powers,  T.  C.,  I,  761. 

Powers,  William,  III,  905. 

Prairie  County:  irrigation  in,  I,  608; 
description  of,  809;  railroads  and 
trails  in,  810. 

Prairie  Elk,  I,  777. 

Prairie  of  the  Knobs,  I,  59. 

Prairie  of  the  Mass,  I,  146. 

Pratte,  Chouteau  &  Company,  I,  123. 

Pray,  I,  801. 

Pray,  Charles  L.,  I,  463. 

Pray,  Charles  N.,  I,  465,  471. 

Precious  stones  of  Montana,  I,  101. 

Prehistoric  Mammals  of  Montana,  I,  100. 

Prentice,  George  D.,  Ill,  769. 

Presbyterian  missionaries,  I,  145. 

Press :  See  Newspaper  Directory  of 
Montana,  arranged  by  counties,  towns 
and  cities,  and  giving  politics,  date  of 
establishment,  and  names  of  editor  and 
publisher  of  each  newspaper  in  the 
state,  I,  886-94. 
N.  B. — First  item  under  Press,  25. 

Prestbye,  Christ,  II,  628. 

Prestbye,  E.  C.,  Ill,  962. 

Prestbye,  Martin,  II,  628. 

Prestbye,  Matilda  C.,  II,  628. 

Preston,  John  F.,  II,  436. 

Preuitt,  Isom,  III,  724. 

Price,  Benjamin  L.,  II,   140. 

Price,  E.   R.,   II,  265. 

Price,  Lewellyn,  III,   1337. 

Price,  Oliver,  I,  732. 

Price,  Pleas  M.,  Ill,  1010. 

Prickly  Pear  Gold  and  Silver  Mining 
Company,  I,  287,  288. 

Prickly  Pear  Valley,  near  Helena  (illus- 
tration), I,  210;  749,  (illustration), 


Pridham,   Thomas  H.,   II,  470. 

Priess,  Fred  A.,  Ill,  1424. 

Prindle,  J.  E.,  I,  707. 

Probost,  Etienne,  I,  108. 

Proctor,  Israel  O.,  Ill,  699. 

Proctor,  Louisa  K.,  Ill,  699. 

Proctor,   Merton   D.,   Ill,  699. 

Prohibition :  referendum  on,  I,  478 ; 
liquor  legislation,  483;  in  force,  489; 
Federal  Constitutional  amendment 
ratified  by  States,  490;  State  law  to 
conform  to  Volstead'  Act,  491. 

Prosser,  E.  W.,  I,  761. 

Prosser,  Fred  A.,  Ill,  917. 

Prosser,  John  R.,  Ill,  916. 

Prudhome,  Gabriel,  I,  148. 

Pryor,  I,  61,  63. 

Pryor,   John,   I,   46. 

Pryor,  Nathaniel,  I,  28. 

Pryor  Creek,  I,  46,  63,  81. 

Public  Highways :  of  Fergus  county,  I, 

Public  Lands  of  Montana,  I,  577. 

Public  road  building:  co-operation  of 
county,  state  and  nation  in,  I,  576. 

Public  School  at  Bozeman  (illustration), 
I,  731. 

Public  Service  Commission :  created,  ab- 
sorbs Board  of  Railroad  Commission- 
ers, I,  472. 

Puehler,  Charles,  I,  696,  732. 

Pugsley,  Robert  D.,  II,  449. 

Pulsifer,  H.  B.,  II,  560. 

Pumpkin  Creek,  I,  82. 

Purcell,   Michael   F.,  Ill,   1112. 

Purdy,  A.  T.,  II,  581. 

Pyper,  William  B.,  Ill,  695. 

Radersburg,  I,  676. 

Radersburg  mining  district,  $3,200,000, 
I,  766. 

Rafferty,  Daniel,  II,  136. 

Ragland,  O.  T.,  II,  37. 

Railroads :  counties  authorized  to  sub- 
scribe for,  I,  315 ;  enter  Butte  copper 
district,  375;  Major  Martin  Maginnis 
as  a  builder  of,  405 ;  Utah  Northern 
penetrates  Montana,  407;  regulated 
(1912), 472;  558-68;  over  the  Montana 
mountains  (illustration),  564;  electri- 
fication of,  567;  accommodating  Great 
Falls,  686 ;  in  Lewis  and  Clark  county, 
751 ;  work  of,  in  Missoula  region,  789; 
first  Utah  and  Northern  passenger 
trains  to  arrive  at  Butte,  830;  lines 
accommodating  Butte,  831. 

Rainbow  Falls  at'  Great  Falls,  I,  630; 
(illustration),  i,  689. 

Rainbow  Lode,  I,  372,  373. 

Rainbow  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Rainbow  Power  Plant,  Great  Falls,  I, 

Rains,  Robert  H.,  II,  135. 

Rainy  Lake  Missoula  National  Forest 
(illustration),  I,  626. 



Ralston,  Edward  L.,  Ill,  1175. 

Ramme,  Chris,  III,  1256. 

Ramme,  Louis  T.,  Ill,  1185. 

Ramsay,  George  L.,  I,  761. 

Ramsdell,  Joe,  I,  829. 

Ram's  Horn  Gulch,  I,  231. 

Ramstad,  Otto,  III,  946. 

Rancher,   I,  845. 

Randall,  John  B.,  Ill,  776. 

Rankin,    Carl,    III,    1329. 

Rankin,  Jeannette :  first  Congresswoman 
elected  in  U.  S. ;  sketch  of,  I,  480. 

Rankin,  Wellington  D.,  I,  528,  869. 

Rapelje,  I,  840. 

Rarus  quartz  lode,  I,  377. 

Rarey,  Bert,  III,  1279. 

Rasch,    Carl,    I,    437,   438. 

Rasmussen,  James  A.,  Ill,  919. 

Rasmusson,   Iden  M.,  Ill,   1000. 

Rathbone,  Robert  M.,  Ill,  879. 

Rathert,  Fred  E.,  Ill,  930. 

Rattlesnake  Creek,  I,  167,  230. 

Ravalli,  Anthony,  I,  154;  leaves  St. 
Mary's  mission,  I,  157,  161. 

Ravalli,  I,  792. 

Ravalli  County :  I,  241 ;  created,  442, 
451;  irrigation  in,  608;  description  of, 
810;  young  apple  orchard  (illustra- 
tion), 813;  resources  of,  811. 

Ray,  Julian  D.,  II,  293. 

Ray,  Ned,  I,  242,  249;  execution  of,  264, 

Raymond,   Winthrop,   III,    1282. 

Raynesford,  I,  699. 

Red  Bluff,  I,  771. 

Red  Cloud   (Sioux  Chief),  I,  341,  343, 

344,   345- 

Red  Lodge,  I,  678-679;  school  (illustra- 
tion), I,  679. 

Red  Rock  Creek,  I,  230,  231. 
Red  Trail,  570,  575. 
Redwater,  I,  777. 
Redwing,  Edward  O.,  Ill,  710. 
Reed,  Clinton  V.,  I,  654. 
Reed,  Frank  S.,  Ill,  790. 
Reed,  Oliver  L.,  Ill,  1407. 
Reed   Point,   I,  840. 
Reese,  H.  J.,  II,  34. 
Reeves,  I,  249,  251. 
Reeves,  A.  I.,  Ill,  737. 
Reiche,  G.  L,  I,  725. 
Reichel,  Frank  J.,  Ill,  1233. 
Reichle,  August,  II,  522. 
Reid,  Edmund  W.,  Ill,  821. 
Reid,  Frank,  III,  838. 
Reid,  James,   I,  500,   548. 
Reifenrath,  Charles  H.,  Ill,  670.      • 
Reinbold,  Theodore,  II,  65. 
Reinoehl,  Charles  M.,  I,  503. 
Reisz,  George  S.,  I,  654. 
Reiter,  W.  H.,  II,  637. 
Remains    of    Bannack's    former   mining 

glory  (illustration),  I,  671. 
Remington,  Sumner  A.,  Ill,  824. 
Rennick,   P.    S.,   II,   528. 
Reno,  William  E.,  Ill,  1379. 
Resner,  Andrew  K.,  II,  508. 
Revised  Codes  of  Montana,  1907,  I,  464. 
Reynolds,  I,  357. 

Reynolds,  F.  B.,  I,  436,  696,  869;  II, 

Reynolds,  J.  J.,  I,  356. 

Reynolds,  William  P.,  II,  532. 

Rhea,  William  F.,  II,  906. 

Rheem,   L.   M.,   I,  761. 

Rhoades,  William  B.,  Ill,  765 

Rhodes,  William  M.,  Ill,  1221. 

Rice,  Alonzo  F.,  II,  454. 

Rice,   George   C,   II,  465. 

Rice,  Robert  E.,  Ill,  960. 

Richardon,  C.  F.,  II,  581. 

Richards,  David  D.,  II,  436. 

Richards,  Warrington,  II,  448. 

Richardson,  Pliney  S.,  Ill,  1234. 

Richardson,  William  B.,  II,  291. 

Richie,  Arthur  C.,  II,  438. 

Richland  County:    irrigation  in,  I,  609; 

description  of,  813. 
Richmond,  Hunter  L.,  II,  6. 
Rickard,  Campbell  G.,  Ill,  1214. 
Rickards,  John  E.,  I,  443,  446,  447,  725, 

Riddell,  Arthur  M.,  II,  546. 

Riddick,  Carl,  I,  868. 

Rider,  T.  T.,  I,  544. 

Ridley,  Charles  F.,  II,  100. 

Riedeman,  Charles  B.,  II,  593. 

Rimini,  I,  749. 

Rimini  mining  district,  $6,200,000,  I,  766. 

Ring,  David  A.,  Ill,  937. 

Ringling,  John,  I,  778. 

Rising,  Margaret  B.,  Ill,  825. 

Rising,  Martin,  III,  825. 

Ritch,  John  B.,  II,  127. 

Riverside,  I,  777. 

Rixon,  Frederick  P.,  II,  285. 

Rixon,   William    P.,   II,  220. 

Roach,  Jeremiah,  I,  406. 

Roach,  William,  I,  192. 

Road  Agents'  Band  of  Montana,  I,  247; 

personnel  of,  249;  261,  kill  more  than 

one  hundred  people,  250;   last   to  be 

executed,  274. 

Road  Agents  Rock  (illustration),  i,  248. 
Roads  and  Ferries  projected  at  Ophir,  I, 


Robb,  Fleming  W.,  II,  253. 
Roberts,  A.  J.,  I,  511. 
Roberts,  Albert,  III,  1241. 
Roberts,  Commodore  B.,  Ill,  691. 
Roberts,  Milner,  I,  687. 
Roberts,  Thomas  P.,  I,  88,  687. 
Robertson,  R.  H.,  I,  415. 
Robertson,  R.  W.,  I,  289. 
Robinson,  Grant,  I,  723;  II,  140. 
Robinson,  John  C.,  I,  415. 
Robison,  C.  W.,  II,  383. 
Roche,  John  F.,  Ill,  1427. 
Rochester,  I,  771. 
Rocky  Ford  coal  field,   I,  240. 
Rocky  Mountains :  discovery  of  by  the 

Chevalier  de  la  Verendrye,  I,  9;  first 

view  of,  by  Captain  Lewis,  36;  seen  by 

Larocque,  77- 
Rock   Mountain   Fur   Company,   I,    108, 

Rocky  Mountain  Wagon  Road  Company, 

I,  304. 

Rodgers,  Henry,  I,  206,  209. 
Rodgers,  John  H.,  I,  282. 
Rodgers,  William  B.,  II,  523. 
Roe,  J.  A.,  Ill,  1033. 



Roe,  John  J.,  I,  558. 

Roebuck,   Sarah  E.,   Ill,  953. 

Roecher,  Albert  C,   II,  56. 

Roehl,  Edward  R.,  II,  145- 

Roke,  Matthew  J.,  Ill,  1367. 

Rollins,  I,  725. 

Romaine,  Jem,  I,  252. 

Romeyn,     Henry,     account     of     Chief 

Joseph's  Capture,  I,  363-369. 
Romney,  Miles,  II,  538. 
Ronan,  I,  792. 
Ronan,    Peter,   I,  205;    (portrait),   206; 


Rood,  Guy  L.,  Ill,  733. 

Rood,  William  E.,  Ill,  1054. 

Roosevelt  (Theodore)  Memorial  High- 
way, I,  802. 

Roosevelt  County :  created,  I,  483 ;  Cul- 
bertson  school  (illustration),  527;  irri- 
gation in,  611;  description  of,  815; 
mineral  resources,  816;  tractor  at  work 
in  (illustration),  816. 

Roosevelt  Memorial  Highway  (Glacier 
Park  to  St.  Paul),  I,  570,  575- 

Root,  Fred,  I,  287. 

Root  &  Davis,  I,  217. 

Roper,  Eglantine  L.,  Ill,  764. 

Ropes,  L.  S.,  I,  766. 

Roscoe,  William  P.,  II,  221. 

Rosebud,  I,  821. 

Rosebud  County :  irrigation  in,  I,  609 ; 
description  of,  817 ;  formation  of,  819 ; 
natural  wealth,  820. 

Rosebud  mountain,  I,  91. 

Rosebud   Valley    (illustration),   I,  233. 

Rosedale  schools,  old  and  new  (illus- 
tration), I,  523. 

Rosetta,  Henry,  II,  191. 

Ross,  Alexander,  III,  784. 

Ross,  Carl  B.,  II,  144. 

Ross,  John  D.,  Ill,  736. 

Ross,  Robert  P.,  Ill,  1333. 

Rothwell,  Charles  F.,  II,  421. 

Rotwitt,  Louis,  I,  443. 

Roundup :  center  of  coal  fields  and  oil 
fields,  I,  795. 

Roundup  Public  Schools,  II,  583. 

Roundup  Record,   III,  991. 

Roundup  of  steers  and  horses,  I,  392. 

Rowe,  James  H.,  Ill,  993. 

Rowe,  J.  P.,  I,  238,  239. 

Rowe,  William,  III,  680. 

Rowley,  John  II,  41. 

Roy,  I,  717. 

Royal   Milling  Company,  I,  693. 

Ruby  range,  I,  91. 

Rudyard,  I,  744. 

Rue,  Alfred  W.,  Ill,  923. 

Rue,  Fred  W.,  Ill,  1107. 

Rue,  Jasper  S.,  Ill,  1105. 

Rue,  Leonard  E.,  Ill,  1064. 

Ruff,  Frank,  I,  223. 

Rugg,  Claude  C.,  Ill,   1418. 

Ruhle,  Raymond  L.,  II,  497. 

Runner,   F.  E.,  II,  294. 

Ruppel,    John   F.,  Ill,  841. 

Ruppel,  William,  III,  840. 

Russel,  Edward  C.,  Ill,  1361. 

Russell,  Charles  J.,  Ill,  1338. 

Russell,  C.  M.,  I,  320. 

Russell,  David  H.,  Ill,  1307. 

Russell,  Harry  J.,  II,  205. 
Russell,  Lillian  K.,  Ill,  1361. 
Rutherford,  H.  W.,  II,  466. 
Rutter,  John  H.,  Ill,  1040. 
Ryan,  C.  R.,  II,  240. 
Ryan,  John  D.,  Ill,   1055. 
Ryan,  Michael  J.,  Ill,  658. 
Ryan,  Patrick,  I,  282. 
Ryan,  William  C.,  II,  57. 
Ryerson,  Lloyd  H.,  II,  229. 
Ryniker,  Walter  E.,  II,  261. 
Ryon,  A.  M.,  I,  544,  547,  548. 

Sacajawea  (the  bird  woman),  I,  28,  48, 
50;  reunited  to  brother  and  girlhood 
companion,  55 ;  62,  64 ;  last  years  of, 

Sacajawea   memorial,    I,   783. 

Sacajawea  monument,  Armstead,  I,  672. 

Sacajawea  Park,  Missoula,  I,  785. 

Saco,  I,  588,  803. 

Sacred  Heart  Mission,  I,  154. 

St.   Ignatius,  I,  792. 

St.  Ignatius  Mission,  I,  151;  (new), 
157,  160. 

St.  John's  Catholic  Hospital,  Helena,  I, 

St.  Labre  Mission,  I,  162. 

St.  Louis :  center  of  fur  trade,  I,  137. 

St.   Mary  Parish,  Helena,  III,   1030. 

St.  Mary's  Mission:  founding  of,  I,  148; 
abandoned,  154. 

St.  Mary's  River,  I,  91 ;  St.  Paul's  Mis- 
sion, I,  162. 

St.  Peter's  Episcopal  Hospital,  I,  757. 

St.  Peter's  Mission,  I,  161,  162. 

St.  Phillip,  I,  848. 

St.  Regis,  I,  779. 

St.  Vincent's  Academy,  Helena,  I,  755. 

St.   Xavier  Mission,  I,    162. 

Salesville,  I,  729. 

Salish  tribe,  I,  142;  Christian  Sioux 
missionaries  to  the,  144. 

Saltese,  I,  779. 

Samson,  Jemima  A.,  Ill,  850. 

Sampling  Mills  of  Montana,  I,  380. 

Sampson,  Horace,  III,  846. 

Samson,  J.  A.,  Ill,  850. 

Sand  Coulee,  I,  241. 

Sand  Creek,  I,  777. 

Sandell,  Tom,  II,  364. 

Sanden,  Fred   S.,  I,  760;  III,  1443. 

Sanders,  I,  845. 

Sanders,  James  U.,  I,  283,  316. 

Sanders,  L.  P.,  II,  957. 

Sanders,  Wilbur  F.,  I,  243,  255,  257,  259, 
260,  273;  coming  of,  278;  281,  282, 
289,  291,  300,  on  death  of  General 
Meagher,  301 ;  316,  335,  421,  430,  433, 
434,  435,  444;  elected  U.  S.  Senator 
(1889),  446;  452;  death  of,  462;  me- 
morial to,  469;  558,  757,  760;  III,  956. 

Sanders  County:  irrigation  in,  I,  611; 
description  of,  821 ;  lumbering  and 
agriculture  in,  822. 

Sandles,  H.  P.,  II,  391. 

Sanner,  Sydney,  II,  550. 

Sanvik,  Ole,  III,  787. 

Sappington,  Henry  H.,  Ill,  807. 

Sappington,  Ruphema  J.,  Ill,  807. 

Sargent,  Charles  C.,  Ill,  933. 



Sargent,  F.  E.,  I,  548. 
Sarles,  Frederick  H.,  II,  496. 
Saunders,  John,  I,  185,  187. 
Savage,  M.,  II,  144. 
Saw     Mills     of     Montana:     established 
1898-1919    (see   towns   and   cities)    I, 

Schaefer,  Frank  M.,  Ill,  mi 
Schaefer,   Robert,   II,  82. 
Scheetz,  George,  III,  1324. 
Scheuch,  Frederick  C.,  I,  533,  543. 
Scheuch,  Frederick  G.,  I,  789. 
Schierts,  Peter,  II,  623. 
Schlechten,  Albert,   II,  308. 
Schmidt,  Jacob,  II,  485.    ' 
Schmidt,  Margaret,  II,  486. 
Schmit,  John  P.,  II,  173. 
Schmitz,  Fred  W.,  Ill,  678. 
Schmitz,  Stephen  A.,  II,  580. 
Schneider,  William  G.,  Ill,  972. 
Schoening,  Harry  A.,  Ill,  770. 
Schofield,  John  W.,  II,  425. 
Schofield,  Thomas  F.,  Ill,  1356. 
School    moneys   apportioned    (1921),    I, 


School  month  defined,  I,  527. 
School  of  Forestry,  I,  532,  789. 
School   of   Journalism,   I,   532,   789. 
School  of  Law  established,  I,  789. 
School  of  Mines:  location  and  buildings, 

I,  550. 

School  of    Pharmacy,   I,   532;    reorgan- 
ized, 789. 

Schoppe,  William  F.,  II,  414. 
Schrump,  August,   II,  585. 
Schuch,  J.  Harry,  II,  174. 
Schwachheim,  Aug.,  Ill,  985. 
Schwingel,  Albert  E.,  Ill,  832. 
Science  Hall,  I,  534. 
Scobey,  I,  708. 
Scott,  F.  P.,  Ill,  867. 
Scott,  James  S.,  II,  625. 
Scott,  Percival  D.,  II,  646. 
Scott,  Thomas  C.,  Ill,  1414. 
Scott,  William  J.,  Ill,  1325. 
Scotty,  Canadian  trader,  I,  175. 
Scovil,  John,  II,  504. 
Scovil,  J.  Ralph,  II,  35. 
Scovill,  C.  D.,  II,  420. 
Sears,  Edward,  II,  154. 
Sears,  Henry  F.,  II,  59. 
Sebree,  Howard,  I,  66q. 
Second     Infantry     Regiment,     Montana 
National     Guard:     in     the     miners' 
trouble,    I,    648;    in    border    troubles, 
649;  at  outbreak  of  World's  war,  650. 
Second      Infantry      Regiment,      United 
States  Volunteers,  I,  650;  overseas  at 
last,  651. 

Sederholm,  Charles  A.,  Ill,  823. 
Seed  House  of  Montana,  II,  2. 
Seel,  John,  III,  894. 
Selby,  Lloyd,  I,  327,  329,  332. 
Self,  James  M.,  II,  118. 
Selters,  J.  B.,  II,  78. 
Selway,  Delos  D.,  Ill,  1401. 
Selway,  John  L.,  Ill,  1017. 
Servis,   Francis   G.,   I,  423. 
Sessions,   H.   G.,  I,  249. 
Settergren,  G.  E.,  II,  143. 
Sevenich,  John  M.,  Ill,  1132. 

Severson,  Clarence  J.,  Ill    774. 

Sewell,  Walter  J.,  II,  573 

Shadoan,  J.  A.,   II,  40. 

Shafer,  Gordon  O.,  Ill,  827. 

Shanley,  Thomas  J.  B.,  II,  112. 

Shannon,  George,  I,  28. 

Shannon,  John  C,  III,  1199 

Sharp,  Ralph  A.,  II,  329. 

Sharpe,  L.  G.,  I,  415. 

Shattuck,  John  E.,  II,  639. 

Shaw,  Leon,  II,  161. 

Shawmut,  I,  848. 

Shears,  George,  I,  249. 

Sheehan,  James,   I,  208. 

Sheep:   raising  of,   I,  397,  399. 

Sheep  ranch   (illustration),  I,  683. 

Sheffield,  Edward,  I,  415. 

Shenefelt,   Monroe   P.,  Ill,  848. 

Shephard,  Harvey  R.,  Ill,  1277. 

Shepherd,   I,  856. 

Sheridan,  I,  771,  775. 

Sheridan,    Ruth,    II,    106. 

Sheridan  county:  created,  I,  474;  irriga- 
tion in,  611;  description  of,  824. 

Sheridan,   Charles   L.,   I,  642,  650,   661, 


Sherman,  Charles  H.,  Ill,  949, 
Sherman,  Frank  L.,  Ill,   1058. 
Sherman,  Nora  K.,  Ill,  819. 
Sherman,   Thomas   C.,   Ill,   1439. 
Sherman,  W.  P.,  Ill,  819. 
Sherrill,   Albert,  III,   1216. 
Sherwood,  J.  W.,  I,  696. 
Sheuerman,  .A.  A.,  II,  162. 
Shiell,  Robert  G.,  Ill,  1291. 
Shields,  John,  I,  28,  51,  52. 
Shipley,  Whitfield,  II,  181. 
Shipley,  William  H.,  II,  571. 
Shippam,  John,  III,   1001. 
Shippee,  Irvin  L.,  Ill,  1134. 
Shirley,  I,  703. 
Shoaf,   Harriet,   III,   871. 
Shober,  John  H.,  I,  316;  u,  641. 
Shoper,   John   H.,   I,   415,  422. 
Shore,  Will  B.,  II,  269. 
Shorey,  B.  G.,  II,  394. 
Short,   George   N.,   II,   502. 
Shorthill,   Robert   D.,   II,   72. 
Shoshones    (Snake    Indians),   Lewis   in 

touch  with,  I,  53 ;  57. 
Shreveport   (Missouri  river  steamboat), 

I,  178,  179. 

Sibbits,  William,  III,  891. 
Sidney,  I,  814. 
Siegel,   Victor,   II,   553. 
Sigafoos,   Josiah   J.,   Ill,   1425. 
Silver  Bow  City,  I,  223,  372. 
Silver  Bow  county:  as  a  copper  producer, 

I,  384;   number  and   value   of   cattle, 
(1884),   395;    created,  408;    irrigation 

in   611 ;    county   and   city   almost   co- 
extensive, 827;  early  history  of  min- 
ing in,  828;  created,  834. 
Silver  Bow  Creek:   mines  along,  I,  213; 


Silver  issue  of  1896,  I,  452. 
Silver   Lake,   I,   713. 
Silver  mining:  first  in  Montana,  I,  237; 

rise  of,  I,  372-375- 
Silverthorn,  John,  I,  185,  186. 
Simineo,  Joseph   S.,  II,  208. 



Simmons,  A.  J.,  I,  311. 

Simmons,  Hubert  A.,  II,  69. 

Simmons,  Louis,  I,  199. 

Simmons,  Otto  J.,   II,   188. 

Simms,  Samuel,  III,  885. 

Simms,  Susan,  III,  886. 

Simonson,  Charles  C,  II,  277. 

Simpkins,  Justin  C,  III,   1008. 

Simpson,  Charles  M.,  Ill,  1360. 

Simpson,  Joseph  B.,  Ill,  1232. 

Simpson,  T.  W.,  Ill,   1178. 

Sioux,  I,  308;  checked  at  "The  Palace 
of  Skulls,"  308-310;  342. 

Sioux  National  Forest,  I,  624. 

Sisson,   Edward,  II,  565. 

Sisson,  Edward  O. :  sketch  of,  I,  533; 

Sitting  Bull  (Sioux  Chief),  I,  345,  346; 
again  troublesome,  347;  357,  358;  in 
British  America,  359;  362,  366. 

Skelton,  William,  III,  1295. 

Skillen,  William,   III,  915. 

Skillman,  Charles  N.,  II,  264. 

Skinner,  Cyrus,  I,  249. 

Skinner,  Harry  J.,  II,  495. 

Sklower,  Emanuel,  III,  961. 

Sklower,  Max,  III,  961. 

Skyltead,  Olaf  G.,  Ill,  752. 

Slade,  J.  A.,  I,  269,  270,  271,  272;  last 
days  of,  Beidler's  account,  273. 

Slater,  Peter,  I,  223. 

Slattery,  John  L.,  I,  868;  III,  1218. 

Slayton,  Daniel  W.,   Ill,   1345. 

Sleight,  Frederick  S.,  Ill,  909. 

Sligh,  James  M.,  II,  300. 

Sloan,  Mrs.  M.  A.,  I,  721. 

Smart,  Forrest  V.,  Ill,  1161. 

Smart,  Oscar  G.,  Ill,  1160. 

Small,  Nellie  B.,  II,  493. 

Smelters,  concentrators  and  cyanide 
plants  of  Montana :  established  1889- 
1919  (see  towns  and  cities),  I,  872, 

Smiley,  George  E.,  II,  501. 

Smith,  Albert  K.,  II,  369. 

Smith,  Andrew  J.,  I,  282,  758,  760. 

Smith,  Donald  A.,  I,  561. 

Smith,  F.  E.,  I,  721. 

Smith,  George  H.,  I,  192,  196. 

Smith,  Glen  A.,  II,  452. 

Smith,  Green  Clay,  succeeds  Governor 
Edgerton,  I,  300;  resigns  governor- 
ship, 314;  415,  868. 

Smith,  J.  Gregory,  I,  559. 

Smith,  Harry  M.,  Ill,  788. 

Smith,  Henry  E.,  II,  170. 

Smith,  Henry  T.,  Ill,  1266. 

Smith,  H.  P.  A.,  I,  219. 

Smith,   I.   C.,   I,  218. 

Smith,  James,   II,   198. 

Smith,  James  C.,  Ill,   1160. 

Smith,  Jedediah  S.,  I,  108,  in. 

Smith,  Lewis  A.,  II,  516. 

Smith,  Napoleon  B.,  Ill,  949. 

Smith,   N.  B.,  II,  227. 

Smith,  Paul,  III,  859. 

Smith,  Robert,  I,  44. 

Smith,  Robert  A.,  I,  454. 

Smith,  Robert  B.,  I,  451;  sketch  of, 
452;  457- 

Smith,  Robert  E.,  I,  868. 

Smith,  Richard  F.,  II,  1039. 

Smith,  Yard,  II,  239. 

Smith,  Veva,  III,  1093. 

Smith,  Wallace  P.,  II,  458. 

Smith,  Walter  S.,  II,  203. 

Smith,  William  B.,  Jr.,  Ill,  1202. 

Smith,  William  N.,  Ill,  666. 

Smith,  W.  Egbert,  I,  496. 

Smith,  W.  P.,  II,  12. 

Smith-Highes  Act,  I,  545. 

Smith's  River,  I,  44. 

Snake  Indians,   I,   28,  48,  50. 

Snake   (Lewis)    River,  I,  58. 

Snell,  Charles  H.,  I,  758,  760. 

Snell,  George  E.,  II,  250. 

Snellbacher,  J.  W.,  II,  203. 

Snidow,  Thomas  A.,  II,  218. 

Snow  Creek  Game  Preserve,  I,  735. 

Snow  Mountains,  I,  42. 

Snow  Storm  Mine,  I,  375. 

Snowden,  J.  C.,  I,  732. 

Snyder,  Clayton  E.,  I,  661. 

Snyder,  Rudolph,  I,  868. 

Snyder,  Willard  F.,  Ill,  1099. 

Society  of  Montana  Pioneers,  I,  316- 

Soden,  Jack  E.,  II,  646. 

Soderlind,  Will  J.,  II,  43. 

Soft  drinks  and  cereal  beverages  manu- 
factured :  see  towns  and  cities,  I,  874. 

Solberg,  Inga,  II,  415. 

Solberg,  J.  S.,  II,  60. 

Soldiers'  Home,  Columbia  Falls :  classes 
of  inmates  in,  I,  484,  725. 

Somers,  I;  725. 

Somerville,  John,  I,  210;  names  Helena, 

211,   212. 

Sonstelie,  Carl  J.,  I,  661. 

Souders,  Samuel  M.,  II,  234. 

Southmayd,  LeRoy,  II,  532. 

South  Pass :  Bonneville  and  Bridger  go 
through,  I,  114. 

Spanish-American  War,  Montana  in  the, 
I,  643-48. 

Spanish  Creek,  Gallatin  county  (illus- 
tration), I,  106. 

Spanish  Fork  (Deer  Lodge),  I,  222. 

Sparks,  Franklin  F.,  Ill,  1096. 

Spear,  Charles,  II,  303. 

Spear,  J.  M.,  I,  433. 

Specht,  Joseph,  I,  147. 

Spectacular  mine,  I,  379. 

Speer,  James  W.,  Ill,  833. 

Speer,  Owen  D.,  II,  419. 

Spencer,  Almon  C.,  II,  166. 

Spencer,  Gideon  K.,  Ill,  947. 

Spencer,  John  T.,  II,  378. 

Spion  Kop,  I,  609. 

Spivey,  Henry,  I,  257. 

Spogen,   Dominic,   III,  712. 

Spooner,  Armon  C.,  Ill,   1207. 

Spooner,  Henry  R.,  Ill,  701. 

Spotted  Tail  (Indian  Sioux  Chief),  I, 

Spottswood,  William  C.,  II,  326. 
Sprague,  J.  E.,  I,  725. 
Spratt,  James  G.,  I,  289,  415,  422. 
Spread    Eagle    (Missouri    river    steam- 
boat), I,  178,  179. 
Spring,  L.  H.,  II,   168. 
Sproule,  G.  B.,  I,  459. 



Spurling,  James  E.,  II,  370. 

Square  Butte,  I,  702. 

Stafford,  W.  M.,  I,  289. 

Stage  Coach,  early  day  (illustration),  I, 


Stage  lines :  overland  and  state,  I,  556. 
Stager    (George   N.)    and  Company,   I, 


Stagg,  J.  P.,   II,  398. 
Stahl,  John  W.,  Ill,  789. 
Stallion  Registration  Board,  I,  530. 
Stalmann,  Otto,  I,  376. 
Stanford,   I,  723. 

Stanley,  David  S.,  I,  309,  345,  346. 
Stanley,  Henry  H.,  II,  607. 
Stanley,   Reginald,   I,  210. 
Stapleton,  Arthur   A.,   II,    114. 
Stapleton,   George   W.,  I,  219,  336;   II, 


Stapleton,  Wash,  I,  207. 
Stark,  Roy  A.,  II,  409. 
State  Accident  Insurance  and  Disability 

Fund  created,  I,  465. 
State    Arid    Land    Grant    Commission 

created,  I,  452,  453,  454. 
State    Athletic    Commission    created,    I, 

State   Board   for  Vocational   Education, 

co-operation    with    federal    board,    I, 

State  Board  of  Agriculture  created,  I, 

State  Board  of  Commissioners  for  the 

Insane  created,  I,  476. 
State  Board  of  Dairy  Commission  Ex- 
aminers, I,  530. 
State  Board  of  Education,  I,  468,  475; 

first  meeting  at  Bozeman,  544. 
State    Board    of    Educational    Examin- 
ers, first,  I,  511,  530. 
State  Board  of  Entomology  created,  I, 

State  Board  of  Hail  Insurance  created, 

I,  483. 

State  Board  of  Health,  I,  477,  484. 
State    Board    of    Land    Commissioners 

created,  I,  469,  577. 
State  Board  of   Poultry  Husbandry,  I, 

403,  530. 

State  Board  of  Veterinary  Medical  Ex- 
aminers established,  I,  476. 
State    Bureau    Mines    and    Metallurgy, 

paper    on    ore    sampling,    I,   371,    529, 


State  Capitol  Commission,  I,  452,  453. 

State  Capitol  contest,  I,  441. 

State  Chemist,  I,  530. 

State  College  of  Agriculture  and  Me- 
chanic Arts,  I,  532. 

State  Constitution  of  1889,  I,  439. 

State  Dairy  Commission,  I,  476. 

State  Department  of  Agriculture  and 
Publicity:  report  on  dairying,  I,  401. 

State  Entomologist,  I,  530. 

State  Fire  Warden  created,  I,  464. 

State  Fish  Hatchery  established,  I,  482. 

State  Grain  Inspector,  I,  530. 

State  Grain  Laboratory,  I,  476. 

State  Highway  Commission :  created,  I, 
475 ;  divides  state  into  twelve  districts, 
483;  biennial  report  of,  1919-1920,  571; 

functions  of,  569,  570,  572;  revenues 
and  expenditures  (1920),  575. 

State  Highway  funds  authorized,  I,  484. 

State  Highway  System,  I,  574. 

State  Historical  Library,  I,  324,  760. 

State  Industrial  School  for  Boys'  I 
703,  704- 

State  Insane  Asylum :  ordered  by  State 
I,  479- 

State  Institutions,  I,  869. 

State  Lands  :  State  Board  of  Land  Com- 
missioners custodians  of,  I,  577;  re- 
ceipts from  all  sources  (1889-1920), 
578,  579,  58o. 

State  Legislative  Assemblies:  first,  I, 
446;  second,  448;  third,  450;  fourth, 
45i;  fifth  and  sixth,  453;  seventh, 
457;  eighth,  459;  ninth,  462;  tenth, 
463;  eleventh,  465;  twelfth,  469;  thir- 
teenth, 470 ;  fourteenth,  477 ;  fifteenth, 
480;  sixteenth,  483;  seventeenth,  486; 
Special  Session  of  1921,  491. 

State  Live  Stock  Commission,  I,  477. 

State  Live  Stock  Sanitary  Board,  I, 

State  Motor  Vehicle  Law,  I,  475. 

State  Normal  College,  I,  529,  532,  669. 

State  Orphans'  Home,  I,  554,  775. 

State  Parole  Commissioner,  I,  475. 

State  Prison:  Deer  Lodge,  I,  453. 

State  Reform  School:  established,  I, 
5oo;  553. 

State  School  for  Deaf,  Dumb  and 
Blind:  established,  I,  500,  745,  746. 

State  School  Funds,  I,  521. 

State  School  Lands,  I,  498,  499. 

State  School  of  Mines :  established,  I, 
500,  528,  529,  532,  831. 

State  Tax  Commission:  created,  I,  474; 
act  repealed,  478. 

State  Text  Book  Commission :  estab- 
lished, I,  500. 

State  Tuberculosis  Sanitarium :  ordered 
by  State,  I,  479. 

State  University,  Missoula,  I,  528,  529, 
532;  (illustration),  533;  history  of, 
534,  535,  536;  buildings  of,  536;  Col- 
lege of  Arts  and  Sciences,  537;  de- 
partments of,  537-43 ;  Reserve  Officers' 
Training  Corps,  538;  School  of  Busi- 
ness Administration,  538;  School  of 
Journalism,  539 ;  School  of  Forestry, 
539;  Public  School  Music,  540;  School 
of  Law,  540;  School  of  Pharmacy, 
541;  Library  and  Museum,  542;  Bu- 
reau of  Information,  543;  Honor 
Scholarships  and  Prizes,  543;  College 
buildings,  546;  787-789;  (illustration), 

State  Vocational  School  for  Girls, 
Helena:  established,  I,  484;  757. 

Staunton,  Michael  D.,  II,  584.. 

Steamboat  trip  from  Fort  Union  to 
Fort  Benton  (1862),  I,  178. 

Steamboats  in  Western  Montana,  first, 
I,  556. 

Steele,  George,  I,  215. 

Steele,   Lawrence  W.,   II,  282. 

Steele,  William  L.,  I,  316. 

Steer  feeding  in  Beaverhead  county 
(illustration),  I,  668. 



Steere,  E.  A.,  I,  500. 

Stennes,  Odin  T.,  Ill,  778. 

Stephan,  Walter  H.,  II,  348. 

Stephen,  George,  I,  561. 

Stephens,  John  H.,  II,  124. 

Stephens,  W.  J.,  I,  422. 

Stephenson,  Andrew  P.,  II,  14. 

Stephenson,  Sam,  III,  1031. 

Sterling,  A.  M.,  II,  508. 

Sterling,  Frederick  T.,  II,  349- 

Stevens,  Benjamin  F.,  Ill,  9% 

Stevens,  Benjamin  T.,  II,  654. 

Stevens,  Harry  A.,  II,  247. 

Stevens,  Isaac  I.,  I,  158,  159,  687. 

Stevens,  Jesse  H.,  Ill,  871. 

Stevens,  Lawrence  S.,  II,  137. 

Stevens,  Melzer  N.,  Ill,  1230. 

Stevens   Government   expedition    (1853- 

54),  I,  158. 

Stevenson,  Albert  M.,  Ill,  1024. 
Stevenson,  Lon  C.,  Ill,  1086. 
Stevenson     Co-operative     Creamery,     I, 


Stevensville,  I,  225,  792,  811,  812. 

Stewart,  Charles  T.,  I,  869. 

Stewart,  David,  III,  721. 

Stewart,  John  A.,  Ill,  721. 

Stewart,  Katherine  L.,  II,  586. 

Stewart,  Lon  S.,  II,  1086. 

Stewart,  Samuel  S.,  Ill,  777- 

Stewart,  Samuel  V.,  sketch  of,  I,  472; 
868;  III,  878. 

Stickney,  Ben,  Jr.,  I,  757. 

Stiefel,  Edward  A.,  II,  270. 

Stiehl,  Frank  J.,   Ill,   1129. 

Stierle,  Charles,  III,  753. 

Stiles,  John  M.  S.,  II,  261. 

Stillinger,  C.  A.,  Ill,  1277. 

Stillwater  county:  created,  I,  474;  irri- 
gation in,  611;  description  of,  839. 

Stimpert,  Adam,  II,  611. 

Stinkwater  river,  I,  222,  230,  231. 

Stinson,  Buck,  I,  242,  249;  execution  of, 
264,  332.  . 

Stivers,   Daniel   Gay,  I,  643;   II,  594. 

Stockett,  I,  699. 

Stocking,  Margaret,  II,  586. 

Stocking,  Winfield   S.,   II,  586. 

Stoddard,  Amos,  I,  27. 

Stoddard,  Fred  C,  II,  23. 

Stoddard,  O.  F.,  I,  452. 

Stodden,  William  T.,  II,  418. 

Stoebe,  Herman,  III,  1262. 

Stoebe,  Samuel,  III,  1263. 

Stoebe,  William,  III,  1263. 

Stohr,  August  C.,  Ill,  1109. 

Stoller,  Jacob,  III,  1389. 

Stone,  A.  L.,  I,  321 ;   II,  346. 

Stone,  Elbert  H.,  Ill,  705. 

Stone,  Franklin  L.,  II,  38. 

Story,  Nelson,   Jr.,   I,  869;   II,  85. 

Story,  Nelson,   Sr.,  I,  322,  544,  547. 

Story,   N.,   I,  217. 

Stout,  Charles  O.,  II,  79. 

Stout,  Tom:  sketch  of,  I,  471. 

Strasburger,  Herman,  II,  546. 

Straszer,  Walter  C.,  II,  194. 

Straw,  I,  717. 

Strevell,  J.  W.,  I,  433. 

Strever,  William  J.,  II,  196. 

Strickland,  O.  F.,  I,  289. 

Stringham,  Harry  C.,  II,  214. 

Stripp,  Albert  E.,  II,  154. 

Strobel,  Roger  L.,  Ill,   1122. 

Strode,  Thomas  P.,  Ill,  1233. 

Strong,  William  G.,  I,  840. 

Stroup,  Charles  E.,  II,  223. 

Stryker,  R.  N.,  II,  321. 

Stryker,  William,   II,  40. 

Stuart,  Granville,  I,  5;  161,  186,  187,  199, 

221,  222,  226,  282,  283,  316,  322,  395 ; 

appointed  State  Historian ;  his  death, 

Stuart,  James,  I,   135;    (portrait),   136; 

161,   186;   commences  to   study  medi- 
cine, 189;  igp,  192;  saves  party  from 

Crow  Indians,  193;  locates  Big  Horn 

town,  195 ;  197,  199,  209,  221,  226,  282 ; 

death  of,  311 ;  312;  798. 
Stuart,  Thomas,  I,  221. 
Stuart  and  Anderson,  I,  395. 
Stuart    Brothers :    early    years    of,    and 

coming  to  Montana,  I,  186,  188 ;  mine 

in  the  spring  of   1862,   189;  200,  213, 

224,  243. 
Stuart  expedition :  attacked  by  Crows,  I, 

Stuart's  first  Yellowstone  expedition,  I, 

Stuart's  second  Yellowstone  expedition, 

I,  209. 

Stubban,  Edward,  III,  887. 
Stufft,  W.  F.,  Ill,  1304. 
Sturgis,  S.  D.,  I,  362. 
Sublette,   Milton,  I,   108,   120. 
Sublette,  William,  I,  108,  in,  120. 
Sudar,  Joseph,  II,  390. 
Sugar    Beets    for    the    Billings    factory 

(illustration),  I,  857. 
Sulgrove,  Leslie,  I,  758,  760. 
Sulier,  Alfred  J.,  Ill,  1097. 
Sullivan,  Ambrose,  III,  698. 
Sullivan,  Andrew  J.,  II,  615. 
Sullivan,  Fred  D.,  Ill,  758. 
Sullivan,  Jeremiah,  III,  746. 
Sullivan,  Nellie  C.,  II,  440. 
Sully,    Alfred,    his    Sioux   campaign    of 

1864,   I,  292-98. 
Sumatra,  I,  821. 
Summer,  Milton,  I,  851. 
Summer  Schools,  I,  515. 
Summers,  H.  L.,  II,  92. 
Summit    Mountain    Mining    District,    I, 


Summit  Valley  District,  I,  222. 
Sun  Dance  of  the  Piegans  (illustration), 

I,  169. 
Sun  River,  I,  229;  reclamation  project, 

587,  589. 

Sun  River  Valley,  I,  749. 
Sunset,  I,  790. 
Superior,  I,  778. 
Sutherland,  Elizabeth,  I,  511. 
Sutter,  Julian  A.,  II,  95. 
Sutton,  Lucian  H.,  II,  147. 
Sutton,  Roy  E.,  Ill,  1386. 
Swain,  Henry  H.,  I,  528. 
Swan,  Lon  T.,  II,  240. 
Swan,  William  J.,  Ill,  957. 
Swanberg,  Hugo  H.,  II,  440. 
Swandal,  Austin,  II,  375. 
Swaney,  A.  W.,  Ill,  1275. 
Swaney,  Mary  A.,  Ill,  1276. 



Swartz,  John  J.,  Ill,  1217. 

Swearingen,  John  R.,  II,  202. 

Sweat,  John  A.,  Ill,  750. 

Sweat,  Ruth,  III,  750. 

Swee,  John  P.,  II,  403. 

Sweeney,  Bill,  I,  206,  209. 

Sweet,  Chester  W.,  Ill,  1433. 

Sweet,  S.  C,  II,  482. 

Sweet,  William  T.,  II,  482. 

Sweet,  William  T.,  Sr.,  II,  481. 

Sweet    Grass    county:    created,    I,    452; 

irrigation  in,  612;  description  of,  840; 

farming  and  stock  raising,  841. 
Sweetland,  Levi  H.,  Ill,  870. 
Sweetman,  Luke  D.,  Ill,  907. 
Sweetman,  Richard  H.,  Ill,  907. 
Sweitzer,  E.  C,  II,  204. 
Swenson,  Christian  T.,  II,  54- 
Swindlehurst,  W.  J.,  I,  489. 
Swine  raising,  I,  400. 
Switzer,  J.  Bertram,  III,  942. 
Switzer,  Lew,  III,  964. 
Sworder,  William,  II,  273. 
Sybert,  Edward  M.,  II,  245. 
Symes,  George  G.,  I,  418,  419,  422. 
Symmes,  Weymouth  D.,  II,  209. 

Taber,  Charles  B.,  Ill,  1314. 

Taffner,  Clarence,  III,  1377. 

Talcott,  E.  H.,  I,  547- 

Talkington,  Henry  C.,  I,  321. 

Tallman,  William  D.,  II,  79. 

Tanner,  Franklin  D.,  Ill,  1330. 

Tattan,   John  W.,   II,  461. 

Taylor,  Cecil  E.,  Ill,  973. 

Taylor,  Don  C.,  II,  68. 

Taylor,  George  H.,  Ill,  1039. 

Taylor,  Thomas  T.,  II,  155- 

Taylor,  Thompson  &  Company,  I,  219. 

Taylor,  William   H.,   II,   578. 

Tbalt,  Nicholas,  I,  254,  255. 

Teachers'  Institutes,   I,  497. 

Teachers'  Retirement  law,  I,  511. 

Telyea,   Ned  A.,   II,   199. 

Templeman,  John  L.,  II,  400. 

Templeton,  H.  A.,  I,  696. 

Ten  Haf,  P.  A.,  I,  732. 

Tennis,  Albert  L.,  Ill,  1182. 

Terrace,  I,  777. 

Territorial  capital  fixed,  I,  422. 

Territorial  Judges   (illustration),  I,  428. 

Territorial  Teachers'  Association,  I,  497. 

Terry,   I,  810. 

Terry,  Alfred  H.,  I,  347,  353,  356,  358, 


Terwilliger,  Lewis,  II,  234. 

Teton  county:  created,  I,  442,  451;  irri- 
gation in,  612;  description  of,  842. 

Teton  irrigation  project,  I,  584- 

Teton  ridge,  I,  91. 

Teton   River,   I,   229. 

Thaler,  Joseph  A.,  II,  43L 

Theade,  August,  III,  H94- 

Theodore  Roosevelt  International  High- 
way, I,  744- 

Theony,  I,  846. 

Thex,  Charles  H.,  Ill,  1084. 

Thien,  Henry,  III,  986. 

Thomas,  Alfred  L.,  II,  39- 

Thomas,  Arthur,  II,  507. 

Thomas,  Ernest  W.,  Ill,  1190. 

Thomas,  John  P.,  I,  316. 

Thomas,  M.  T.,  I,  292. 
Thomas,  Owen  J.,  II,  246. 
Thomas,  Robert  E.,  Ill,  1176. 
Thomas,  Theodore  H.,  II,  120. 
Thompson,  Carl  N.,   Ill,   1240. 
Thompson,  Frank  M.,  I,  282. 
Thompson,  Frederick.  W.,  Ill,  764. 
Thompson,  Harry  M.,  II,  1322. 
Thompson,  John,  III,  790. 
Thompson,  John  B.,  I,  28. 
Thompson,  Peter,  III,  1190. 
Thompson,  Rufus  B.,  II,  137. 
Thompson,  T.  A.,  Ill,  1141. 
Thompson,  William,  I,  219. 
Thompson,  William  ^3.,  I,  773. 
Thompson  Falls,  I,  824. 
Thomson,  George  C.,  Ill,  837. 
Thorkelson,  Jacob,  II,  365. 
Thornton,  Charles  C.,  II,  342. 
Thoroughman,  Robt.  P.,  Ill,  729. 
Thoroughman,  Thomas,  I,  282,  289,  291, 


Thorson,  George,  III,  660. 
Three  Buttes,  I,  229. 
Three  Forks,  I,  729. 
Three    Forks    Consolidated    School,   II, 

Three  Forks  Mill  &  Elevator  Company, 

III,  1050. 
Three    Forks    of    the    Missouri,    Clark 

reaches  the,  I,  46;    (illustration),  47; 

Three  Forks  Portland  Cement  Company, 

I,  719,  720. 

Three  Forks  Post  abandoned,  I,  104. 
Three-thousand-mile  Island,  I,  52. 
Thurber,  Charles  D.,  II,  307. 
Thurmond,  J.,   I,  249. 
Tiegen,  I,  717. 

Tilly,  George  H.,  death  of,  I,  644- 
Tilzey,  Harold  C.,  II,  139. 
Timber  on  the  State  lands :  regulation 

of,  I,  484- 

Timmons,  Jacob  C.,  II,  630. 
Tingley,  Robert  S.,  Ill,  667. 
Tinklepaugh,  Albert,  II,  146. 
Tinsley,  Basil,  III,  1197. 
Tobacco    Plains,   I,    172;    dispute   as   to 

ownership,  175. 
Tobacco  Root,  I,  91. 
Tobinski,  John  J.,  I,  786;  II,  441. 
Todd,  Calvin,  III,  1235. 
Tolle,  Arthur,  II,  490. 
Toole,  Edwin  W.,  I,  282. 
Toole,   E.  W.,   I,  421. 
Toole,  E.  Warren,  I,  430,  433,  443- 
Toole,  Joseph  K.,  I,  378,  409,  4*9,  422, 

431,  441,  443;   sketch  of,  443;    (por- 
trait), 444;  457,  46o,  858. 
Toole    county:    irrigation    in,    I,    613; 

description  of,  843. 
Tope,  Joseph  C.,  Ill,  131 1- 
Torgrimson,  Henry  A.,   II,  295. 
Toston,  I,  676. 
Totman,  James  E.,  II,  534- 
Tourists'  Park,  Billings,  I,  853. 
Tourtlotte,   Ira  B.,   II,  597- 
Town  Gulch,  Butte,  I,  223. 
Town  of  Poison   (illustration),  I,  724. 
Townsend,  I,  676. 
Tracht,  Simon  J.,  Ill,  695. 



Tracy,  John  J.,  II,  1138. 
Tracy,  Mortimer  O.,  Ill,  1357. ' 
Trandum,  Einar  H.,  Ill,  1349. 

Transportation :  McKenzie  inaugurates 
steamboat  navigation  on  the  Yellow- 
stone, I,  113;  river,  by  mackinaw  boat, 
137;  first  steamboat  arrives  at  Fort 
Union,  138. 

Travelers'  Rest  Creek,  I,  58,  61. 

"Travels  in  the  Interior  of  America" 
(Bradbury),  I,  69. 

Travis,  James,  III,  670. 

Travis,   Jane,    III,   671. 

Travona,  I,  371,  373. 

Treasure  county:  irrigation  in,  I,  613; 
description  of,  844. 

Tregloan,  Thomas  D.,  II,  404. 

Trepp,  Michael,  III,  1359. 

Trevillion,  Samuel  J.,  II,  537. 

Trident,  I,  729. 

Trinder,  Charles  R.,  Ill,  784. 

Trodick,  Alfred  J.,  Ill,  702. 

Trott,  Charlie  T.,  II,  192. 

Trout  Creek,  I,  824. 

Trower,  J.  H.,  II,  119. 

Troy,  I,  770. 

Truax,  Charles  S.,  II,  423. 

Truitt,  L.  W.,  Ill,  1178. 

Trumper,  May,  I,  502;  biennial  report 
for  1920,  503-528;  5ii,  528,  869;  II, 

Truscott,  John  B.,  II,  157. 

Trusler,  Harvey  S.,  Ill,   1268. 

Tubbs,  Charles  C,  III,  900. 

Tucker,  Frank  F.,  II,  49. 

Tucker,  Roscoe  V.,  Ill,  1042. 

Tullock,  A.  J..  I,  127,  140,  141. 

Tuohy,  William  M.,  II,  516. 

Tuolumne  Mining  Co.,  I,  836. 

Turk,  John  C.,  I,  415. 

Turk,  J.  C.,  I,  289. 

Turnbull,  William  N.,  II,  474. 

Turner,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  1023. 

Turner,  Harry  W.,  II,  542. 

Tutt,  G.,  I,  222. 

Tuttle,  Arthur,  III,  663. 

Tweedie,  J.  Andrew,  III,  967. 

Twin  Bridges,  I,  771,  775. 

Twin  Buttes  Game  Preserve,  I,  749. 

Twining,  W.  R.,  II,  636. 

Two  Dot,  I,  848. 

Tyler,    Clayton    H.,    Ill,    1156. 

Tyler,  Reginald  G.,  Ill,  1164. 

Tyner,  Frank  J.,  Ill,  930. 

Tyson,  Harry  B.,  Ill,  946. 

Ueland,  Andrew,  III,  902. 

Ueland,  Justus  L.,  Ill,   1180. 

Ueland,  Rasmus  R.,  Ill,  805. 

Uehlinger,  John  E.,   Ill,  854. 

Ulm,  William  M.,  Ill,  684. 

Ulmer,  I,  703. 

Underground  mines  at  Butte,  I,  836. 

Underwood,   Drewyer,   I,   192,   196,    197. 

Union  Central  Pacific  Railroad,  I,  559. 

Union  Pacific  System,  I,  558,  559. 

Unionville  mining  district,  $4,110,000,  I, 

United  States  Assay  Office,  Helena,  I, 


United  States  Government  Fish  Hatch- 
ery, Bridger  Canyon,  I,  732. 

United  States  Gypsum  Company,  I,  720. 

United  States  officials  (June,  1921),  I, 

United  States  Reclamation  enterprises 
defined,  I,  590. 

United  States  Reclamation  Service : 
work  of  the,  I,  585-90. 

United  States  Senatorial  election  made 
popular,  I,  476. 

United  States  Senatorship :  contest  over 
(1889),  I,  445-58. 

United  States  Volunteer  Cavalry 
(Rough  Riders),  I,  643. 

University  Hall,  I,  534. 

University  of  Montana:  foundation  laid, 
I,  496,  500;  under  supervision  of  State 
Board  of  Education,  528;  origin  and 
scope,  529;  results  of  unified  adminis- 
tration, 530;  student  enrollments,  532; 
consolidation  of,  544. 

Upper  Geyser  Basin,  Yellowstone  Park, 
I,  118. 

Upper  Stillwater  Lake,  Blackfeet  Na- 
tional Forest  (illustration),  I,  622. 

Upton,  John,  I,  209. 

Utah  &  Northern  (Union  Pacific)  Rail- 
road, I,  375,  407;  extends  into  Mon- 
tana, 558. 

Vagg,  Harry  A.,  II,  256. 

Valencia,  I,  848. 

Valier  irrigation  project,  I,  583. 

Valiton,  Ribot  J.,  II,  149. 

Valley  county:  alfalfa  (illustration),  I, 
401 ;  county  created,  443,  451 ;  irriga- 
tion in,  613;  description  of,  845. 

Valley  of  Sin-Yal-min,  I,  157. 

Van,  John,  III,   1248. 

Vananda,  I,  821. 

Vanatta,  Frank  C.,  Ill,  822. 

van  den  Broeck,  Victor  J.,  II,  26. 

Vanderbilt,  John,  I,  192,  209. 

vander  Pauwert,  John,  III,  1384. 

Van  Duzen  Company,  I,  877. 

Van  Duzen  Oil  Company,   I,  388. 

Van  Etten,  Lee  M.,  II,  519. 

Van  Laken,  Peter  J.,  II,  57. 

Vannett,  Alba  M.,  Ill,  1423. 

Van  Vorous,  Benjamin,  III,  1147. 

Varco,  C.  Earl,  III,  1074. 

Vaughan,  A.  J.,  I,  163,   167. 

Vaughan,  Patrick,  I,  306. 

Vaughn,  L.  H.,  II,  296. 

Vaughn,  Robert,  I,  392. 

Veach,  F.  L,  III,  1050. 

Veblen,  Thorkel  A.,  II,  433. 

Verendrye,  Pierre  de  La,  I,  father  and 
sons,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8;  discovers  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  9,  10;  last  years  of,  I,  u. 

Verona  Town  Company :  records,  site  of 
Virginia  City,  I,  217. 

Veterans'  Welfare  Commission,  I,  488. 

Vezina,  William  R.,  Ill,  1162. 

Viall,  John  D.,  Ill;  1408. 

Vickers,  Robert,   I,  773;   III,  714. 

Victor  (Salish  chief),  I,  157. 

Victor,  I,  792,  812. 

Vida,  I,  777. 

Vigilante  Trail,  I,  771. 



"Vigilantes  in  Montana"   (Dimsdale),  I, 

217,  243,  247,  261,  275. 
Vigilantes   of   Montana,  I,  242-277;  or- 
ganization of,  260;  last  work  of,  275, 

276,  277. 

Vilas,  J.  C,   II,  269. 
Villard,  Henry,  I,  560. 
Vincelette,  Azarias  G.,   Ill,  1385. 
Virginia  City:  founding  of   (Blake),  I, 

216;     incorporated,     220;     232,     298; 

fourth  and   fifth   Assemblies  at,  312; 

3335    territorial    capital    contest,    422; 

771;   of   today,  772-75- 
Virginia  City  Gas  Company,  I,  286. 
Virginia   City  Water   Company,   I,  285, 


Vivion  county  organized,  I,  469. 
Vocational  education,  I,  545. 
Vocational  work,  I,  516. 
Vollum,  Alfred  T.,  Ill,  814. 
Volstead,  Andrew  J.,  I,  490. 
Volstead  Act,  I,  490. 
Volunteer    Signal    Corps,    Montana,    I, 

643,  644. 

von  Dachenhausen,  A.,  II,  545. 
Von  Eschen,  Frank,  II,  228. 

Waber,  Julius,  III,   1012. 

Wachholz,  John,  III,  1440. 

Wade,  Decius  S.,  I,  404,  412;  service  as 

chief  justice,  419;  421,  427;  (portrait), 

428;  retires  as  chief  justice,  430;  434. 
Wade,  D.  S.,  I,  758,  760. 
Wade,  John,  I,  581. 
Wagenbreth,  Charles  J.,  Ill,  1396. 
Wagnild,  Otto,  III,  751. 
Wagoner,    John    (Dutch),    I,   249,    263; 

execution  of,  268;  334. 
Wait,  Mrs.  Guy,  I,  721. 
Waite,  Charles  W.,  Ill,  928. 
Waite,  John  D.,  II,.  175. 
Waite,  William  T.,  Ill,  1108. 
Wakefield,  Lawrence,  III,  1435. 
Walker,  Annie  P.,  Ill,  1160. 
Walker,  Frank  C.,  II,  521. 
Walker,  Hugh  C.,  Ill,  786. 
Walker,  I.  N.,  II,  561. 
Walker,  James  G.,  I,  322. 
Walker,  J.  W.,  I,  869. 
Walker,  Leonard  O.,  II,  183. 
Walker,  Nancy  J.,  Ill,  856. 
Walker,  Noble  M.,  II,  107. 
Walker,  Samuel  C.,  II,  643. 
Walker,  Thomas  J.,  II,  521. 
Walker  Brothers,  I,  373- 
Walkerville,  I,  827,  834,  836. 
Wall,  Frank  M.,  II,  595- 
Wall,  Nicholas,  I,  183,  287,  558. 
Wallace,  J.  D.,  II,  476. 
Wallace,  Robert  B.:    death  of,  I,  454  J 

645;    (portrait),  646. 
Waller,  Oliver   P.,  Ill,  1166. 
Wallin,  Charles  C.,  II,  84. 
Wallinder,   Peter,  III,  693. 
Walsh,  J.  A.,  I,  461,  868. 
Walsh,  Patrick  J.,  Ill,  855. 
Walsh,  Thomas  J.,   I,  463,  47* ',   sketch 

of,  491 ;  760,  868. 
Walters,  N.  P.,  II,  5^5- 
Walton,  Ernest  L.,  Ill,  965. 
Warner,  William,   III,  870. 

Wandell,  Alexander,  III,  756. 

Warfield,  I,  770. 

Warner,  Alfred  C.,  Ill,  749. 

Warren,    Charles    S.,    I,   222,    316,  '320, 

834,   835;    II,    I. 
Warren,  Fred  R.,  II,  93. 
Warren,   Henry  L.,   I,  419,  422. 
Washoe  Copper  Company,  I,  377. 
Washoe  Sampler,  I,  380. 
Water     of     the     Cottonwood     Groves 

(Stinkwater),   I,  222. 
Wate  Rights  legislation  in  Montana,  I, 


Waters,  Harry  J.,  II,  51. 
Watkins,  I,  777. 
Watkins,  Charles  F.,  Ill,  1048. 
Watkins,  Charles  L.,  I,  654. 
Watkins,  Cyrus  D.,  I,  192,  196,  197. 
Watson,  John   P.,  II,  428. 
Watson,  Robert  H.,  II,  108. 
Wear,  William  E.,  Ill,  1376. 
Weaver,  George  H.,  Ill,  1156. 
Weaver,  James  A.,  II,  119. 
Weaver,  Samuel  C.,  II,  133. 
Webb,  William  H.,  II,  475. 
Webster,  C.  M.,  I,  698. 
Webster,  Frederick  C.,  II,  461. 
Weed,  Walter  H.,  I,  374- 
Weightman,  John,  III,  795. 
Weil,  Charles  A.,  II,  185.  ' 
Weinrich,  Frank  A.,  Ill,  1139. 
Weinschrott,  John,  III,  1312. 
Weir,  Taylor  B.,  Ill,  739. 
Weitman,  Lutie,  I,  698. 
Welch,  W.  W.,  I,  502. 
Weld,  Horace  A.,  II,   148. 
Weldon,  I,  777. 
Weldon,  James  M.,  II,  7- 
Wellcome,  George   P.,  II,  379- 
Welliver,  Earl  M.,  II,  568. 
Wellman,  William,  II,  622. 
Wells,  Hugh  R.,  Ill,  1346. 
Wells,  Willis  C,  II,  62. 
Welsh,  Thomas  W.,  II,  596. 
Wentworth,  Charles  L.,  II,  in. 
Wentz,  Michael  R.,  Ill,  801. 
Wernham,  James  L,  II,  96. 
Werner,  William,  I,  28. 
Wesch,   Philip,   II,  85. 
West,  Belle  H.,  III.,  1313. 
West,  Charles  M.,  Ill,  1313. 
West,  Sterling  C.,  Ill,  1371. 
Western  Central  Basin  of  Montana,  I, 


Western  Lumber  Company,  I,  781.  _ 
"Western    Missions    and    Missionaries" 

(De  Smet),  I,  151. 
Western   Montana   Fair  Association,   I, 


Western   Montana   Park-to-Park  High- 
way Route,  I,  783- 
Western  Newspaper  Union,  Billings,  I, 


Westmore,  I,  7*4- 
Weston,  Charles  J.,  II,  618. 
Weston,  D.  H.,  I,  404- 
Westover,  George  A.,  II,  375- 
Westover,  Robert  L.,  Ill,  1432. 
Wharton,  Jesse  R.,  II,  519. 
Wheat  Basin,  I,  840. 




Wheat  Harvest  of  Fergus  county  (illus- 
tration, I,  716. 

Wheatland  county:  created,  I,  482;  irri- 
gation in,  614;  description  of,  846. 

Wheatland  County  Wheat  Farm  (illus- 
tration), I,  847. 

Wheaton,  Sherwood,  I,  761. 

Wheeler,  Burton  K.,  II,  7. 

Wheeler,  Frank  O.,  II,  614. 

Wheeler,  W.  F.,  I,  186. 

Whipps,  William  C.,  II,  187. 

Whipps,  William  O.,  II,  182. 

Whitcomb,  Harry  S.,  Ill,  1048. 

White,  Arthur,  III,  943. 

White,  A.  A.,  Ill,  1274. 

White,  Benjamin  F.,  sketch  of,  I,  412, 
413,  669,  868;  II,  315- 

White,  John,  I,  190,  191,  250. 

White,  Walter  B.,  II,  279. 

White  Earth  River,  I,  29,  30. 

White  Slave  law  passed,   I,  469. 

White   Sulphur   Springs,   I,  778. 

White  Sulphur  Springs  and  Yellowstone 
Park  Railroad,  I,  568. 

Whitebear  Islands,  I,  43,  59. 

Whitefish,  I,  725. 

Whitehall,  I,  746. 

Whitehouse,  Joseph,   I,  28,  46. 

Whitehpuse  Creek,  I,  46. 

Whitepine,  I,  824. 

Whiteside  bill,  I,  535. 

Whitetail,  I,  708. 

Whitford,  O.  B.,  I,  316. 

Whitlach,  J.  W.,  I,  757. 

Whitlash,  I,  768. 

Whitlatch  Mine,  I,  765. 

Whitlock,  Albert  N.,  II,  444. 

Whitman,  Marcus,  I,  145. 

Whitney,  Janet,  III,  1209. 

Whittinghill,  J.  N.,  II,  221. 

Whitty,  Patrick  J.,  II,  572. 

Whyte,  Frederick  W.  C.,  II,  425. 

Whyte,  Jeffrey   P.,   II,  89. 

Wibaux,  I,  848. 

Wibaux,  Pierre,  I,  703. 

Wibaux  county:  irrigation  in,  I,  614; 
description  of,  848. 

Wickes-Corbin  mining  district,  $57,915,- 
ooo,  I,  766. 

Widdifield,  Cecil  J.,  I,  662. 

Wiggins,  Frank,  II,  310. 

Wilcox,  Clyde,  III,  763. 

Wilcox,  Paul  D.,  II,  450. 

Wilcox,  Philip  B.,  Ill,   1124. 

Wild,  Levi  S.,  Ill,  1223. 

Wilder,  Davis  E.,  II,  500. 

Wiley,  A.  S.,  I,  397. 

Wiley,  Bert  E.,  II.  621. 

Wiley,  H.  B.,  I,  707. 

Wilhelm,  Albert  C.,  II,  480. 

Wilhelm,  Charles   C,   II,  255. 

Wilkinson,  Herbert  T.,  II,  464. 

Wilkinson,  James,  I,  18. 

Willard,  Alexander,  I,  28. 

Willard's   Creek,  I,  230. 

Williams,  I,  804. 

Williams,  Captain,   I,  273,  274. 

Williams,  Charles  H.  (Deer  Lodge),  II, 

Williams,  Charles  H.  (Lewistown),  III, 

Williams,  Daniel  S.,  Ill,   1227. 
Williams,   Frank  E.,   II,  157. 
Williams,  Griffith  A.,  II,  46. 
Williams,   Henry,   I,   343. 
Williams,   Henry   F.,   I,  419. 
Williams,  H.  J.,  I,  732. 
Williams,  James,  I,  260,  286. 
Williams,  Joseph  J.,   I,  415. 
Williams,  Julius,   II,   165. 
Williams,  J.  W.,  I,  511. 
,  Williams,  Robert  S.,  I,  698. 
Williams  Creek,  I,  230. 
Williamson,  Albert  E.,  Ill,  1339. 
Willis,  Charles  C,  II,  80. 
Williston,  L.   P.,  I,  298,  414,  416. 
Willow  Creek,  I,  729. 
Wills,  Maude  B.,  Ill,  1397. 
Willson,  Fred  F.,  II,  319. 
Willson,  L.  S.,  I,  547- 
Wilsall,  I,  801. 
Wilson,  Charles,  II,  72. 
Wilson,  Harry  L.,  II,  47. 
Wilson,  Henry  H.,  II,  22. 
Wilson,  John  R.,  I,  316. 
Wilson,  Justice,  L.,  Ill,  1082. 
Wilson,  M.  L.,  I,  707. 
Wilson,  Robert  H.,  I,  760. 
Wilson,  Roy  O.,  II,  94. 
Wiltner,  William  E.,  Ill,  710. 
Wines,  Josiah  L.,  II,  538. 
Winifred,  I,  717. 
Wininger,  McClellan,  II,  634. 
Winkelmann,  William  F.,  Ill,  964. 
Winnecook,   I,   848. 
Winnett,  I,  717. 
Winsor,  Richard,  I,  28. 
Winston    mining    district,    $3,560,000,    I, 


Winter,  Al  G.,  II,  212. 
Winter,   Christian  F.,   Ill,   1148. 
Winter,  Harold  H.,  II,  212. 
Wiper,   Charles,   II,    15. 
Wisconsin  Gulch,  I,  231. 
Wisdom  river,  I,  60,  61. 
Wise,  John  S.,  Ill,  1002. 
Wiser,  Peter,  I,  28. 
Witherspoon,  Thomas  C.,  Ill,  1211. 
Withington,  Hal  S.,  Ill,  1244. 
Witt,  William,  II,  33. 
Wogan,  Qle  C.,  II,  376. 
Wolcott,  J.  Herman,  II,  248. 
Wolf  Creek,  I,  749. 
Wolf  mountains,  I,  91. 
Wolf  Point,  I,  817. 
.Wolfskill,  Joseph  M.,  II,   177. 
Wolwin,  A.  B.,  I,  836. 
Women  in  the  State  University,  I,  541. 
Women's    Self-Governing    Association : 

State   University,    I,   542. 
Wood,  Charles  L.,  Ill,  1210. 
Wood,  George  J.,  I,  211,  212. 
Wood,  J.  C.,  I,  878,  885;  III,  1152. 
Wood,  J.  M.,  I,  219,  257. 
Woodbridge,  J.  T.,  I,  380. 
Woodburn,  Burl,  III,   1387. 
Woodburn,  William  W.,  Ill,  1386. 
Woodbury,  Frederick  E.,  Ill,  1071. 
Woodbury,  L.  S.,  Ill,  1070. 
Woodbury,  M.  Cerula,  III,   1072. 
Woodman,  Martin  L.,  Ill,  1415. 
Woods,  George  M.,  I,  758,  760. 



Woods,   Louis   B.,   Ill,    1004. 

Woods,   Patrick  W.,   Ill,  738. 

Woodworth,  Charles,   II,  75. 

Woody,  Frank  H.,  I,  132,  161,  223,  225, 
316,  426,  431;  (portrait),  432. 

Woolfolk,  Alex  M.,  I,  415. 

Woolston,  Ernest,   III,   1318. 

Word,  R.  Lee,  I,  436. 

Word,  Samuel,  I,  282,  284,  289,  316,  422. 

Worden,  I,  856. 

Worden,  Frank  L.,  I,  223;  (portrait), 
224;  282,  784. 

Worden  and  Company,  I,  223. 

Worden  &  Company  (Missoula),  I,  225. 

Work,  Lester  P.,  II,  88. 

Working,  S.  S.,  II,  325. 

Workman's  Compensation  act,  I,  488. 

World's  War:  Governor  Dixon  on,  I, 
486 ;  Montana  in,  650-663 ;  total  man 
power  raised,  651 ;  first  Montana  man 
to  fall,  652 ;  honor  men  from  Montana, 
653-663 ;  Distinguished  Service  Cross 
men,  654-663 ;  Liberty  Loan  campaigns 
in,  663;  Montana's  subscription  to 
loans  and  funds,  663-665;  Montana's 
allotments  and  subscriptions,  666. 

Worthington,  Lenord  L.,  II,  229. 

Worrell,  Stephen,  I,  18. 

Wright,  I,  848. 

Wright,  Al,   III,   1441. 

Wright,  Clark,  I,  496. 

Wright,  Edmund,  II,  117. 

Wright,  Frank  A.,  Ill,  1412. 

Wright,  Frank  E.,  II,  299. 

Wright,  George,  I,  302. 

Wright,  George  A.,  II,  223. 

Wright,  George  F.,  Ill,  1292. 

Wyeth,  I,  121. 

Wyeth,  Nathaniel  J.,  I,  120. 

Wylie,  W.  W.,  I,  497- 

Wyman,    Cyrus    K.,    II,   263. 

Wyola,  I,  674. 

Yager,  Erastus   (Red),  I,  247;  hanging 

of,  260-63. 
Yankee  Flat,  I,  328. 

Yates,   I,  848. 

Yegen,  Christian,  II,  327. 

Yegen,  Peter,  II,  327.  ^ 

Yellow  Pine  Forests  in  Lincoln  county 

(illustration),  I,  628. 
Yellowstone  county:  number  and  value 

of  cattle  (1884),  I,  395;  irrigation  in, 

614;  description  of,  850;  irrigated  and 

non-irrigated  lands  of,  857 ;  live  stock 

raising  in,  858;  dairy  farming  in,  859. 
Yellowstone  Lake,  I,  69. 
Yellowstone  National   Park,  geysers,  I, 

118;  633. 

Yellowstone  Park  memorials,  I,  481. 
Yellowstone  River :  falls  and  rapids  of 

(illustration),   I,  70;   naming  of,  78; 

geological  origin  of,  96. 
Yellowstone  Trail,  I,  570,  575,  730,  783, 


Y-G-Bee  Line,  I,  778. 
York   (Negro),  I,  28,  44. 
York,  James  N.,  I,   192,   196,   198. 
Young,  Cleveland  M.,  II,  361. 
Young,  George  T.,  Ill,  1439. 
Young,  George  W.,  II,  135. 
Young,  Ignace,  I,  144,  145. 
Young,  John  F.,  Ill,  1274. 
Young,  William  H.,  Ill,  1353. 
Young,  William  L.,  Ill,  927. 
Young,  Winfield  S.,  Ill,  776. 
Young,  W.  E.,  Ill,  1439. 
Young  Men's   Christian  Association  of 

Miles  City,  I,  704. 
Young     Men's     Christian     Association, 

Bozeman,  I,  732. 
Young  Women's  Christian  Association, 

Missoula,  I,  786. 

Zachary,  Robert,  I,  249. 
Zebinatti,  Peter:  death  of,  I,  154- 
Zeidler,  Leo  G.,  II,  4. 
Zeman,  Joseph  P.,  Ill,  1447- 
Ziebarth,  Albert  W.,  Ill,  886. 
Zimmerman,  Ami,  III,  1271. 
Zinc,   mining   of,    I,    382;    output    IQO&- 
1918,  383. 

History  of  Montana 



In  the  days  of  ancient  classic  lore  when  Rome  was  sending  her  legions 
into  the  rocky  mountains  of  Western  Europe,  the  Latin  authors  spoke 
of  the  strange  and  unexplored  land  as  Montana — the  land  of  the  moun- 
tains. Thus  the  name  became  attached  to  the  American  Land  of  the 
Mountains,  although  her  lovers  of  several  generations  have  chosen  to 
think  of  her  in  the  .translated  poetry  of  the  Indian  christening  bestowed 
upon  the  Rocky  Mountains — the  Land  of  the  Shining  Mountains.  Vague 
rumors  reached  the  whites  of  the  New  World  that  such  poetic  and  grand 
christening  was  based  upon  the  prosaic  but  enticing  fact  of  reflected 
light  from  precious  minerals  and  stones.  The  magnet  was  one  with 
that  which  drew  the  Spaniards  into  the  interior  of  southern  United  States. 

Besides  the  lust  for  precious  substance,  the  French  especially  were 
possessed  with  a  religious  ardor  for  the  conversion  of  the  natives  and 
an  unquenchable  spirit  of  adventure  in  the  discovery  and  exploration 
of  unknown  rivers  and  lands.  America  discovered  as  a  continent,  the 
second  great  quest  for  the  adventurers,  geographers  and  royalists  of 
France  was  to  trace  the  grand  waterways  at  which  the  Indians  had  per- 
sistently hinted,  winding  their  splendid  courses  from  The  Mississippi 
Valley  to  the  coast  of  the  Pacific. 


In  1690-1703,  La  Hontan,  a  French  baron,  adventurer  and  somewhat 
romancer,  explored  the  country  around  the  headwaters  of  the  Mississippi 
and  wrote  a  purported  account  of  his  travels  and  "adventures."  In  the 
maps  which  he  published,  Long  River  appeared  as  a  distinguishing 
feature.  It  was  outside  of  his  immediate  field  of  investigation  and 
probably  drawn  from  rather  vague  information  which  he  had  obtained 
from  the  Sioux  of  the  upper  Mississippi  valley.  From  the  fact  that  he 
was  a  proven  prevaricator,  in  many  respects,  most  historians  put  down 
Long  River  as  a  figment  of  his  imagination.  Others  more  charitable,  like 

Vol.  I— 1  1 



the  late  Joaquin  Miller,  who  wrote  a  history  of  Montana  in  1894,  give 
him  this  credit :  "This  is  unjust  to  La  Hontan,  for  there  is  good  reason 
to  believe  that  the  information  concerning  Long  river  which  he  obtained 
from  the  Indians  referred  to  the  Missouri,  but  in  passing  through  the 
many  intervening  tribes,  it  became  greatly  exaggerated.  For  instance, 
the  many  lakes  on  Long  River  do  exist  in  the  vicinity  of  the  headwaters 
of  the  Missouri— such  as  Flathead  lake,  Henry's  lake,  Jackson  lake, 
Yellowstone  lake,  Lake  Pahkokee,  Great  Salt  lake,  etc.,  but  by  the 
time  the  knowledge  of  them  reached  the  Indians  with  whom  he  came 
in  contact,  it  is  very  natural  they  should  locate  them  all  on  and  along  the 
upper  Missouri,  and  it  may  also  be  that  La  Hontan  could  but  very  im- 
perfectly understand  them,  and  therefore  may  have  made  these  mis- 
takes himself." 


Among  those  who  severely  criticised  La  Hontan  was  Father  Bobe,  a 
learned  priest  of  Versailles,  who,  nevertheless,  held  that  the  Mississippi 
swerved  toward  the  west  and  south  and  was  constantly  urging  the 
French  government  to  search  for  a  northern  interior  route  to  the 
Pacific.  On  the  I5th  of  March,  1716,  he  wrote  to  De  L'Isle,  geographer 
of  the  Academy  of  Science,  at  Paris:  "They  tell  me  that  among  the 
Sioux  of  the  Mississippi  there  are  always  Frenchmen  trading;  that  the 
course  of  the  Mississippi  is  from  north  to  west  and  from  west  to  south; 
that  it  is  known  that  toward  the  source  there  is  in  the  highlands  a  river 
that  leads  to  the  western  ocean.  *  *  *  For  the  last  two  years  I  tor- 
mented exceedingly  the  governor-general,  M.  Raudot,  and  M.  Duche,  to 
endeavor  to  discover  this  ocean.  If  I  succeed,  as  I  hope,  we  shall  have 
tidings  before  three  years,  and  I  shall  have  the  pleasure  and  the  consola- 
tion of  having  rendered  a  good  service  to  geography,  to  religion  and  to  the 


At  this  period,  France  was  being  ruled  by  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  as 
regent,  who  decided  to  launch  the  great  adventure  in  a  practical  way  by 
establishing  three  bases  of  supply  for  the  western  explorations.  The 
first  of  these  was  at  the  head  of  Lake  Superior  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Kaministiguia  River,  where  Sieur  Greysolon  DuLuth  had  founded  a  post 
as  early  as  1678;  a  second  was  ordered  to  be  built  at  Lac  des  Cristineaux 
(Lake  of  the  Woods)  and  a  third  at  Lake  Winnipeg.  The  work  of 
construction  was  under  the  supervision  of  Lieut.  Robertel  de  la 
None.  These  posts  were  not  to  be  a  charge  on  the  French  government. 
Parkman  says,  in  his  "Half  Century  of  Conflict,"  that  "by  a  device 
common  in  such  cases,  those  who  built  and  maintained  them  were  to  be 
paid  by  a  monopoly  of  the  fur  trade  in  the  adjacent  countries."  Once 
the  posts  were  established,  however,  it  would  be  incumbent  upon  the 
government  to  equip,  pay  and  direct  the  future  explorations.* 

*  Historical  Magazine,  New  York,   1859. 



During  the  first  year,  little  more  was  accomplished  than  the  building 
of  a  stockade  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kaministiguia.  Then  passed  three 
years,  when  the  Duke  of  Orleans  sent  Charlevoix,  the  learned  Jesuit,  to 
Canada  to  investigate  these  rumors  of  a  great  western  waterway  to 
a  great  Western  Sea,  and  in  this  work  he  spent  a  year  among  the 
Indians  and  whites  of  the  upper  lake  region,  making  full  records  of 
his  travels  and  conclusions  for  the  benefit  of  the  French  archives  and 

Pierre  Margry,  keeper  of  the  French  archives  in  Paris,  says  of 
Charlevoix's  plans,  formed  as  a  result  of  his  visit  to  the  country  of  the 
upper  Mississippi :  "The  Regent,  in  choosing  between  the  two  plans 
that  Father  Charlevoix  presented  to  him  at  the  close  of  his  journey 
for  the  attainment  of  a  knowledge  of  the  Western  Sea,  through  an 
unfortunate  prudence,  rejected  the  suggestion  which,  it  is  true,  was  the 
most  expensive  and  uncertain,  viz.,  an  expedition  up  the  Missouri  to  its 
source  and  beyond,  and  decided  to  establish  a  post  among  the  Sioux. 
The  post  of  the  Sioux  was  consequently  established  in  1727.  Father 
Conor,  a  Jesuit  missionary  who  had  gone  upon  the  expedition,  we  are 
told,  was,  however,  obliged  to  return  without  being  able  to  discover 
anything  that  would  satisfy  the  expectations  of  the  Court  about  the 
Western  Sea." 

The  decade  of  attempts  to  establish  the  post  at  Lake  Pepin,  named 
Fort  Beauharnois  (after  the  governor  of  Canada),  and  the  mission, 
St.  Michael,  was  surcharged  with  disaster  of  flood  and  Indian  assault,  and 
in  1737  its  commander,  Legardeur  de  Saint-Pierre,  abandoned  all  attempts 
to  get  in  touch  with  the  Sioux  and  advised  his  superiors  that  they  should 
be  exterminated. 


In  the  meantime,  Pierre  Gaulthier  de  Varenne  (known  afterward  as 
Sieur  de  La  Verendrye),  a  native  of  a  worthy  French  Canadian  family 
of  Three  Rivers,  who  had  served  as  a  brave  soldier  of  fortune  in  the 
War  of  the  Spanish  Succession,  returned  to  Canada  and  become  a 
coureur  de  bois,  had  his  mind  full  of  these  tales  of  Western  rivers  and  a 
Western  Sea.  Furthermore,  the  Indians  stories  were  being  repeatedly 
enforced  by  testimony  presented  by  the  priests  with  whom  he  came 
in  contact. 

In  his  middle  age,  Verendrye  was  so  well  established  as  a  fur  trader 
that  in  1728  he  was  in  command  of  the  post  at  Lake  Nepigon,  Canada, 
whose  waters  flow  into  Lake  Superior  from  the  north.  The  most  complete 
account  of  his  endeavors  to  explore  the  great  western  interior  in  search 
of  a  transcontinental  waterway,  for  which  historic  event  he  laid  the 
foundation  and  two  of  his  sons  enjoyed  the  realization,  was  prepared 
forty-five  years  ago  by  Rev.  E.  D.  Neill,  historian  and  president  of 
Macalester  College,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota;  and  to  his  paper  were 


added  valuable  notes  by  Granville  Stuart,  the  gold  pioneer  and  long  a 
leader  in  the  up-building  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana. 

While  stationed  at  Lake  Nepigon,  Verendrye  received  from  the 
Indians  such  positive  assurances  as  to  a  river  which  flowed  toward  the 
Sea  of  the  West  that  he  resolved  to  make  an  exploration.  At  Mackinaw, 
while  on  his  way  to  confer  with  the  government  of  Canada  upon  the 
subject,  Father  de  Conor  arrived  from  the  post  which  had  been  estab- 
lished among  the  Sioux  nearly  opposite  Maiden  Rock,  Wisconsin,  on 
the  shores  of  Lake  Pepin.  The  latter  is  an  expansion  of  the  Mississippi 
River,  about  midway  between  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin.  "After  an 
interchange  of  views,"  says  Dr.  Neill's  narrative,  "the  priest  promised 
to  assist  him  as  far  as  he  could  in  obtaining  a  permit  and  outfit  for  the 
establishment  of  a  post  among  the  Knisteneaux,  or  the  Assiniboels, 
from  which  to  go  farther  west. 

"Charles  de  Beauharnois,  then  governor  of  Canada,  gave  him  a 
respectful  hearing,  and  carefully  examined  the  map  of  the  region  west 
of  the  great  lakes,  which  had  been  drawn  by  Otchaga,  the  Indian  guide  of 
Verendrye.  Orders  were  soon  given  to  fit  out  an  expedition  of  fifty  men. 
It  left  Montreal  in  1731,  under  the  conduct  of  his  sons  and  nephew,  he 
not  joining  the  party  until  1733,  in  consequence  of  the  detention  of 
business.  After  establishing  several  posts  and  forts  between  Rainy 
Lake  and  Lake  Winnipeg,  their  advance  was  stopped  in  the  Winnipeg 
region  by  the  exhaustion  of  supplies.  In  April,  1735,  arrangements  were 
made  for  a  second  equipment  and  a  fourth  son  joined  the  expedition. 

"In  June,  1736,  while  twenty-one  of  the  expedition  were  camped 
upon  an  isle  in  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  they  were  surprised  by  a  band 
of  Sioux  hostile  to  the  French  allies, 'the  Knisteneaux,  and  all  killed. 
The  island,  upon  this  account,  is  called  in  the  early  maps  Massacre  Island. 
A  few  days  after,  a  party  of  five  Canadian  voyagers  discovered  their 
dead  bodies  and  scalped  heads.  Father  Ouneau,  the  missionary,  was 
found  upon  one  knee,  an  arrow  in  his  head,  his  breast  bare,  his  left  hand 
touching  the  ground  and  the  right  hand  raised. 

"Among  the  slaughtered  was  also  a  son  of  Verendrye,  who  had  a 
tomahawk  in  his  back,  and  his  body  was  adorned  with  garters  and  brace- 
lets of  porcupine.  The  father  was  at  the  fort  at  the  Lake  of  the  Woods 
when  he  received  the  news  of  his  son's  murder,  and  about  the  satae  time 
heard  of  the  death  of  his  enterprising  nephew.  *  *  *  On  the  3rd  of 
October,  1738,  they  built  an  advance  post,  Fort  Le  Reine,  on  the  River 
Assiniboine,  which  they  called  St.  Charles,  and  beyond  was  a  branch 
called  St.  Pierre.  These  two  rivers  received  the  baptismal  name  of 
Verendrye,  which  was  Pierre,  and  Governor  Beauharnois  (governor  of 
Canada),  which  was  Charles.  This  post  (Fort  La  Reine)  became  the 
center  of  trade,  and  point  of  departure  for  explorations  either  north 
or  south." 

At  this  newly  established  post,  La  Verendrye  received  news  from 
the  Assiniboines  (a  friendly  offshot  of  the  Sioux)  of  the  existence  of 
the  strange  Mantanes  (Mandans),  or  White  Beards,  of  the  Dakota 
family,  whose  villages  were  along  the  Missouri.  They  received  that  name 


from  the  fact  that  they  became  gray  haired  so  young.  The  Assiniboines 
also  assured  the  leader  of  the  expedition,  which  was  more  to  his  mind, 
that  the  Mandans  knew  the  way  to  the  Western  Sea  and  would  furnish 
him  guides  thither.  On  the  i8th  of  October,  1738,  La  Verendrye,  with 
three  of  his  sons  and  a  mixed  company  of  Indians  and  French  Canadians, 
to  the  number  of  fifty-two,  started  for  the  land  of  the  Mandans.  The 
succeeding  ten  days  took  them,  as  is  believed,  to  Turtle  Mountain,  thence 
along  the  Assiniboine  and  the  Mouse  rivers  toward  their  destination, 
gathering  friendly  and  helpful  Indian  guides  on  the  way.  On  the  28th 
of  October,  the  first  Mandans  were  seen,  and  La  Verendrye's  journal 
contains  their  first  description  by  white  men.  At  the  time  of  his  visit 
during  the  first  days  of* December,  they  occupied  six  villages  on  the 
banks  of  the  Missouri,  in  what  is  now  the  northwestern  part  of  North 
Dakota;  and  La  Verendrye  called  the  Missouri  "the  Great  River  of  the 
Couhatchatte  Nation."  While  thus  engaged  in  friendly  intercourse,  the 
leader  was  robbed  of  all  the  presents  which  he  had  brought  with  which 
to  propitiate  the  Indians  along  the  route  of  his  western  journey,  and 
was  therefore  obliged  to  retrace  his  way  to  Fort  La  Reine  to  replace 
his  stock  of  gifts  which  was,  perhaps,  the  most  necessary  part  of  his 
outfit.  Leaving  two  of  his  men  among  the  Mandans  to  learn  their 
language  and  collect  information  which  might  be  of  benefit  to  him,  La 
Verendrye  retraced  his  way  to  Fort  La  Reine.  It  was  a  terrible  journey, 
in  the  dead  of  a  bitter  northern  winter,  and  was  not  completed  until 
near  the  middle  of  February. 

It  was  not  until  September,  1739,  that  the  two  men  who  had  been 
living  with  the  Mandans  returned  to  Fort  La  Reine  to  report  to  their 
leader.  They  brought  tidings  of  strange  western  tribes  who  had  visited 
the  Mandans  in  the  conduct  of  trade  and  told  of  a  Great  Salt  Lake 
and  the  Great  Salt  Water.  La  Verendrye  therefore  dispatched  to  the 
Mandan  villages  as  large  a  company  as  he  could  gather  under  his  oldest 
son,  Pierre,  with  instructions  to  secure  guides  and  push  on  to  the 
Western  Ocean.  But  when  La  Verendrye,  the  younger,  reached  his 
destination,  the  Indians  of  the  farther  west  who  professed  to  know  of 
the  existence  of  that  Western  Ocean  had  departed  from  the  Mandan 
villages  and  left  no  trace  behind  them.  In  the  summer  of  1740,  he 
therefore  did  no  more  than  to  bring  to  Fort  La  Reine  another  bitter 
disappointment  to  the  elder  man,  already  nearly  crushed  with  bodily  and 
mental  struggles. 

In  the  year  named,  La  Verendrye  went  to  Montreal  for  the  third 
time  to  solicit  aid  in  support  of  his  futile  attempts  to  open  up  a  western 
way.  Instead  of  proffered  assistance,  he  found  hungry  creditors  awaiting 
him.  In  his  journal,  published  in  Margry's  collections,  he  further 
describes  the  pitiful  state  of  his  affairs :  "In  spite  of  the  derangement  of 
my  affairs,  the  envy  and  jealousy  of  various  persons  impelled  them  to 
write  letters  to  the  court  insinuating  that  I  thought  of  nothing  but 
making  my  fortune.  If  more  than  forty  thousand  livres  of  debt  which 
I  have  on  my  shoulders  are  an  advantage,  then  I  can  flatter  myself  that 
I  am  very  rich.  In  all  my  misfortunes  I  have  the  consolation  of  seeing 


that  M.  de  Beauharnois  enters  into  my  views,  recognizes  the  uprightness 
of  my  intentions,  and  does  me  justice  in  spite  of  opposition." 

Francis  Parkman,  in  his  "Half  Century  of  Conflict,"  Vol.  II,  p.  34, 
says:  "Beauharnois  twice  appealed  to  the  court  to  give  La  Verendrye 
some  little  aid,  urging  that  he  was  at  the  end  of  his  resources,  and  that 
a  grant  of  30,00x3  francs,  or  6,000  dollars,  would  enable  him  to  find  a 
way  to  the  Pacific.  All  help  was  refused,  but  La  Verendrye  was  told 
that  he  might  let  out  his  forts  to  other  traders  and  so  raise  means  to 
pursue  the  discovery." 


Now  broken  in  health  and  subdued  in  spirit,  the  father  turned  over 
his  dear  enterprise  to  his  more  vigorous  sons,  Pierre  de  La  Verendrye 
and  the  Chevalier,  who,  with  two  fellow  Frenchmen,  again  headed  for  the 
Mandans  on  the  Missouri,  in  the  spring  of  1742.  They  left  the  Lake  of 
the  Woods  on  the  2gth  of  April  and  reached  the  Missouri  after  about 
three  weeks  of  travel.  After  impatiently  waiting  for  the  coming  of 
some  western  Indians,  called  Horse  Indians  by  the  Mandans,  and  passing 
the  spring  and  summer  in  tiresome  inaction,  the  young  Frenchmen 
induced  two  of  their  red  friends  to  guide  them  to  the  camping  grounds 
of  the  Horse  tribe.  These  were  found  to  be  deserted.  Parkman  believes 
the  site  of  this  camp  to  be  west  of  the  Little  Missouri  "and  perhaps  a 
part  of  the  Powder  River  Range."  The  locality  would  seem,  at  least, 
to  have  been  in  Southeastern  Montana.  The  time  was  in  August,  1742, 
and  it  was  not  until  nearly  a  month  later,  after  one  of  the  Mandan 
guides  had  deserted  the  party,  that  the  four  Frenchmen  met  a  band  of 
Indians  whom  they  called  Les  Beaux  Hommes,  or  Handsome  Men — 
believed  to  be  the  Crows.  They  were  enemies  of  the  Mandans,  and 
the  remaining  guide  of  that  tribe  hastily  deserted.  The  expedition 
remained  some  three  weeks  with  the  Handsome  Men,  and  on  October 
9th  continued  its  explorations  in  a  southwesterly  direction,  still  looking 
for  the  Horse  Indians. 

When  the  four  reached  the  village  of  these  evident  nomads,  they 
were  told  that  the  tribe  Bows,  still  to  the  southwest,  would  enlighten 
them  as  to  the  Western  Ocean.  As  was  customary,  each  tribe  referred 
the  whites  to  a  more  distant  tribe.  This  seemed  to  have  been  the  settled 
policy  of  the  red  man — to  lure  the  white  farther  and  farther  from  his 
own,  and  by  the  attrition  of  hard  travel  and  slaughter  attempt  to  wear 
away  his  strength  and  life. 


When,  in  October,  1742,  the  Frenchmen  at  last  reached  the  lodges 
of  the  long-sought  Horse  Indians  (as  stated  by  Parkman,  who  adapts 
his  narrative  from  the  Chevalier's  journal),  they  found  them  in  the 
extremity  of  distress  and  terror.  Their  camp  resounded  with  howls 
and  wailings,  and  not  without  cause,  for  the  Snakes  or  Shoshones — a 


formidable  people  living  farther  westward — had  lately  destroyed  most 
of  their  tribe.  The  Snakes  were  the  terror  of  that  country.  The 
brothers  were  told  that  the  year  before  they  had  destroyed  seventeen 
villages,  killing  warriors  and  old  women,  and  carrying  off  the  young 
women  and  children  as  slaves. 

Parkman,  who,  as  he  observes  in  a  footnote,  draws  the  particulars 
of  his  description  from  "repeated  observations  of  similar  scenes,"  draws 
a  graphic  picture  ("Half  Century  of  Conflict/'  Vol.  II,  p.  48)  of  this 
breaking-up  of  the  camp.  "The  squaws,"  he  says,  "took  down  the  lodges 
and  the  march  began  over  prairies  dreary  and  brown  with  the  withering 
touch  of  autumn.  The  spectacle  was  such  as  men  still  young  have  seen 
in  these  western  lands,  but  which  no  man  will  see  again.  The  vast  plain 
swarmed  with  the  moving  multitude.  The  tribes  of  the  Missouri  and 
Yellowstone  had  by  this  time  abundance  of  horses,  the  best  of  which 
were  used  for  war  and  hunting,  and  the  others  as  beasts  of  burden. 
These  last  were  equipped  in  a  peculiar  manner.  Several  of  the  long 
poles  used  to  frame  the  tepees  or  lodges  were  secured  by  one  end  to 
each  side  of  a  rude  saddle,  while  the  other  end  trailed  on  the  ground. 
Crossbars  lashed  to  the  poles  just  behind  the  horse  kept  them  three  or 
four  feet  apart,  and  formed  a  firm  support,  on  which  was  laid,  compactly 
folded  the  buffalo-skin  covering  of  the  lodge.  On  this  again  sat  a 
mother  with  her  young  family,  sometimes  stowed  for  safety  in  a  large 
•open  willow  basket,  with  the  occasional  addition  of  some  domestic  pet — 
such  as  a  tame  raven,  a  puppy  or  even  a  small  bear  cub.  Other  horses 
were  laden  in  the  same  manner  with  wooden  bowls,  stone  hammers  and 
other  utensils,  along  with  stores  of  dried  buffalo-meat  packed  in  cases 
of  rawhide  whitened  and  painted.  Many  of  the  innumerable  dogs — 
whose  manners  and  appearance  strongly  suggested  their  relatives,  the 
wolves,  to  whom,  however,  they  bore  a  mortal  grudge — were  equipped 
in  a  similar  manner,  with  shorter  poles  and  lighter  loads.  Bands  of 
naked  boys,  noisy  and  restless,  roamed  the  prairie,  practicing  their  bows 
and  arrows  on  any  small  animal  they  might  find.  Gay  young  squaws 
adorned  on  each  cheek  with  a  spot  of  ochre  or  red  clay,  and  arrayed  in 
tunic  of  fringed  buckskin  embroidered  with  porcupine  quills — were 
mounted  on  ponies,  astride  like  men ;  while  lean  and  tattered  hags — 
the  drudges  of  the  tribe,  unkempt  and  hideous — scolded  the  lagging 
horses,  or  screeched  at  the  disorderly  dogs,  with  voices  not  unlike  the 
yell  of  the  great  horned  owl.  Most  of  the  warriors  were  on  horseback, 
armed  with  round,  white  shields  of  bull-hide,  feathered  lances,  war- 
clubs,  bows  and  quivers  filled  with  stone  headed  arrows;  while  a  few  of 
the  elders,  wrapped  in  robes  of  buffalo  hide,  stalked  along  in  groups 
with  a  stately  air,  chatting,  laughing  and  exchanging  unseemly  jokes." 


Finally  the  Verendryes  reached  the  land  of  the  Bow  Indians  (Gene 
de  1'Arc)  and  found  them  preparing  to  take  the  warpath  against  the 
powerful  Snake  Indians,  who  had  already  nearly  exterminated  the  Horses. 


The  Bow  Indians,  through  their  chief,  were  very  courteous.  They  knew 
nothing  personally  of  the  Western  Sea,  although  they  had  heard  of 
the  Great  Water  from  certain  Snake  prisoners.  Parkman  quotes  from 
the  Chevalier's  Journal  as  follows :  "Thus  far  we  had  been  well  received 
in  all  the  villages  we  had  passed;  but  this  was  nothing  compared  with 
the  courteous  manners  of  the  great  chief  of  the  Bow  Indians,  who, 
unlike  the  others,  was  not  self-interested  in  the  least,  and  who  took 
excellent  care  of  everything  belonging  to  us." 


Further,  according  to  Parkman's  "Half  Century  of  Conflict,"  the 
courteous  and  honorable  chief  of  the  Bows  extended  this  invitation,  so 
vital  to  the  definite  course  of  this  narrative  and  which  meant  so  much 
to  the  fame  of  the  sons  of  La  Verendrye :  "Come  with  us.  We  are  going 
towards  the  mountains,  where  you  can  see  the  Great  Water  that  you 
are  looking  for." 

The  Great  Water  was  not  to  be  seen,  but  the  vast  shining  piles  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains  were  to  be  first  spread  before  the  eyes  of  white 
travellers  and  recorders. 

The  camp  of  the  Bows  was  broke  up,  its  warriors  poured  across  the 
prairie  eager  to  attack  their  Snake  enemies,  the  Frenchmen  riding  along 
with  the  red  warriors.  Pierre  and  his  younger  brother,  the  Chevalier,  were 
near  the  great  chief.  When,  on  the  first  of  January,  1743,  they  came 
in  sight  of  the  vast  mountain  range,  capped  and  shining  with  snow," 
a  council  of  the  chiefs  and  warriors  was  held  to  determine  what  course 
to  pursue.  The  decision  of  the  council  was  that  the  women  and  children 
and  infirm  be  left  behind  in  a  place  of  comparative  safety,  while  the 
warriors  sallied  forth  in  a  body  to  strike  the  hated  Snakes. 


"Pierre  and  the  Chevalier  were  invited  to  accompany  the  advancing 
army.  After  deliberation,  the  elder  Pierre  determined  to  remain  with 
the  camp,  to  watch  over  and  protect  the  belongings  of  the  party,  and  the 
young  Chevalier  chose  to  proceed  with  the  warriors,  though  he  prudently 
declined  to  engage  in  any  possible  combat  with  the  foe." 

The  war  party  started  on  its  advance  January  21,  1743,  and,  according 
to  the  Chevalier,  who  kept  a  journal  of  the  expedition,  reached  the  base 
of  the  mountains  (probably  the  Big  Horn  Range),  twelve  days  later. 
The  young  French  leader  was  anxious  to  ascend  some  peak  of  the  range 
and  look  for  the  Western  Sea.  But  although  the  Bows  conveyed  the 
idea  that  everything  must  give  place  to  vengeance  upon  the  Snakes  when 
some  of  their  scouts  returned  to  the  main  body  of  the  warriors  with  the 
information  that  they  had  discovered  a  camp  of  the  enemy,  hastily 
abandoned,  the  Bows  were  panic-stricken  over  the  possibility  that  the 
Snakes  had  circumvented  them  and  wiped  out  their  own  camp  of  women, 
children  and  infirm.  The  Indian  war  party  was  completely  demoralized 


and  even  the  chief  abandoned  the  Chevalier,  temporarily,  to  endeavor 
to  rally  his  men  and  keep  them  intact.  Finally,  they  had  all  gathered 
at  the  camp,  only  to  find  it  unmolested.  The  chief  and  a  few  of  his 
faithful  warriors  were  the  last  to  return,  as  they  had  been  searching 
the  desolate  and  storm-driven  plain  for  their  guest,  the  Chevalier,  whom 
they  feared  had  perished.  At  length,  the  Indian  chief  appeared  in  camp, 
exhausted  and  grief -stricken,  but,  the  Chevalier  writes,  "his  sorrow 
turned  to  joy,  and  he  could  not  give  us  attention  and  caresses  enough." 


The  Frenchmen  remained  with  the  chief  of  the  Bows  during  January 
and  February,  1743,  traveling  with  the  Indians  through  deep  snow-drifts 
in  a  southeasterly  direction.  About  the  first  of  March,  they  approached 
the  winter  grounds  of  the  Little  Cherry,  or  Choke  Cherry  Indians  in 
what  is  now  Western  South  Dakota.  The  Verendrye  brothers  at  once 
sent  one  of  their  men  ahead  to  gain  from  that  tribe  any  information 
which  might  be  of  benefit  to  them  in  their  discouraging  search  for  the 
Western  Sea  by  an  overland  route.  The  Choke  Cherries  were  kind  to 
the  courier  and  through  him  invited  the  white  men  to  visit  them,  but 
conveyed  no  information  along  the  line  of  their  investigations. 

On  the  1 5th  of  March,  having  bidden  farewell  to  the  friendly  chief  of 
the  Bows  and  his  immediate  followers,  the  Verendryes,  according  to 
their  journal,  arrived  "among  the  band  of  the  Little  Cherry,  who,  where 
we  found  them,  were  two  days'  march  from  their  camp  on  the  Missouri." 
It  is  believed  that  this  locality  was  about  where  Cherry  Creek  empties 
into  the  Cheyenne,  some  fifty  miles  from  the  Missouri,  and  about  eighty 
miles  West  of  the  present  capital  of  South  Dakota,  Pierre.  Still  travelling 
East  and  not  far  from  the  banks  of  the  Missouri  River,  the  Frenchmen 
erected  a  pile  of  stone,  taking  the  precaution  not  to  reveal  to  the  Indians 
the  significance  of  the  leaden  plate  which  accompanied  it.  According 
to  the  Chevalier's  journal:  "On  an  eminence  near  the  fort  (camp),  I 
placed  a  leaden  plate  engraved  with  the  arms  and  inscription  of  the  King 
and  some  stones  in  shape  of  a  pyramid  in  honor  of  the  General  (Beau- 


On  the  2nd  of  April,  Pierre  and  the  Chevalier  commenced  their 
travels  toward  the  Northwest,  which  brought  them  to  the  Mandan 
villages  on  the  i8th  of  May.  The  return  of  the  sons  to  the  Sieur  de 
La  Verendrye  not  only  lightened  the  anxiety  and  depression  of  the 
father,  but  appears  to  have  improved  his  fortunes.  The  latter  was 
made  captain  of  the  Order  of  St.  Louis,  and  the  two  sons  were  promoted 
in  the  royal  service.  In  1749  the  new  governor,  Monsieur  the  Marquis 
de  la  Jonquiere,  a  hard  man  and  master,  had,  nevertheless,  commissioned 
the  Sieur  to  "look  after  the  posts  and  explorations  in  the  west,"  and 
he  had  already  prepared  maps  and  memoranda  of  his  future  explorations, 


when  death  called  him  from  his  unrealized  ambitions,  on  December  6th 
of  the  year  named  (1749). 

About  a  year  after  the  death  of  his  father,  Chevalier  de  la  Verendrye 
wrote  to  La  Jonquiere  appealing  for  service  in  the  field  of  western  ex- 
plorations on  the  score  of  the  sacrifices  made  by  his  father  and  brothers 
Instead,  the  governor  appointed  one  M.  de  Saint  Pierre  to  head  one  of 
the  expeditions,  and,  by  various  misrepresentations  to  La  Jonquiere,  the 
La  Verendryes  were  made  decidedly  "persona  non  gratis"  and  rejected 
from  all  participation  in  it. 


The  condition  of  the  family  whose  various  members  had  blazed  the 
way  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  is  thus  described  in  the  Chevalier's  petition 
to  the  governor:  "My  returns  this  year  amount  to  half,  and  in  con- 
sequence of  a  thousand  harassments  my  ruin  is  accomplished.  For 
accounts  contracted  by  father  and  myself  I  find  I  am  indebted  for  more 
than  20,000  francs.  I  remain  without  money  or  patrimony;  I  am 
simply  ensign  of  second  grade,  my  elder  brother  has  only  the  same  rank 
as  myself,  and  my  younger  brother  is  only  cadet;  and  this  is  the  actual 
result  of  all  that  my  father,  my  brothers  and  I  have  done.  That  brother 
of  mine  who  was  murdered,  some  years  since,  by  the  Indians,  victim  that 
he  was  by  the  Western  Sea,  was  not  the  most  unfortunate  one;  his  blood 
is  to  us  nothing  worth,  the  sweat  of  our  father  and  ourselves  has  availed 
us  naught;  we  are  compelled  to  yield  that  which  has  cost  us  so  much, 
if  M.  de  St.  Pierre  does  not  entertain  a  better  feeling  and  communicate 
same  to  M.  le  Mqs.  de  la  Jonquiere." 

Both  expeditions  sent  out  by  La  Jonquiere  were  failures.  In  1753, 
about  the  time  that  the  St.  Pierre  fiasco  was  reporting  to  the  authorities, 
the  Chevalier  was  made  ensign  of  the  first  grade  and  four  years  later 
became  a  lieutenant.  In  November,  1761,  after  Quebec  had  fallen  to 
the  English,  the  Chevalier  with  other  fellow  officers  sailed  for  France 
in  the  "Auguste."  One  hundred  persons  were  on  board.  Not  far  from 
the  North  Cape  of  Isle  Royal,  on  the  coast  of  Cape  Breton,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  ship  was  wrecked  and  all  perished  (including 
the  Chevalier),  except  the  captain,  a  colonial  officer  and  five  soldiers. 
Thus  died  the  actual  white  discoverer  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  although 
it  is  still  a  matter  of  conjecture  as  to  how  far  West  he  penetrated,  or 
the  specific  location  of  the  leaden  plate  and  the  rough  stone  monument 
erected  somewhere  in  the  region  of  the  Cheyenne  and  Missouri  rivers 
to  commemorate  the  exploration  and  international  claim  of  France  to 
some  little  portion  of  what  afterward  was  known  as  Louisiana. 


Verendrye  and  his  sons  had  been  approaching  the  "Land  of  the 
Shining  Mountains"  through  the  interior  of  the  East,  and  the  next  prog- 
ress in  tracing  the  transcontinental  waterway  was  to  be  from  the  Pacific- 
Columbia  River  route  of  the  West.  The  Spaniards  and  Portuguese  pushed 


up  the  Pacific  coast  in  early  historic  times,  and  left  such  names  on  the 
maps  as  Cape  Blanco,  Straits  of  Fuca  and  Oregon,  but  in  their  rush  for 
gold  and  booty  found  little  time  to  record  their  voyages  in  the  interest 
of  cartography. 

Then  came  the  more  reliable  northern  navigators,  Behring,  the  Dane, 
and  Drake,  the  Englishman,  to  approach  the  latitude  of  Montana  on  the 
Pacific  coast,  "but  it  was  left  for  Captain  James  Cook,  so  far  as  we  can 
say  positively,  to  point  his  ships  prow  toward  the  mountains  of  Montana, 
and  break  the  hush  of  ice-bound  seas  as  nearly  urfder  the  beetling  banks 
of  Montana  as  ocean  ships  have  ever  sailed  or  ever  shall  sail."  In  1778, 
while  the  Revolution  was  raging  along  the  fringes  of  the  Atlantic  Coast, 
Captain  Cook  was  exploring  the  Behring  region  and  sailing  up  the  Oregon 
(Columbia)  River  as  far  as  his  ocean  craft  would  take  him,  and  in  the 
following  year  was  killed  by  cannibals  on  the  island  (now  Hawaii) 
which  he  had  discovered  among  a  group  (the  old  Sandwich  islands). 


It  is  said  that  Jonathan  Carver,  of  Connecticut,  a  captain  in  the  war 
waged  with  England  by  which  France  lost  Canada,  was  the  first  to 
definitely  propose  the  transcontinental  journey  by  way  of  the  Missouri 
and  the  Oregon  (Columbia)  rivers.  Three  years  after  the  peace  of  1763, 
he  left  Boston  to  visit  the  sources  of  the  Mississippi  and  the  adjacent 
regions  for  purposes  of  trade,  exploration  and  investigation  as  to  the 
country  of  the  far  West.  He  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  the  Indian 
languages  that  he  might  pursue  all  these  objects,  and  in  this  work  he  spent 
two  years  and  seven  months.  After  his  return  to  Boston,  in  1768,  he 
published  an  account  of  his  travels  and  experiences,  and  he  tells  us : 
"From  the  intelligence  I  gained  from  the  Nandowessie  Indians,  whose 
language  I  perfectly  obtained  during  a  residence  of  five  months;  and 
also  from  the  accounts  I  afterwards  obtained  from  the  Assinipoils,  who 
speak  the  Chippeway  language  and  inhabit  the  heads  of  the  river  Bourbon 
— I  say  from  these  nations,  together  with  my  own  observations,  I  have 
learned  that  the  four  most  capital  rivers  on  the  continent  of  North 
America,  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  river  Bourbon  (Mississippi)  and  the 
Oregon,  or  the  River  of  the  West,  have  their  sources  in  the  same 
neighborhood.  The  waters  of  the  three  former  are  within  thirty  miles 
of  each  other,  the  latter,  however,  is  rather  farther  west." 

The  want  of  means  prevented  Carver  from  prosecuting  his  design 
with  the  government,  which  was  to  prevail  upon  its  authorities  to  estab- 
lish a  post  near  the  Straits  of  Anian,  after  a  journey  had  been  effected 
to  the  Pacific  coast.  In  1774,  he  obtained  the  support  and  cooperation 
of  Richard  Whitworth,  member  of  the  British  Parliament  for  the  town 
of  Stafford,  of  whom  the  projector  of  the  enterprise  says:  "He  (Mr. 
Whitworth)  designed  to  have  pursued  nearly  the  same  route  that  I  did; 
and  after  having  built  a  fort  at  Lake  Pepin  to  have  proceeded  up  a 
branch  of  the  river  Messorie,  till,  having  discovered  the  source  of  the 
Oregon,  or  River  of  the  West,  on  the  other  side  of  the  lands  that  divide 


the  waters  which  run  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  from  those  that  fall  into 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  he  would  have  sailed  down  that  river  to  the  place  where 
it  is  said  to  empty  itself,  near  the  Straits  of  Anian.  *  *  *  That 
the  completion  of  this  scheme,"  concludes  Carver,  "which  I  have  had 
the  honor  of  first  planning  and  attempting,  will  some  time  or  other  be 
effected,  I  have  no  doubt.  Those  who  are  so  fortunate  in  it  will  reap 
(exclusive  of  the  national  advantages  that  must  ensue)  emoluments 
beyond  their  most  sanguine  expectations.  And  while  their  spirits  are 
elated  by  their  success,  perhaps  they  may  bestow  some  commendations 
and  blessings  on  the  person  that  first  pointed  out  to  them  the  way. 
These,  though  but  a  shadowy  recompense  for  all  my  toil,  I  shall  receive 
with  pleasure." 

So  that  although  Jonathan  Carver  was  wild  in  his  geographical  as- 
sertion that  the  sources  of  the  great  Canadian  and  American  river 
systems  were  only  thirty  miles  apart,  he  was  among  the  first,  if  not  the 
first,  to  urge  the  sending  of  an  expedition  from  the  Mississippi  valley  to 
the  Pacific  coast  by  way  of  the  Missouri  and  Oregon  (Columbia)  rivers. 
But  the  prosecution  of  such  a  design  by  the  government  was  to  be 
deferred  until  the  country  had  secured  independent  right  to  the  territory 
from  the  Atlantic  coast  to  the  Mississippi  valley,  as  well  as  that  vast 
western  domain  through  which  poured  the  grand  waterways  to  the 


In  1783,  the  year  of  the  treaty  of  peace  with  England,  John  Ledyard, 
a  Connecticut  adventurer,  an  educated  man  and  a  British  corporal  of 
marines  under  Captain  Cook — also  a  deserter  from  the  British  army 
before  the  war  closed — published  an  account  of  the  romantic  voyages 
of  that  world  navigator.  The  mercurial  author  also  incorporated  not 
a  little  practical  information,  quoting  Captain  Cook's  glowing  account  of 
the  quantity  of  sea  otter  and  the  superior  quality  of  their  fur,  in  the 
regions  of  the  northwestern  Pacific.  And  although  England  had  lost 
the  war,  her  agents  were  already  preparing  to  explore  the  country  between 
the  Mississippi  valley  and  the  Pacific  coast.  Thomas  Jefferson  was  then 
governor  of  Virginia,  as  he  had  been  during  the  Revolution,  and  in  the 
year  of  the  Peace  he  suggested  to  Gen.  George  Rogers  Clark,  the 
elder  brother  of  Capt.  William  Clark,  a  way  to  checkmate  this  obvious 
intention  of  English  policy.  Jefferson's  words  to  Clark  were:  "I  find 
they  have  subscribed  a  very  large  sum  of  money  in  England  for  exploring 
the  country  from  the  Mississippi  to  California.  *  *  *  They  pretend 
it  is  only  to  promote  knowledge.  I  am  afraid  they  have  thoughts  of  colon- 
izing into  that  quarter.  *  *  *  Some  of  us  have  been  talking  here  in  a 
feeble  way  of  making  an  attempt  to  search  that  country,  but  I  doubt 
whether  we  have  enough  of  that  kind  of  spirit  to  raise  the  money.  How 
would  you  like  to  lead  such  a  party?  *  *  *  tho'  I  am  afraid  our 
prospect  is  not  worth  asking  the  question." 

Albeit  a  master  mind  was  pondering  the  scheme  of  a  Mississippi- 


Pacific  expedition,  the  time  was  not  yet  ripe  to  bring  it  to  fruition. 
In  the  year  following  his  proposition  to  General  (not  Captain)  Clark, 
while  serving  as  minister  to  France,  Jefferson  met  Ledyard  in  Paris. 
The  restless  adventurer  was  then  out  of  employment,  and  Jefferson, 
through  the  influence  of  the  Empress  Catherine's  representatives  in 
Europe,  enabled  Ledyard  to  travel  through  Russia  to  within  two  hundred 
miles  of  Kamschatka,  where  he  was  turned  back  arid  dismissed  (1788). 
Their  design  was  to  reach  the  Pacific  coast  of  America  by  way  of  the 
Russian  dominions,  and  pass  up  the  Oregon  Missouri  to  the  Mississippi 
valley.  The  proposed  agent  of  that  journey  died  in  Africa  in  the  follow- 
ing year. 


Ledyard's  account  of  the  voyages  of  Captain  Cook,  with  its  suggestions 
to  thrifty  Yankee  merchants,  was  enthusiastically  discussed  by  Doctor 
Bullfinch,  his  son  Charles,  and  Joseph  Barrell,  the  last  a  business  man  of 
considerable  wealth.  The  result  was  that  two  vessels  were  equipped 
and  an  expedition  fitted  out  to  sail  to  the  Pacific  coast.  They  were 
called  the  Columbia  and  the  Washington,  commanded  respectively  by 
John  Kendrick  and  Robert  Gray.  The  ships  sailed  from  Boston  on 
September  30,  1787,  and  in  January,  1788,  while  rounding  Cape  Horn, 
a  storm  separated  them.  In  August,  the  Washington  reached  the  north- 
west coast  near  the  forty-sixth  degree  of  latitude,  or  about  the  latitude 
of  the  Three  Forks  of  the  upper  Missouri  River  and  the  Oregon 

At  that  point  Captain  Gray  believed  that  he  saw  the  mouth  of  a 
river,  but  his  vessel  grounded,  his  party  were  attacked  by  the  Indians,  one 
of  them  killed  and  another  wounded ;  so  he  had  no  opportunity  to  verify 
his  conclusions.  On  the  I7th  of  September,  1788,  the  Washington 
sailed  into  Nootka  Sound,  on  the  west  coast  of  Vancouver  Island — the 
rendezvous  agreed  upon  in  the  event  of  separation,  and  she  was  joined 
there  a  few  days  later  by  the  Columbia. 

Both  ships  wintered  in  the  Sound  and  the  Columbia  continued  there 
during  the  summer  gathering  pelts.  Captain  Gray,  on  the  Washington, 
sailed  the  waters  near  by  making  explorations.  He  returned  to  Nootka, 
and  he  and  Captain  Kendrick  agreed  that  Kendrick  should  command 
the  Washington,  remaining  on  the  coast  to  pursue  his  discoveries,  while 
Captain  Gray,  on  board  the  Columbia,  should  proceed  to  Canton,  China, 
with  a  cargo  of  furs  representing  the  entire  catch  of  both  ships.  This 
plan  was  carried  into  effect.  Gray  reached  Canton,  disposed  of  his 
furs,  purchased  a  shipload  of  tea  and  returned  to  Boston  in  August, 
1790.  He  had  carried  the  United  States  flag  on  its  first  voyage  around 
the  world. 

While  Captain  Gray  was  on  his  voyage,  Kendrick  sailed  to  the  Straits 
of  Fuca,  traversing  their  entire  length  to  the  Pacific,  at  latitude  51  degrees. 
He  discovered  that  the  neighboring  lands  formed  an  island  which,  how- 
ever, took  the  name  of  the  British  commander,  Vancouver,  who  did  not 


make  the  discovery  until  the  following  year.  Captain  Kendrick  was 
killed  by  an  accident,  while  the  "Washington"  was  exchanging  a  salute 
with  a  Spanish  ship  off  the  Sandwich  islands. 

The  "Columbia,"  under  Gray,  after  discharging  her  cargo  at  Boston, 
was  refitted  by  her  owners  and  sent  on  a  second  voyage,  leaving  her 
home  port  in  September,  1790.  She  reached  a  point  near  the  entrance 
to  the  Straits  of  Fuca  on  June  5,  1791.  After  remaining  in  these  waters 
until  the  following  spring,  trading  and  exploring,  Captain  Gray  sailed 
southward  in  search  of  the  river  which  he  believed  he  had  seen  debouch- 
ing into  the  ocean  at  about  the  forty-sixth  degree  of  latitude.  On  this 
cruise  he  met  the  Vancouver  expedition,  and  notwithstanding  the  dis- 
couraging views  of  the  British  commander  as  to  the  existence  of  "any 
safe  navigable  opening,  harbor  or  place  of  security  for  shipping,  from 
Cape  Mendocinus  to  Fuca's  Strait,"  the  American  captain  proceeded  on 
his  way  southward. 

On  May  n,  1792,  according  to  the  log-book  of  the  ship,  penned  by 
Captain  Gray  himself,  he  saw  "an  entrance  which  had  a  very  good 
appearance  of  a  harbor."  Entering,  he  found  a  bay  which  he  named 
Bulfinch's  harbor,  for  Doctor  Bulfinch,  one  of  the  sip's  owners.  It  is  now 
known  as  Gray's  harbor. 

The  actual  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  is  thus  recorded: 
"May  ii  (1792),  at  eight  p.  m.,  the  entrance  of  Bulfinch's  harbor  bore 
north,  distance  four  miles.  Sent  up  the  main-top-gallant  yard  and  set 
all  sail.  At  four  a.  m.  saw  the  entrance  of  our  desired  port,  bearing 
east-south-east,  distance  six  leagues.  *  *  *  At  eight  a.  m.,  being  a 
little  windward  to  the  entrance  of  the  harbor,  bore  away  and  ran  in  east- 
north-east  between  the  breakers,  having  from  five  to  seven  fathoms  of 
water.  When  we  were  over  the  bar,  we  found  this  to  be  a  large  river  of 
fresh  water,  up  which  we  steered.  Many  canoes  came  alongside.  At  one 
p.  m.  came  to,  with  the  small  bower  in  ten  fathoms  black  and  white  sand. 
The  entrance  between  the  bars  bore  west-south-west,  distance  ten  miles; 
the  north  side  of  the  river  a  half  mile  distant  from  the  ship,  the  south 
side  of  the  same  two  and  a  half  miles  distant;  a  village  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river,  west  by  north,  distant  three-quarters  of  a  mile.  Vast 
numbers  of  natives  came  alongside.  People  employed  in  pumping  the  salt 
water  out  of  water-casks,  in  order  to  fill  with  fresh,  while  the  ship 
floats  in.  So  ends." 


The  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  by  Captain  Gray  laid  a 
firm  international  basis  for  the  American  claim  to  the  vast  extent  of 
country  watered  by  it.  For  a  dozen  years  afterward,  until  the  United 
States  acquired  the  vast  extent  of  country  known  as  Louisiana  from 
France,  the  government,  and  Jefferson  in  particular,  made  no  real  headway 
in  exploring  the  Missouri  and  the  newly  discovered  Columbia.  Capt. 
John  Armstrong,  one  of  those  who  accepted  the  mission,  got  as  far  as 
St.  Louis  and  turned  back  because  of  disquieting  stories  of  hostile  Indians 


told  to  him  by  French  traders,  and  one  of  Jefferson's  men,  a  famous 
French  botanist,  Michaux,  who  had  traveled  in  many  lands  of  the  Old 
World  in  search  of  strange  plants  and  trees,  had  commenced  his  scientific 
investigations  in  the  New  World.  The  Frenchman  started  from  Phila- 
delphia under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  and  the 
support  of  Washington's  cabinet,  of  which  Jefferson  was  then  secretary  of 
state,  on  the  I5th  of  July,  1794,  but  when  he  reached  Kentucky  got  en- 
tangled in  the  machinations  of  Citizen  Genet  against  Spain  and  England  in 
their  dealings  with  the  United  States,  and  the  two  fell  together.  Michaux 
returned  to  France  in  1796. 


In  1800,  after  having  been  shuffled  back  and  forth  between  France 
and  Spain,  for  several  years,  Louisiana  became  French  territory,  and 
Napoleon's  threatened  occupation  of  New  Orleans  menaced  the  free 
navigation  of  the  Mississippi,  as  had  been  the  case  when  it  was  under 
Spanish  ownership.  In  March,  1803,  President  Jefferson  sent  James  Mon- 
roe as  a  special  envoy  to  France  that  the  complications  between  the  two 
countries  might  be  disentangled  without  a  resort  to  war.  Monroe  was  even 
authorized  to  guarantee  to  France  her  holdings  beyond  the  Mississippi,  if 
the  United  States  could  be  assured  an  outlet  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  for  the 
ever-increasing  products  of  the  Mississippi  valley. 

While  Monroe  was  on  his  way  to  France,  Napoleon's  plans  had  all 
centered  on  his  ambition  to  crush  England  in  Europe.  No  outside  cam- 
paigns were  to  be  considered,  and  a  vast  expenditure  of  money  was  re- 
quired to  carry  out  his  consuming  desire.  Robert  R.  Livingston  was  the 
American  minister  at  the  French  Court,  and  while  he  was  in  no  sense 
superseded  by  Monroe,  President  Jefferson  and  his  cabinet  realized  that 
the  issues  involved  were  so  momentous  that  they  justified  the  addition  of 
Monroe's  long  experience  in  diplomatic  matters  to  the  abilities  of  Livings- 
ton. When  Monroe  arrived  Livingston  had  only  asked  of  France,  "  a  bit 
of  marsh  and  sand  off  the  extreme  end  of  West  Florida,  and  the  margin 
of  delta  land  that  lies  east  of  the  main  channel  of  the  Mississippi  between 
Lake  Pontchartrain  and  the  river's  mouth."  These  modest  sites  were  to 
serve  for  the  founding  of  a  town,  or  gateway,  through  which  might  pass 
the  American  trade  of  the  Mississippi  valley. 

Monroe  arrived  with  the  authorization  to  offer  France  $2,000,000 
for  New  Orleans  and  the  Floridas.  After  discussions  and  negotiations, 
in  which  the  chief  figures  were  Livingston,  Monroe  and  their  friend, 
Barbe  Marbois,  minister  of  the  public  treasury,  Tallyrand,  the  tool  of 
Napoleon,  threw  a  bomb  into  the  proceedings  by  suddenly  asking  what  the 
United  States  would  pay  for  the  entire  province  of  Louisiana.  To  cut 
many  corners  of  explanation,  which  are  hardly  apropos  to  a  clear-cut-his- 
tory of  Montana,  the  brilliant  dictator  of  France  offered  Louisiana — if 
taken  quick — to  Livingston  and  Monroe  for  $15,000,000.  There  were  no 
cables  by  which  they  could  consult  their  government,  and  like  brave  men 


they  assumed  the  heavy  responsibility  of  signing  the  treaty  of  session,  in 
behalf  of  the  United  States,  on  the  3Oth  of  April,  1803. 

This  all-important  treaty  was  between  the  United  States  of  America 
and  the  French  Republic,  or  more  personally,  as  stated  in  the  preamble, 
between  the  president  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  the  first 
consul  of  the  French  republic,  "in  the  name  of  the  French  people."  It 
also  specified  that  the  treaty  was  made  by  "the  president  of  the  United 
States,  by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate  of  the  United 
States ;"  consequently  Messrs.  Livingston  and  Monroe  were  assuming  con- 
siderable responsibility. 

The  treaty  traced  the  title  of  the  very  indefinite  province  through 
the  agreements  between  France  and  Spain,  and  stated  that  "the  inhabitants 
of  the  ceded  territory  shall  be  incorporated  in  the  Union  of  the  United 
States,  and  be  admitted  as  soon  as  possible,  according  to  the  principles 
of  the  Federal  Constitution,"  etc.  Provision  was  made  by  the  government 
of  France  to  send  a  commissary  to  Louisiana  to  take  over  that  country 
from  Spain  and  transmit  it  to  the  agent  of  the  United  States.  Special 
mention  was  made  of  the  military  posts  of  New  Orleans,  all  troops,  either 
of  France  or  Spain,  to  embark  from  occupied  territory  within  three 
months  from  the  ratification  of  the  treaty.  The  rights  of  Indians,  secured 
by  previous  treaties,  were  secured.  Equal  duties  were  accorded  Spanish, 
French  and  American  ships  passing  through  the  port  of  New  Orleans  for 
a  period  of  twelve  years  from  the  exchange  of  ratification  of  the  treaty. 
"It  is.  however,  well  understood,"  continues  the  article  dealing  with  this 
subject,  "that  the  object  of  the  above  article  is  to  favor  the  manufacture, 
commerce,  freight  and  navigation  of  France  and  Spain,  so  far  as  relates  to 
the  importations  that  the  French  and  Spanish  shall  make  into  the  said 
ports  of  the  United  States,  without  in  any  sort  affecting  the  regulations 
that  the  United  States  may  make  concerning  the  exportation  of  the 
produce  and  merchandise  of  the  United  States,  or  any  right  that  may  have 
to  make  such  regulations." 

Article  8  reads:  "In  future  and  forever,  after  the  expiration  of  the 
twelve  years,  the  ships  of  France  shall  be  treated  upon  the  footing  of 
the  most  favored  nations  in  the  ports  above  mentioned." 

When  news  of  the  daring  transactions  reached  Washington  in  June, 
1803,  there  was  a  storm  of  dissenting  opinions,  mostly  caused  by  politi- 
cal heats.  The  Republicans  (Democrats)  applauded  it  and  the  Federalists 
(Republicans)  vigorously  opposed  it,  but  it  was  ratified  by  Congress  in 
October.  In  November  and  December,  1803,  the  transfer  from  Spain 
to  France  and  from  France  to  the  United  States  was  formally  made  at 
New  Orleans,  and  in  the  early  part  of  March,  1804,  similar  ceremonies 
occurred  in  St.  Louis.  The  American  transfer  commissioner  at  St.  Louis 
was  Capt.  Amos  Stoddard,  an  officer  of  the  United  States  army  there 
stationed  and  accompanied,  the  greater  part  of  the  winter,  by  Capt. 
Meriwether  Lewis,  who  was  then  about  to  start  on  the  history-making 
expedition  to  the  Pacific  coast,  via  the  Missouri  and  Columbia  rivers. 
The  entire  province  had  been  transferred  by  the  Spanish  commission- 


ers  to  Pierre  Clement  Laussat,  the  French  representative,  and  by  him 
to  the  American  commissioners,  William  C.  C.  Claiborne,  who  had  been 
appointed  governor  of  the  new  province,  and  Gen.  James  Wilkinson, 
military  commander.  The  French  flag  was  then  hauled  down  and  Laussat 
proceeded  to  perform  the  same  offices  at  St.  Louis.  He  ordered  De 
Lassus,  lieutenant  governor  of  Upper  Louisiana,  with  headquarters  in  that 
place,  to  turn  his  district  over  to  Captain  Stoddard. 

On  March  9,  1804,  the  American  troops  under  command  of  Captain 
Stoddard's  adjutant,  Lieut.  Stephen  Worrell,  crossed  the  river  and 
escorted  Captains  Stoddard  and  Lewis  and  other  prominent  Americans 
to  the  government  house.  From  that  mansion  De  Lassus  read  a  pro- 
clamation releasing  all  French  inhabitants  in  the  district  from  allegiance 
to  their  mother  country.  After  this  the  transfer  was  formally  signed 
by  Lassus  for  France  and  Stoddard  for  the  United  States,  and  among 
the  witnesses  who  affixed  their  signatures  thereto  was  Capt.  Meri- 
wether  Lewis.  As  had  been  done  in  New  Orleans,  the  tri-color  of  France 
was  then  lowered,  the  Stars  and  Stripes  were  raised,  and  artillery  salutes 
and  martial  music  proclaimed  that  all  of  Louisiana  was  territory  of  the 
United  States. 


The  United  States  having  acquired  a  good  color  of  title  to  the  Oregon 
country  through  Captain  Gray's  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the  great 
Western  River  and  Jefferson,  evidently  convinced  that  Louisiana  would 
eventually  become  an  American  possession,  continued  his  efforts  to  obtain 
some  definite  knowledge  of  the  geography  and  possibilities  of  the  Trans- 
Mississippi  land.  Previous  failures  in  no  wise  dampened  his  ardor  to 
delve  into  the  grand  mysteries  of  that  unknown  country  which  loomed 
just  beyond  the  States.  Mature  men,  adventurers  and  scientists  had 
failed  him,  and  he  now  turned  to  young,  eager,  educated,  practical  and 
brave  young  men  for  the  consummation  of  the  grand  adventure.  He 
selected  for  this  purpose,  Capt.  Meriwether  Lewis,  his  private  secretary 
for  two  years  and  whom  he  greatly  admired  and  loved,  and  Capt.  Will- 
iam Clark,  a  younger  brother  of  Gen.  George  Rogers  Clark  and  an 
intimate  friend  of  Lewis.  When  Captain  Lewis  was  present  in  St.  Louis, 
as  one  of  the  prominent  figures  in  the  official  transfer  of  Louisiana  to  the 
United  States,  he  was  deep  in  the  work,  under  the  authority  and  instruc- 
tions of  President  Jefferson,  of  preparing  the  expedition  for  its  advance 
up  the  Missouri  to  the  Rockies  and  the  great  beyond. 


More  than  three  months  before  Louisiana  had  been  sold  to  the  United 
States — that  is,  January  18,  1803 — President  Jefferson  sent  a  confiden- 
tial communication  to  Congress  asking  that  $2,500  be  appropriated  for  an 
exploring  party  to  establish  friendly  relations  with  the  Indians  along  the 
route  and  secure  the  fur-trade  to  the  United  States  rather  than  leave 
it  in  the  hands  of  the  English  companies.  He  recommended  the  estab- 
lishment of  government  trading  posts,  by  which  he  hoped  to  "place 
within  their  (the  Indians')  reach  those  things  which  will  contribute 
more  to  their  domestic  comfort  than  the  possession  of  extensive  and 
uncultivated  wilds."  Jefferson  doubtless  felt  the  grandeur  of  the  pro- 
ject, but,  with  the  wisdoip  of  a  statesman  who  knew  he  was  dealing  with 
a  practical  nation  and  Congress,  placed  the  material  benefits  of  such 
an  expedition  and  exploration  foremost.  Elsewhere  in  his  message  of 
the  date  given,  he  adds :  "An  intelligent  officer,  with  ten  or  twelve  chosen 
men,  fit  for  the  enterprise  and  willing  to  undertake  it,  taken  from  our 
posts  where  they  may  be  spared  without  inconvenience,  might  explore 
the  whole  line  even  to  the  Western  ocean,  have  conference  with  the  natives 
on  the  subject  of  commercial  intercourse,  get  admission  among  them  for 




our  traders  as  others  are  admitted,  agree  on  convenient  deposits  for  an 
interchange  of  articles,  and  return  with  the  information  acquired  in  the 
course  of  two  summers.  Their  arms  and  accoutrements,  some  instru- 
ments of  observation  and  light  and  cheap  presents  for  tlie  Indians  would 
be  all  the  apparatus  they  could  carry,  and  with  the  expectation  of  a 
soldier's  portion  of  land  on  their  return  would  constitute  the  whole  ex- 
pense. Their  pay  would  be  going  on  whether  here  or  there.  While  other 
civilized  nations  have  encountered  great  expense  to  enlarge  the  boundaries 
of  knowledge  by  undertaking  voyages  of  discovery,  and  for  other  lit- 
erary purposes,  in  various  parts  and  directions,  our  nation  seems  to  owe 
to  the  same  object,  as  well  as  to  its  own  interests,  to  explore  this,  the 
only  line  of  easy  communication  across  the  continent,  and  so  directly 
traversing  our  own  part  of  it.  The  interests  of  commerce  place  the 
principal  object  within  the  constitutional  powers  and  care  of  Congress, 
and  that  it  should  incidentally  advance  the  geographical  knowledge  of  our 
own  continent  cannot  but  be  an  additional  gratification." 

In  April,  1803,  while  negotiations  were  still  pending  with  France, 
Captain  Lewis  was  collecting  his  equipment  at  Lancaster,  Harpers  Ferry 
and  other  places ;  in  May,  before  news  of  the  treaty  had  reached  America, 
he  received  his  first  set  of  instructions  from  the  President,  and  on  the 
5th  of  July,  after  the  tidings  had  been  received  in  Washington,  the  young 
leader  of  the  historic  expedition — then  in  his  twenty-eight  year — bade 
his  great  patron  farewell. 


The  most  authentic  source  of  information  regarding  the  famous  ex- 
pedition was  its  history  prepared,  by  order  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  States,  in  1814,  by  Paul  Allen.  In  the  preface  to  that  edi- 
tion the  editor  states :  "It  was  the  original  design  of  Captain  Lewis  to 
have  been  himself  the  editor  of  his  own  travels,  and  he  was  on  his 
way  towards  Philadelphia  for  that  purpose  when  his  sudden  death  frus- 
trated these  intentions.  After  a  considerable  and  unavoidable  delay, 
the  papers  connected  with  the  expedition  were  deposited  with  another 
gentleman,  who,  in  order  to  render  the  lapse  of  time  as  little  injurious 
as  possible,  proceeded  immediately  to  collect  and  investigate  all  the 
materials  within  his  reach. 

"Of  the  incidents  of  each  day  during  the  expedition  a  minute  jour- 
nal was  kept  by  Captain  Lewis  or  Captain  Clark,  and  sometimes  by 
both,  which  was  afterward  revised  and  enlarged  at  the  different  periods 
of  leisure  which  occurred  on  the  route.  These  were  carefully  perused 
in  conjunction  wtth  Captain  Clark  himself,  who  was  able  from  his  own 
recollection  of  the  journey,  as  well  as  from  a  constant  residence  in 
Louisiana  since  his  return,  to  supply  a  great  mass  of  explanations,  and 
much  additional  information  with  regard  to  part  of  the  route  which  has 
been  more  recently  explored.  Besides  these,  recourse  was  had  to  the 
manuscript  journals  kept  by  two  of  the  sergeants  (Patrick  Gass  and 


Charles  Floyd),  one  of  which,  the  least  minute  and  valuable,*  has  already 
been  published.  That  nothing  might  be  wanting  to  the  accuracy  of 
these  details,  a  very  intelligent  and  active  member  of  the  party,  Mr. 
George  Shannon,  was  sent  to  contribute  whatever  his  memory  might 
add  to  this  accumulated  fund  of  information.  *  *  * 

"To  give  still  further  interest  to  the  work,  the  editor  addressed 
a  letter  to  Mr.  Jefferson,  requesting  some  authentic  memoirs  of  Captain 
Lewis.  For  the  very  curious  and  valuable  information  contained  in  his 
answer,  the  public,  as  well  as  the  editor  himself,  owe  great  obligations 
to  the  politeness  and  knowledge  of  that  distinguished  gentleman." 


Jefferson's  article  is  not  only  of  deep  personal  interest  as  furnishing 
the  best  biography  of  Captain  Lewis,  of  limited  compass,  which  has  been 
published,  but  is  weighted  with  valuable  historic  matter  to  form  a  rich 
background  to  the  great  expedition  itself.  After  noting  the  birth  of 
Meriwether  Lewis,  "late  Governor  of  Louisiana,"  near  the  town  of 
Charlotteville,  Virginia,  August  18,  1778,  the  distinguished  statesman, 
who  writes  from  Monticello,  sketches  the  distinguished  Lewis  family 
of  Virginia.  His  great-uncle  married  a  sister  of  George  Washington,  and 
several  of  his  relatives  were  prominent  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  one  of 
whom  (his  uncle  and  guardian,  Nicholas)  fought  bravely  as  commander 
of  a  regiment  sent  against  the  Cherokee  Indians. 

Meriwether  Lewis  lost  his  father  at  an  early  age  and  this  brave, 
honest,  courteous  and  tender  uncle  and  his  widowed  mother  cared  for 
the  bold,  out-of-doors  boy,  huntsman  and  student.  At  thirteen  he  was 
put  to  Latin  school  and  after  five  years  of  schooling  returned  to  the 
home  farm,  but  his  instinct  for  adventure  induced  him  to  volunteer 
as  a  militiaman  in  the  suppression  of  the  Whiskey  Rebellion  of  West- 
ern Pennsylvania.  Soon  afterward  he  was  transferred  to  the  regular 
service  as  a  lieutenant  in  the  line  and  at  the  age  of  twenty-three  was 
promoted  to  a  captaincy;  "and,"  adds  Jefferson,  "always  attracting  the 
first  attention  where  punctuality  and  fidelity  were  requisite,  he  was 
appointed  paymaster  to  his  regiment.  • 


"About  this  time  a  circumstance  occurred  which,  leading  to  the  transac- 
tion which  is  the  subject  of  this  book,  will  justify  a  recurrence  to  its 
original  idea.  While  residing  in  Paris  (as  minister  to  France),  John 
Ledyard,  of  Connecticut,  arrived  there,  well  known  in  the  United  States 

*  This  low  estimate  of  the  value  of  the  Gass  Journal,  made  in  1814,  has  not 
been  sustained  by  estimates  of  historians  subsequently  made.  His  first  edition, 
published  in  1807,  was  for  seven  years  the  only  source  from  which  any  authentic 
knowledge  of  the  enterprise  could  be  obtained,  and  ever  since  (with  the  issue  of 
1814)  it  has  been  recognized  as  an  important  supplement  to  the  work  based  upon 
the  diaries  of  the  great  captains. 


for  energy  of  body  and  mind.  He  had  accompanied  Captain  Cook  on 
his  voyage  to  the  Pacific  Ocean  and  distinguished  himself  on  that  voy- 
age by  his  intepidity.  Being  of  a  roaming  disposition,  he  was  now 
panting  for  some  new  enterprise.  His  immediate  object  at  Paris  was 
to  engage  a  mercantile  company  in  the  fur  trade  of  the  western  coast 
of  America,  in  which,  however,  he  failed.  I  then  proposed  to  him  to  go 
by  land  to  Kamchatka,  cross  in  some  of  the  Russian  vessels  to  Nootka 
Sound,  fall  down  into  the  latitude  of  the  Missouri,  and  penetrate  to, 
and  through  that,  to  the  United  States.  He  eagerly  seized  the  idea, 
and  only  asked  to  be  assured  of  the  permission  of  the  Russian  Govern- 
ment. I  interested  in  obtaining  that,  M.  de  Simoulin,  minister  plenipo- 
tentiary of  the  empress  at  Paris,  but  more  especially  the  Baron  de  Grimm, 
minister  plenipotentiary  of  Saxe-Gotha,  her  more  special  agent  and  cor- 
respondent there  in  matters  not  immediately  diplomatic.  Her  permis- 
sion was  obtained,  and  an  assurance  of  protection  while  the  course  of  the 
voyage  should  be  through  her  territories. 

"Ledyard  set  out  from  Paris  and  arrived  at  St.  Petersburgh  after  the 
empress  had  left  that  place  to  pass  the  winter,  I  think,  at  Moscow.  His 
finances  not  permitting  him  to  make  unnecessary  stay  at  St.  Petersburgh, 
he  left  it  with  a  passport  from  one  of  the  ministers,  and  at  two  hundred 
miles  from  Kamschatka,  was  obliged  to  take  up  his  winter  quarters.  He 
was  preparing,  in  the  spring,  to  resume  his  journey,  when  he  was  arrested 
by  an  officer  of  the  empress,  who  by  this  time  had  changed  her  mind 
and  forbidden  his  proceeding.  He  was  put  into  a  closed  carriage  and  con- 
veyed day  and  night,  without  even  stopping,  till  they  reached  Poland, 
where  he  was  set  down  and  left  to  himself.  The  fatigue  of  this  journey 
broke  down  his  constitution,  and  when  he  returned  to  Paris,  his  bodily 
strength  was  much  impaired.  His  mind,  however,  remained  firm,  and  he 
after  this  undertook  the  journey  to  Egypt.  I  received  a  letter  from  him, 
full  of  sanguine  hopes,  dated  at  Cairo,  the  fifteenth  of  November,  1788, 
the  day  before  he  was  to  set  out  for  the  head  of  the  Nile ;  on  which  day, 
however,  he  ended  his  career  and  life — and  thus  failed  the  first  attempt 
to  explore  the  western  part  of  our  northern  continent." 


"In  1792  I  proposed  to  the  American  Philosophical  Society  that  we 
should  set  on  foot  a  subscription  to  engage  some  competent  person  to 
explore  that  region  in  the  opposite  direction;  that  is,  by  ascending  the 
Missouri,  crossing  the  Stony  mountains  and  descending  the  nearest  river 
to  the  Pacific.  Captain  Lewis,  being  then  stationed  at  Charlottesville 
on  the  recruiting  service,  warmly  solicitated  me  to  obtain  for  him  the 
execution  of  that  object.  I  told  him  it  was  proposed  that  the  person  en- 
gaged should  be  attended  by  a  single  companion  only,  to  avoid  exciting 
alarm  among  the  Indians.  This  did  not  deter  him ;  but  Mr.  Andre  Michaux, 
a  professed  botanist,  author  of  the  'Flora  Boreali-Americana,'  and  of  the 
'Histoire  des  Chesnes  d'  Amerique,'  offering  his  services,  they  were  ac- 
cepted. He  received  his  instructions,  and  when  he  had  reached  Kentucky 


in  the  prosecution  of  his  journey  he  was  overtaken  by  an  order  from 
the  minister  of  France,  then  at  Philadelphia,  to  relinquish  the  expedition, 
and  to  pursue  elsewhere  the  botanical  inquiries  on  which  he  was  employed 
by  that  government — and  thus  failed  the  second  attempt  for  exploring  that 


"In   1803,  the  act  for  establishing  trading  houses  with  the  Indian 
tribes  being  about  to  expire,  some  modifications  of  it  were  recommended 
to  Congress  by  a  confidential  message  of  January  i8th,  and  an  exten- 
sion of  its  views  to  the  Indians  on  the  Missouri.     In  order  to  prepare 
the  way,  the  message  proposed  the  sending  an  exploring  party  to  trace 
the  Missouri  to  its  source,  to  cross  the  Highlands  and  follow  the  best 
water  communication  which  offered  itself  thence  to  the  Pacific  ocean. 
Congress  approved  the  proposition  and  voted  a  sum  of  money  for  carry- 
ing it  into  execution.    Captain  Lewis,  who  had  then  been  near  two  years 
with  me  as  private  secretary,  immediately  renewed  his  solicitations  to 
have  the  direction  of  the  party.    I  had  now  had  opportunities  of  know- 
ing him  intimately.     Of  courage  undaunted;  possessing  a  firmness  and 
perseverance  of  purpose  which  nothing  but  impossibilities  could  divert 
from  its  direction ;  careful  as  a  father  of  those  committed  to  his  charge, 
yet  steady  in  the  maintenance  of  order  and  discipline;  intimate  with  the 
Indian  character,  customs  and  principles ;  habituated  to  the  hunting  life ; 
guarded,  by  exact  observation  of  the  vegetables  and  animals  of  his  own 
country,  against  losing  time  in  the  description  of  objects  already  pos- 
sessed ;  honest,  disinterested,  liberal,  of  sound  understanding,  and  a  fidelity 
to  truth  so  scrupulous  that  whatever  he  should  report  would  be  as  cer- 
tain as  if  seen  by  ourselves — with  all  these  qualifications,  as  if  selected 
and  implanted  in  one  body  for  his  express  purpose,  I  could  have  no 
hesitation  in  confiding  the  enterprise  to  him.     To  fill  up  the  measure' 
desired,  he  wanted  nothing  but  a  greater  familiarity  with  the  technical 
language   of   the   natural   sciences,   and   readiness   in   the   astronomical 
observations  necessary  for  the  geography  of  his  route.    To  acquire  these, 
he  repaired  immediately  to  Philadelphia  and  placed  himself  under  the 
tutorage   of   the   distinguished   professors   of  that  place,   who,   with   a 
zeal  and  emulation  enkindled  by  an  ardent  devotion  to  science,  communi- 
cated to  him  freely  the  information  requisite  for  the  purposes  of  the  jour- 
ney.    While  attending,  too,  at  Lancaster,  the  fabrication  of  the  arms 
with  which  he  chose  that  his  men  should  be  provided,  he  had  the  benefit 
of  daily  communication  with  Mr.  Andrew  Ellicot,  whose  experience  in 
astronomical  observation  and  practice  of  it  in  the  woods,  enabled  him 
to  apprise  Captain  Lewis  of  the  wants  and  difficulties  he  would  en- 
counter, and  of  the  substitutes  and  resources  offered  by  a  woodland  and 
uninhabited  country." 


In   April,    1803,    a   draft   of   his   instructions   was    sent   to    Captain 
Lewis,  and  President  Jefferson  signed  them  on  the  following  2Oth  of 


June.  These  included  a  list  of  accouterments,  instruments,  etc.,  to  be 
taken  by  the  expedition  of  from  ten  to  twelve  men,  and  assurances  of 
safe  conduct  from  the  ministers  of  France,  Spain  and  Great  Britain. 
Louisiana  had  been  ceded  by  Spain  to  France,  and  the  protection  of 
Great  Britain  entitled  Lewis  and  Clark,  with  their  men,  to  the  friendly 
aid  of  any  British  traders  whom  they  might  encounter.  After  stating 
the  main  object  of  the  mission  was  to  ascertain  "the  most  direct  and 
practicable  water  communication  across  the  continent  for  the  purposes 
of  commerce,"  Jefferson  entered  more  into  details:  "Beginning  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Missouri,  you  will  take  observations  of  latitude  and  lon- 
gitude at  all  remarkable  points  on  the  river,  and  especially  at  the 
mouths  of  rivers,  at  rapids,  at  islands  and  other  places,  and  objects 
distinguished  by  such  natural  marks  and  characters,  of  a  durable  kind 
as  that  they  may  with  certainty  be  recognized  hereafter.  The  courses 
of  the  river  between  these  points  of  obsevation  may  be  supplied  by  the 
compass,  the  log-line  and  by  time,  corrected  by  the  observations  them- 
selves. The  variations  of  the  needle,  too,  in  different  places  should  be 

"The  interesting  points  of  the  portage  between  the  heads  of  the 
Missouri  and  of  the  water  offering  the'  best  communication  with  the 
Pacific  ocean,  should  also  be  fixed  by  observation ;  and  the  course  of  the 
water  to  the  ocean,  in  the  same  manner  as  that  of  the  Missouri." 

The  president  cautioned  the  leader  of  the  expedition  to  take  great 
pains  in  recording  his  observations ;  to  make  several  copies  of  them,  and, 
as  a  special  safeguard  against  their  destruction  make  one  of  them  "on  the 
cuticular  membrane  of  the  paper-birch,  as  less  liable  to  injury  from 
damp  than  common  paper."  He  defined  the  special  objects  of  research 
among  the  different  Indian  tribes,  and  the  examination  of  the  physical 
features  of  the  country  was  to  be  conducted  with  a  view  of  ascertaining 
the  existence  of  vegetable  products  and  animals  not  known  to  the  "United 
States;"  also,  mineral  productions  of  any  kind,  especially  "metals,  lime 
stone,  pit-coal  and  saltpetre;  salines  and  mineral  waters,  noting  the  tem- 
perature of  the  last,"  and  "volcanic  appearances." 

"Although  your  route  will  be  along  the  channel  of  the  Missouri," 
the  instructions  continue,  "yet  you  will  endeavor  to  inform  yourself, 
by  inquiry,  of  the  character  and  extent  of  the  country  watered  by  its 
branches,  and  especially  on  its  southern  side.  The  North  river,  or  Rio 
Bravo,  which  runs  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  the  Rio  Colorado,  which 
runs  into  the  Gulf  of  California,  are  understood  to  be  the  principal 
streams  heading  opposite  to  the  waters  of  the  Missouri  and  running 
southwardly.  Whether  the  dividing  grounds  between  the  Missouri  and 
them  are  mountains  or  flat  lands,  what  are  their  distances  from  the 
Missouri,  the  character  of  the  intermediate  country  and  the  people  in- 
habiting it,  are  worthy  of  particular  inquiry.  The  northern  waters  of 
the  Missouri  are  less  to  be  inquired  after,  because  they  have  been  ascer- 
tained to  a  considerable  degree,  and  are  still  in  a  course  of  ascertain- 
ment by  English  traders  and  travelers;  but  if  you  can  learn  anything 
certain  of  the  most  northern  source  of  the  Mississippi,  and  of  its  position 


relatively  to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  it  will  be  interesting  to  us.  Some 
account,  too,  of  the  path  of  the  Canadian  traders  from  the  Mississippi, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Ouisconsing,  to  where  it  strikes  the  Missouri,  and 
of  the  soil  and  rivers  in  its  course,  is  desirable." 

Kind  treatment  of  the  natives  was  urged,  even  to  the  length  of 
offering  to  receive  some  of  their  young  people  and  educating  them  at 
government  expense.  Kine-pox  (vaccine)  matter  was  to  be  taken,  and 
endeavors  made  to  introduce  it  as  a  preventive  against  small-pox,  the 
scourge  of  the  red  race.  As  it  was  impossible  to  foresee  how  the  ex- 
pedition would  be  received  by  the  natives,  it  was  instructed  to  turn 
back,  if  it  met  with  extended  and  dangerous  opposition. 

"Should  you  reach  the  Pacific  Ocean,"  instructs  President  Jeffer- 
son, "inform  yourself  of  the  circumstances  which  may  decide  whether 
the  furs  of  those  parts  may  not  be  collected  as  advantageously  at  the 
head  of  the  Missouri  (convenient,  as  is  supposed,  to  the  waters  of  the" 
Colorado  and  Oregon  or  Columbia)  as  at  Nootka  sound,  or  any  other 
point  of  that  coast ;  and  that  trade  be  consequently  conducted  through  the 
Missouri  and  United  States  more  beneficially  than  by  the  circumnaviga- 
tion now  practiced." 

That  last  part  of  the  instructions  includes  advice  to  return  to  the 
United  States  by  way  of  Cape  Horn  or  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  if  the 
overland  trip  should  be  deemed  too  hazardous;  instructions  as  to  meet- 
ing expeditionary  expenses  and  the  appointment  of  a  successor  to  head 
the  expedition,  in  the  event  of  Captain  Lewis's  death. 

"While  these  things  were  going  on  here,"  continues  Jefferson,  "the 
country  of  Louisiana,  lately  ceded  by  Spain  to  France,  had  been  the  sub- 
ject of  negotiation  at  Paris  between  us  and  this  last  power,  and  had 
actually  been  transferred  to  us  by  treaties  executed  at  Paris  on  the 
thirtieth  of  April  (1803).  This  information,  received  about  the  first  of 
July,  increased  infinitely  the  interest  we  felt  in  the  expedition  and 
lessened  the  apprehension  of  interruption  from  other  powers.  Every- 
thing in  this  quarter  being  now  prepared,  Captain  Lewis  left  Washington 
on  the  fifth  of  July,  1803,  and  proceeded  to  Pittsburg,  where  other  articles 
had  been  ordered  to  be  provided  for  him.  The  men,  too,  were  to  be 
selected  from  the  military  stations  on  the  Ohio.  Delays  of  preparation, 
difficulties  of  navigation  down  the  Ohio  and  other  untoward  obstruc- 
tions, retarded  his  arrival  at  Cahokia  until  the  season  was  so  far 
advanced  as  to  render  it  prudent  to  suspend  his  entering  the  Missouri 
before  the  ice  should  break  up  in  the  succeeding  spring. 

"From  this  time  his  journal,  now  published,  will  give  the  history 
of  his  journey  to  and  from  the  Pacific  ocean,  until  his  return  to  St. 
Louis  on  the  23rd  of  September,  1806.  Never  did  a  similar  event  excite 
more  joy  through  the  United  States.  The  humblest  of  its  citizens  had 
taken  a  lively  interest  in  the  issue  of  this  journey,  and  looked  forward 
with  impatience  for  the  information  it  would  furnish.  Their  anxieties, 
too,  for  the  safety  of  the  corps  had  been  kept  in  a  state  of  excitement 
by  lugubrious  rumours,  circulated  from  time  to  time  on  uncertain 
authorities,  and  uncontradiction  by  letters  or  other  direct  information, 


from  the  time  they  had  left  the  Mandan  towns  on  their  ascent  up  the 
river  in  April  of  the  preceding  year  (1805)  until  their  actual  return 
to  St.  Louis." 


The  president  requested  Captain  Lewis  to  estimate  the  cost  of  the 
expedition,  which  the  latter  did  as  follows : 

Mathematical  instruments $    217 

Arms  and  accoutrements 81 

Camp  equipage 255 

Medicine  and  packing 55 

Means  of  transportation 43° 

Indian  presents 696 

Provisions 224 

Materials   for  making  up  the  various   articles   into 

portable  packs 55 

For  the  pay  of  hunters,  guides  and  interpreters 300 

In  silver  coin,  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  party 
from  Nashville  to  the  last  white  settlement  on  the 

Missouri    100 

Contingencies   87 

Total    $2,500 

These  were  but  preliminary  estimates  and,  as  the  importance  of 
the  expedition  increased  during  the  period  of  delay  which  resulted  in 
Louisiana  becoming  American  territory,  it  is  evident  that  they  were  not 
adhered  to. 


The  personnel  of  the  expedition  was  of  prime  importance,  however, 
Capt.  William  Clark,*  who  shared  the  honors  of  leadership  with  Captain 
Lewis,  was  four  years  the  senior  of  the  latter,  and  was  also  a  Virginian. 
During  his  boyhood,  the  family  moved  to  Louisville,  Kentucky,  and  in 
1796,  after  serving  for  eight  years  in  the  United  States  army  he  re- 
signed his  lieutenancy  in  the  service  on  account  of  ill  health.  At  one 
time,  Meriwether  Lewis  served  under  him.  In  March,  1804,  after  he  had 
been  selected  as  Captain  Lewis'  assistant,  he  received  a  commission  as 
second  lieutenant  of  artillery  and  not  as  captain  of  engineers,  as  he  had 
hoped.  So  that  the  title  of  "captain"  is  generally  applied  to  him ;  officially 
he  was  not  entitled  to  it.  He  was  also  Lewis'  subordinate,  although 

*  In  three  editions  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  journals,  the  latter  name  is  spelled 
with  an  "e";  Washington  Irving  also  gives  it  that  spelling.  On  the  contrary,  Cap- 
tain Clark  himself  omits  the  "e"  in  the  inscription  left  by  him  on  Pompey's  pillar; 
his  brother,  the  general,  always  signed  himself,  Clark,  as  did  his  son,  Jefferson 
Clark  of  St.  Louis.  As  the  bearer  of  the  name  himself,  as  well  as  his  near  relatives, 
invariably  omitted  the  "e",  it  should  be  the  duty  of  the  historian  to  follow  their 


his  official  superior  made  him  his  practical  equal  in  every  way  and  evi- 
dently they  were  both  harmoniously  working  for  the  common  cause— the 
laudable  success  of  a  great  American  expedition. 

"The  selection  of  the  men  for  the  expedition,"  says  a  modern  ac- 
count of  the  fine  venture,  "was  a  matter  of  importance  secondary  only 
to  the  choice  of  the  chiefs  themselves.  There  were  in  all — that  is, 
including  Lewis  and  Clark — forty-five  souls.  Among  them  were  frontier 
soldiers  of  the  regular  army,  who  volunteered  to  go.  They  had  seen 
service  at  the  posts  of  the  west.  There  were,  besides,  nine  young  Ken- 
tuckians,  two  French  watermen,  a  hunter,  who  also  served  as  interpreter, 
and  York,  the  negro  valet  of  Captain  Lewis.  Of  these  men,  all  but 
the  last  named,  were  enlisted  as  privates,  their  services  to  endure  through 
the  active  life 'of  the  expedition.  Three  of  them,  namely,  Floyd,  Pryor 
and  Ordway,  were  promoted  by  the  leaders  to  the  rank  of  sergeant. 
Besides  the  party  designed  for  the  complete  journey  of  exploration  a 
corporal,  six  soldiers  and  nine  watermen  were  taken  as  an  escort  as 
far  as  the  Mandan  villages  on  the  Missouri,  to  aid  in  transporting 
stores  and  also  to  give  their  military  aid  in  case  of  attack  by  hostile 
savages,  those  most  feared  dwelling  between  the  Wood  River  and  the 


It  is  far  beyond  the  scope  of  this  story  to  trace  the  real  com- 
mencement of  the  expedition  at  Pittsburg,  in  the  summer  of  1803,  when 
Captain  Lewis  was  there  recruiting  for  members  and  arranging  for 
transportation  down  the  Ohio  to  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri.  Dr.  James 
K.  Hosmer,  in  his  introduction  to  the  "Gass  Journal"  (edition  of  1904) 
goes  into  many  interesting  details  regarding  this  phase  of  the  enter- 
prise and  the  care  taken  by  Captain  Lewis  in  the  selection  of  his  men. 
The  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  Louisville,  were  at  last  reached,  and  at  the 
Point  of  Rock,  the  home  of  George  Rogers  Clark,  Lewis  met  his  yoke- 
fellow, William  Clark,  who  added  to  the  company  nine  young  men  from 
Kentucky,  carefully  selected  from  a  throng  of  volunteers.  Among  them 
was  John  Colter,  whose  adventures  were  to  be  the  most  thrilling  of  all 
the  members  of  the  expedition.  Delaying  as  little  as  possible,  Clark 
taking  charge  of  the  boat  with  its  important  freight,  worked  his  way 
down  stream,  then  up  to  St.  Louis;  while  Lewis,  following  the  "Vin- 
cennes  trace,"  proceeded  across  country  to  Kaskaskia.  Recruits  were 
picked  from  various  frontier  posts,  among  others  John  Ordway  and  Pat- 
rick Gass,  who  both  contributed  materially  to  the  literature  of  the  ex- 

"During  the  winter  of  1803-04,"  writes  Doctor  Hosmer,  "the  company 
was  well  disciplined  and  instructed  in  the  camp  at  Wood  River,  and  on 
the  9th  of  May  took  part  in  a  memorable  ceremony.  Major  Amos  Stod- 
dard  crossing  from  Cahokia,  received  from  Don  Carlos  de  Haut  de  Lassus, 
the  Spanish  governor,  the  surrender  of  St.  Louis,  the  last  post  in  the  pur- 
chased Louisiana.  It  was  an  occasion  of  solemnity.  The  flag  of  Spain 


being  lowered,  the  flag  of  France  took  its  place  for  a  brief  season. 
Then  arose  the  flag  of  the  stars  and  stripes,  its  dominion  henceforth 
unchallenged.  Confronting  the  Spanish  infantry  stood,  at  present,  the 
American  line,  among  them  the  picked  soldiers  of  Lewis  and  Clark,  a 
fine  array  of  manhood.  The  new  land  was  now  completely  possessed, 
and  the  next  week  the  Captains  set  forth  to  see  what  it  contained." 

The  chief  incidents  developed  by  the  voyage  from  St.  Louis,  up  the 
Missouri  River,  to  Fort  Mandan — near  the  present  site  of  Bismarck, 
North  Dakota — a  trip  of  sixteen  hundred  miles — was  the  death  of  Ser- 
geant Floyd,  at  the  present  site  of  Sioux  City,  Iowa,  on  August  20,  1804 ; 
the  desertion  of  two  of  the  men,  and  the  severe  punishment  (seventy-five 
lashes  with  the  "ramrod")  and  discharge  of  the  one  recaptured. 


The  start  from  St.  Louis  was  made  May  14,  1804,  and  the  Mandan 
villages  and  the  fort  were  reached  on  the  2nd  of  November,  of  that 
year.  There  the  party  were  joined  by  Charbonneau,  the  French-Cana- 
dian trapper  and  former  employe  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  and  his 
wife,  Sacajawea,  the  Bird  Woman,  a  native  of  the  Shoshone,  or  Snake 
nation,  and  whose  services  as  guide  and  advisor  gave  her  a  standing  in 
the  expedition  next  to  the  leaders  themselves.  Charbonneau,  who  was 
engaged  as  interpreter,  was  quarrelsome  and  unreliable;  his  wife,  the 
Bird  Woman,  was  brave,  faithful,  familiar  with  every  detail  of  her  na- 
tive land,  through  which  the  expedition  was  to  pass,  and  absolutely  re- 
liable. On  February  n,  1804,  she  had  been  delivered  of  a  son,  so  that 
when  the  expedition  of  thirty-two  members  left  Fort  Mandan,  on  April  7, 
1805,  Sacajawea  carried  with  her  a  baby  of  fourteen  months. 

The  Lewis-Clark  Journal  launches  the  expedition  thus:  "Having 
made  all  our  arrangements,  we  left  the  fort  about  five  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon.  The  party  now  consisted  of  thirty-two  persons.  Besides 
ourselves  were  Sergeants  John  Ordway,  Nathaniel  Pryor  and  Patrick 
Gass ;  the  privates  were  William  Bratton,  John  Colter,  John  Collins, 
Peter  Cruzatte,  Robert  Frazier,  Reuben  Fields,  Joseph  Fields,  George 
Gibson,  Silas  Goodrich,  Hugh  Hall,  Thomas  P.  Howard,  Baptiste  Lapage, 
Francis  Labiche,  Hugh  M'Neal,  John  Potts,  John  Shields,  George  Shannon, 
John  B.  Thompson,  William  Werner,  Alexander  Willard,  Richard  Winsor, 
Joseph  Whitehouse,  Peter  Wiser  and  Captain  Clark's  black  servant,  York. 
The  two  interpreters  were  George  Drewyer  and  Toussaint  Charbonneau. 
The  wife  of  Charbonneau  also  accompanied  us  with  her  young  child,  and 
we  hope  may  be  useful  as  an  interpreter  among  the  Snake  Indians.  She 
was  herself  one  of  that  tribe,  but  having  been  taken  in  war  by  the  Min- 
netarees,  by  whom  she  was  sold  as  a  slave  to  Charbonneau,  who  brought 
her  up  and  afterwards  married  her.  One  of  the  Mandans  also  embarked 
with  us,  in  order  to  go  to  the  Snake  Indians  and  obtain  a  peace  with  them 
for  his  countrymen.  All  this  party  with  the  baggage  was  stowed  in  six 
small  canoes  and  two  large  pirogues.  We  left  the  fort  with  fair, 
pleasant  weather,  though  the  northwest  wind  was  high,  and  after  making 


about  four  miles  encamped  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri,  nearly 
opposite  the  first  Mandan  village.  At  the  same  time  that  we  took  our 
departure  our  barge,  manned  with  seven  soldiers,  two  Frenchmen  and  Mr. 
Gravelines  as  pilot,  sailed  for  the  United  States  loaded  with  our  pres- 
ents and  despatches." 


The  party  proceeded  up  the  Missouri,  past  the  mouths  of  the  Big 
Knife,  Little  Missouri,  White  Earth  and  other  tributaries  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Yellowstone,  through  a  pleasant  land  of  elk,  deer,  beaver,  and 
Mandans  and  Assiniboines.  The  disagreeable  features  of  this  part  of 
the  expedition  were  evidently  the  high  winds,  which  caused  the  men's* 
eyes  to  be  sore,  and  the  cold  weather.  On  April  25th,  as  the  Yellow- 
stone was  approached,  near  the  present  boundary  between  North  Dakota 
and  Montana,  the  temperature  fell  so  low  that  the  water  froze  on  the 
oars  as  the  men  rowed,  which,  with  the  high  wind,  forced  a  halt.  "This 
detention  from  the  wind,"  notes  the  Journal,  under  that  date,  "and  the 
reports  from  our  hunters  of  the  crookedness  of  the  river,  induced  us 
to  believe  that  we  were  at  no  great  distance  from  the  Yellowstone  River. 
In  order,  therefore,  to  prevent  delay  as  much  as  possible,  Captain  Lewis 
determined  to  go  on  by  land  in  search  of  that  river  and  make  the  neces- 
sary observations,  so  as  to  be  enabled  to  proceed  on  immediately  after  the 
boats  should  join  him;  he  therefore  landed  about  eleven  o'clock  on  the 
south  side,  accompanied  by  four  men ;  the  boats  were  prevented  from 
going  until  five  in  the  afternoon,  when  they  went  on  a  few  miles  far- 
ther, and  encamped  for  the  night  at  the  distance  of  fourteen  and  a 
half  miles." 

Captain  Clark  evidently  writes  the  journal  at  this  point,  as  he 
says,  under  date  of  April  26,  1805 :  "We  continued  our  voyage  in  the 
morning  and  by  twelve  o'clock  encamped,  at  eight  miles  distance,  at  the 
junction  of  the  Missouri  and  Yellowstone  rivers,  where  we  were  soon 
joined  by  Captain  Lewis. 

"On  leaving  us  yesterday,  he  pursued  his  route  along  the  foot  of 
the  hills,  which  he  ascended  at  the  distance  of  eight  miles;  from  these 
the  wide  plains  watered  by  the  Missouri  and  the  Yellowstone  spread 
themselves  before  the  eye,  occasionally  varied  with  the  wood  of  the  banks, 
enlivened  by  the  irregular  windings  of  the  two  rivers  and  animated 
by  vast  herds  of  buffalo,  deer,  elk  and  antelope. 

"The  confluence  of  the  two  rivers  was  concealed  by  the  wood,  but 
the  Yellowstone  itself  was  only  two  miles  distant  to  the  south.  He 
therefore  descended  the  hills  and  encamped  on  the  bank  of  the  river, 
having  killed  as  he  crossed  the  plain  four  buffaloes;  the  deer  alone 
are  shy  and  retire  to  the  woods,  but  the  elk,  antelope  and  buffalo  suf- 
fered him  to  approach  without  alarm  and  often  followed  him  quietly  for 
some  distance.  This  morning  he  sent  a  man  up  the  river  to  examine 
it,  while  he  proceeded  down  to  the  juncture. 

"The  ground  on  the  lower  side  of  the  Yellowstone  near  its  mouth 


is  flat  and  for  about  a  mile  seems  to  be  subject  to  inundation,  while 
that  at  the  point  of  juncture,  as  well  as  that  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  Missouri,  is  at  the  usual  height  of  ten  or  eighteen  feet  above  the 
water  and  therefore  not  overflown.  There  is  more  timber  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  this  place  and  on  the  Missouri  as  far  below  as  the  White  Earth 
river,  than  on  any  other  part  of  the  Missouri  on  this  side  of  the  Cheyenne ; 
the  timber  consists  principally  of  cottonwood,  with  some  small  elm,  ash 
and  box  elder.  On  the  sandbars  and  along  the  margin  of  the  river  grows 
the  small-leafed  willow ;  in  the  low  grounds  adjoining  are  scattered  rose- 
bushes three  or  four  feet  high,  the  redberry,  serviceberry  and  redwood. 
The  higher  plains  are  either  immediately  on  the  river,  in  which  case  they 
are  generally  timbered  and  have  an  undergrowth  like  that  of  the  low- 
grounds,  with  the  addition  of  the  broad-leafed  willow,  gooseberry,  choke 
cherry,  purple  currant  and  honeysuckle;  or  they  are  between  the  low 
grounds  and  the  hills,  and  for  the  most  part  without  wood  or  anything 
except  large  quantities  of  wild  hysop;  this  plant  rises  about  two  feet 
high  and,  like  the  willow  of  the  sandbars,  is  a  favorite  food  of  the  buffalo, 
elk,  deer,  grouse,  porcupine,  hare  and  rabbit.  *  *  * 

"The  man  who  was  sent  up  the  river  reported  in  the  evening  that  he 
had  gone  about  eight  miles,  that  during  that  distance  the  river  winds 
on  both  sides  of  a  plain  four  or  five  miles  wide,  that  the  current  was 
gentle  and  much  obstructed  by  sandbars,  that  at  five  miles  he  had 
met  with  a  large  timbered  island,  three  miles  beyond  which  a  creek 
falls  in  on  the  southeast  above  a  high  bluff  in  which  are  several  strata 
of  coal.  The  country,  as  far  as  he  could  discern,  resembled  that  of 
the  Missouri,  and  in  the  plain  he  met  several  of  the  bighorn  animals 
but  they  were  too  shy  to  be  obtained. 

"The  bed  of  the  Yellowstone,  as  we  observed  it  near  the  mouth, 
is  composed  of  sand  and  mud,  without  a  stone  of  any  kind.  Just  above 
the  confluence  we  measured  the  two  rivers,  and  found  the  bed  of  the 
Missouri  five  hundred  and  twenty  yards  wide,  the  water  occupying  only 
three  hundred  and  thirty,  and  the  channel  deep;  while  the  Yellowstone, 
including  its  sandbar,  occupied  eight  hundred  and  fifty-eight  yards  with 
two  hundred  and  ninety-seven  yards  of  water;  the  deepest  part  of  the 
channel  is  twelve  feet,  but  the  water  is  now  falling  and  seems  to  be 
nearly  at  summer  height. 

"We  left  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  (April  27th).  From  the 
point  of  juncture  a  wood  occupies  the  space  between  the  two  rivers, 
which  at  the  distance  of  a  mile  came  within  two  hundred  and  fifty  yards 
of  each  other.  There  a  beautiful  low  plain  commences  and  widening, 
as  the  rivers  recede,  extends  along  each  of  them  for  several  miles,  rising 
about  half  a  mile  from  the  Missouri  into  a  plain  twelve  feet  higher 
than  itself.  The  low  plain  is  a  few  inches  above  high  water  mark, 
and  where  it  joins  the  higher  plain  there  is  a  channel  of  sixty  or  seventy 
yards  in  width,  through  which  a  part  of  the  Missouri,  when  at  its 
greatest  height,  passes  into  the  Yellowstone.  At  two  and  a  half  miles 
above  the  juncture  and  between  the  high  and  low  plain,  is  a  small 


lake  two  hundred  yards  wide,  extending  for  a  mile  parallel  with  the 
Missouri,  along  the  edge  of  the  upper  plain. 

"At  the  lower  extremity  of  this  lake,  about  four  hundred  yards 
from  the  Missouri  and  twice  that  distance  from  the  Yellowstone,  is  a 
small  lake  highly  eligible  for  a  trading  station;  it  is  in  the  high  plain 
which  extends  back  three  miles  in  width  and  seven  or  eight  miles  in 
length,  along  the  Yellowstone,  where  it  is  bordered  by  an  extensive 
body  of  woodland  and  along  the  Missouri  with  less  breadth,  till  three 
miles  above  it  is  circumscribed  by  the  hills  within  a  space  of  four 
yards  in  width.  A  sufficient  quantity  of  limestone  for  building  may 
easily  be  procured  near  the  junction  of  the  rivers;  it  does  not  lie  in 
regular  stratas,  but  is  in  large  irregular  masses,  of  a  light  color  and 
apparently  of  an  excellent  quality.  Game,  too,  is  very  abundant  and  as 
yet  quite  gentle.  Above  all,  its  elevation  recommends  it  as  preferable 
to  the  land  at  the  confluence  of  the  rivers,  which  their  variable  channels 
may  render  very  insecure." 

For  several  days,  or  until  about  the  ist  of  May,  1805,  wind  and 
weather  were  favorable  for  sailing,  and  the  Eastern  Missouri  valley  was 
traversed  until  the  Porcupine  Creek  was  reached.  This  is  a  northern 
tributary  of  the  Whitewater  River,  which,  with  the  Milk  River,  drains 
quite  a  section  of  Northern  Montana,  and  joins  the  Missouri  River  in 
the  southern  part  of  what  is  now  Valley  County.  All  along  the  route, 
game  was  very  abundant,  such  as  the  black  tailed  deer,  elk,  buffalo, 
antelope,  brown  bear  and  geese.  At  places,  the  beaver  had  committed 
great  ravages  among  the  trees,  "one  of  which,  nearly  three  feet  in 
diameter,  had  been  gnawed  through  by  them."  Captain  Lewis  had  a 
narrow  escape  from  a  wounded  white  bear  (a  grizzly,  evidently,  as  it. 
is  described  as  yellowish  brown  in  color).  In  the  vicinity  of  Martha's 
River,  east  of  Porcupine  Creek,  it  was  noted  that  "there  are  greater 
appearances  of  coal  than  we  have  hitherto  seen,  the  stratas  of  it  being 
in  some  places  six  feet  thick,  and  there  are  stratas  of  burnt  earth,  which 
are  always  on  the  same  level  with  those  of  coal." 

Speaking  of  the  antelope,  the  journal  observes:  "This  fleet  and 
quick-sighted  animal  is  generally  the  victim  of  its  own  curiosity:  when 
they  first  see  the  hunters,  they  run  with  great  velocity;  if  he  lies  down 
on  the  ground  and  lifts  up  his  arm,  his  hat  or  his  foot,  the  antelope 
returns  on  a  light  trot  to  look  at  the  object  and  sometimes  goes  and 
returns  two  or  three  times,  till  they  approach  within  reach  of  the  rifle; 
so,  too,  they  sometimes  leave  their  flock  to  go  and  look  at  the  wolves, 
who  crouch  down,  and  if  the  antelope  be  frightened  at  first,  repeat 
the  same  manoeuvre,  and  sometimes  relieve  each  other  till  they  decoy  it 
from  the  party,  when  they  seize  it.  But  generally  the  wolves  take  them 
as  they  are  crossing  the  rivers,  for,  although  swift  of  foot,  they  are 
not  good  swimmers." 

On  May  2nd,  while  nearing  Porcupine  Creek  "one  of  the  hunters, 
in  passing  an  old  Indian  camp,  found  several  yards  of  scarlet  cloth 
suspended  on  the  bough  of  a  tree,  as  a  sacrifice  to  the  deity  by  the  Assini- 
boines,  the  custom  of  making  these  offerings  being  common  among  that 


people,  as  indeed  among  all  the  Indians  on  the  Missouri."  On  the 
following  day,  near  their  encampment,  was  passed  "a  curious  collection 
of  bushes,  about  thirty  feet  high  and  ten  or  twelve  in  diameter,  tied 
in  the  form  of  a  fascine  (a  faggot  used  in  fortifications)  and  standing 
on  end  in  the  middle  of  the  low  ground."  It,  also,  was  supposed  to  have 
been  left  by  the  Indians  as  a  religious  offering. 

Fourteen  miles  farther  up  the  river  the  expedition  reached  the 
mouth  of  the  Porcupine  named  from  the  unusual  number  of  the  animal 
named  found  near  it.  In  the  journal  of  the  explorers,  it  may  be  con- 
founded with  Whitewater  River,  as  it  is  described  as  "a  bold  and 
beautiful  stream  one  hundred  and  twelve  yards  wide,  though  the  water 
is  only  forty  yards  at  its  entrance.  Captain  Clark,  who  ascended  it 
several  miles  and  passed  it  above  where  it  enters  the  highlands,  found  it 
continued  nearly  of  the  same  width  and  about  knee  deep,  and  as  far 
as  he  could  distinguish  for  twenty  miles  from  the  hills  its  course  was 
a  little  to  the  east  of  north.  There  was  much  timber  on  the  low  grounds ; 
he  found  some  limestone,  also,  on  the  surface  of  the  earth  in  the  course 
of  his  walk,  and  saw  a  range  of  low  mountains  at  a  distance  to  the 
west  of  north  (Little  Creek  Mountains)  whose  direction  was  northwest, 
the  adjoining  country  being  everywhere  level,  fertile,  open  and  ex- 
ceedingly beautiful. 

"The  water  of  this  river  is  transparent,  and  is  the  only  one  that 
is  so  of  all  those  that  fall  into  the  Missouri ;  before  entering  a  large 
sandbar  through  which  it  discharges  itself,  its  low  grounds  are  formed 
of  a  stiff  blue  and  black  clay,  and  its  banks,  which  are  from  eight  to 
ten  feet  high  and  seldom,  if  ever,  overflow,  are  composed  of  the  same 

"From  the  quantity  of  water  which  this  river  contains,  its  direction 
and  the  nature  of  the  country  through  which  it  passes,  it  is  not  im- 
probable that  its  sources  may  be  near  the  main  body  of  the  Saskaskawan 
(Saskatchewan),  and  as  in  high  water  it  can  be  no  doubt  navigated  to  a 
considerable  distance,  it  may  be  rendered  the  means  of  intercourse  with 
the  Athabasky  country,  from  which  the  northwest  company  derive  so 
many  of  their  valuable  furs. 

"A  quarter  of  a  mile  beyond  this  river,  a  creek  falls  in  on  the 
south,  to  which,  on  account  of  its  distance  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Missouri,  we  gave  it  the  name  of  Two-thousand  Mile  creek;  it  is  a 
bold  stream,  thirty  yards  wide." 

Game,  both  small  and  large,  was  very  abundant  in  this  region,  where 
members  of  the  party  encountered  and  killed  the  largest  brown  bear  they 
had  yet  seen.  Although  pierced  with  five  rirle  balls  through  his  lungs  and 
five  others  in  other  portions  of  his  body,  he  swam  half  way  across 
the  river  to  a  sandbar  and  then  survived  twenty  minutes.  The  animal 
weighed  about  six  hundred  pounds  and  measured  over  eight  and  a  half 
feet  from  the  nose  to  the  extremity  of  the  hind  foot,  five  feet  and  ten 
inches  around  the  breast  and  three  feet  eleven  inches  around  the  neck. 
'On  May  6th,  the  expedition  crossed  and  named  Big  Dry  and  Little 
Dry  creeks,  in  the  present  county  of  Garfield,  which  still  appear  on  the 


map  under  those  designations.  The  origin  of  the  name  is  given  in  the 
Lewis-Clark  journal,  thus:  "We  passed  three  streams  on  the  south: 
the  first,  at  the  distance  of  one  mile  and  a  half  from  our  camp,  was 
about  twenty-five  yards  wide,  but  although  it  contained  some  water  in 
standing  pools,  it  discharges  none.  This  we  called  Little  Dry  Creek, 
about  eight  miles  beyond  which  is  Big  Dry  creek,  fifty  yards  wide,  without 
any  water;  the  third  is  six  miles  further,  and  has  the  bed  of  a  large 
river  two  hundred  yards  wide,  yet  without  a  drop  of  water;  like  the 
other  two,  this  stream,  which  we  called  Big  Dry  river,  continues  its 
width  undiminished  as  far  as  we  can  discern." 


Two  days  afterward,  a  light  breeze  from  the  east  carried  their  boat, 
sixteen  miles,  to  the  mouth  of  a  river  which  came  in  from  the  north. 
Captain  Clark,  on  ascending  a  high  point  opposite  to  its  entrance,  dis- 
covered a  level  and  beautiful  country  which  it  watered;  that  its  course 
for  twelve  or  fifteen  miles  was  northwest,  when  it  divided  into  two 
nearly  equal  branches,  one  pursuing  a  direction  nearly  north,  the  other  to 
the  west  of  north.  Its  width  at  the  entrance  to  the  Missouri,  in  the 
southern  part  of  what  is  now  Valley  County,  was  one  hundred  and  fifty 
yards.  A  few  miles  up  stream,  it  was  found  to  be  of  the  same  breadth — 
deep,  gentle  and  carrying  a  large  volume  of  water.  Its  bed  was  formed 
of  a  dark,  rich  loam  and  blue  clay;  banks  some  twelve  feet  in  height; 
the  low  grounds  near  it  wide  and  fertile  and  bearing  much  cottonwood 
and  willow.  The  river  had  to  be  named,  and  the  expeditionary  journal 
of  May  8,  1805,  makes  record:  "It  seems  to  be  navigable  for  boats  and 
canoes,  and  this  circumstance,  joined  to  its  course  and  the  quantity  of 
water,  which  indicates  that  it  passes  through  a  large  extent  of  country, 
we  are  led  to  presume  that  it  may  approach  the  Saskashawan  and  afford 
a  communication  with  that  river.  The  water  has  peculiar  whiteness, 
such  as  might  be  produced  by  a  table  spoon  full  of  milk  in  a  dish  of  tea, 
and  this  circumstance  induced  us  to  call  it  Milk  River." 


The  next  river  of  any  consequence  reached  by  the  expedition  was 
the  Muscleshell,  or  Musselshell.  Progress  to  this  point  had  been  ac- 
complished by  a  twelve-days'  journey  from  the  Milk  River  district.  On 
May  20th,  the  camp  was  pitched  at  the  upper  point  of  the  river's  juncture 
with  the  Missouri,  from  the  south.  "This  stream,"  says  the  record, 
"which  we  suppose  to  be  that  called  by  the  Minnetarees  the  Muscleshell 
river,  empties  into  the  Missouri  two  thousand  two  hundred  and  seventy 
miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  latter  river,  and  in  latitude  47°  o'  24"6 
north.  It  is  one  hundred  and  ten  yards  wide  and  contains  more  water 
than  streams  of  that  size  usually  do  in  this  country;  its  current  is  by 
no  means  rapid  and  there  is  every  appearance  of  its  being  navigable  by 
canoes  for  a  considerable  distance;  its  bed  is  chiefly  formed  of  coarse 

Vol.  1—8 


sand  and  gravel,  with  an  occasional  mixture  of  black  mud;  the  banks 
abrupt  and  nearly  twelve  feet  high,  so  that  they  are  secure  from  being 
overflowed;  the  water  is  of  a  greenish  yellow  cast  and  much  more  trans- 
parent than  that  of  the  Missouri,  which  itself,  though  clearer  than  below, 
still  retains  its  whitish  hue  and  a  portion  of  its  sediment.  Opposite  to 
the  point  of  juncture  the  current  of  the  Missouri  is  gentle  and  two 
hundred  and  twenty-two  yards  in  width,  the  bed  principally  of  mud 
(the  little  sand  remaining  being  wholly  confined  to  the  points)  and  still 
too  deep  to  use  the  setting  pole.  If  this  be,  as  we  suppose,  the  Muscle- 
shell,  our  Indian  information  is  that  it  rises  in  the  first  chain  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains  not  far  from  the  sources  of  the  Yellowstone,  whence, 
in  its  course  to  this  place,  it  waters  a  high,  broken  country,  well 
timbered,  particularly  on  its  borders,  and  interspersed  with  handsome 
fertile  plains  and  meadows.  *  t*  *  They  also  reported  that  the 
country  is  broken  and  irregular  like  that  near  our  camp;  that  about  five 
miles  up  a  handsome  river  about  fifty  yards  wide,  which  we  named  after 
Charbonneau's  wife,  Sahcajahweah,  or  Birdwoman's  river,  discharges 
itself  into  the  Muscleshell  on  the  north  or  upper  side. 

"Another  party  found  at  the  foot  of  the  southern  hills,  about  four 
miles  from  the  Missouri,  a  fine  bold  spring,  which  in  this  country  is 
so  rare  that  since  we  left  the  Mandans  we  have  found  only  one  of  a 
similar  kind,  and  that  was  under  the  bluffs  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Missouri,  at  some  distance  from  it  and  about  five  miles  below  the 
Yellowstone;  with  this  exception,  all  the  small  fountains,  of  which  we 
have  met  a  number,  are  impregnated  with  the  salts  which  are  so  abundant 
here,  and  with  which  the  Missouri  is  itself  most  probably  tainted  though 
to  us  who  have  been  so  much  accustomed  to  it,  the  taste  is  not  per- 

Continuing  up  the  Missouri  River,  the  game  became  scarcer  and  the 
country  more  broken,  and  the  leaders  commenced  to  speculate  whether  or 
not  they  were  not  approaching  the  outposts  of  the  great  Rockies,  or 
continental  divide,  which  was  the  immediate  objectt  of  their  voyage. 
On  May  25th,  they  record :  "The  high  country  through  which  we  have 
passed  for  some  days,  and  where  we  now  are,  we  suppose  to  be  a 
continuation  of  what  the  French  traders  called  the  Cote  Noire  or  Black 
Hills.  The  country  thus  denominated  consists  of  high,  broken,  irregular 
hills  and  short  chains  of  mountains,  sometimes  one  hundred  and  twenty 
miles  in  width,  sometimes  narrower,  but  always  much  higher  than  the 
country  on  either  side.  They  commence  about  the  head  of  the  Kansasa, 
where  they  diverge,  the  first  ridge  going  westward  along  the  northern 
shore  of  the  Arkansaw;  the  second  approaches  the  Rocky  Mountains 
obliquely  in  a  course  a  little  to  the  west  of  northwest,  and  after  passing 
the  Platte  above  its  forks  and  intersecting  the  Yellowstone  near  the 
Bigbend,  crosses  the  Missouri  at  this  place,  and  probably  swell  the 
country  as  far  as  the  Saskashawan,  though  as  they  are  represented  much 
smaller  here  than  to  the  south  they  may  not  reach  that  river." 

What  are  now  known  as  the  Black  .Hills  are  much  more  circum- 
scribed than  the  supposititious  range  noted  in  the  Lewis-Clark  journal. 






On  the  day  after  noting  the  broken  appearance  of  the  country  through 
which  they  were  passing,  the  first  view  was  obtained  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  From  the  description,  they  were  probably  some  portions 
of  the  Belt  Range  of  Central  Montana.  "It  was  here,"  says  the  journal, 
"that,  after  ascending  the  highest  summits  of  the  hills  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river,  Captain  Lewis  first  caught  a  distant  view  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  the  object  of  all  our  hopes  and  the  reward  of  all  our 
ambition.  On  both  sides  of  the  river  and  at  no  great  distance  from  it, 
the  mountains  followed  its  course;  above  these,  at  the  distance  of  fifty 
miles  from  us,  an  irregular  range  of  mountains  spread  themselves  from 
west  to  northwest  from  his  position.  To  the  north  of  these  a  few  elevated 
points,  the  most  remarkable  of  which  bore  north  65°  west,  appeared 
above  the  horizon,  and  as  the  sun  shone  on  the  snows  of  their  summits 
he  obtained  a  clear  and  satisfactory  view  of  those  mountains  which 
close  on  the  Missouri  the  passage  of  the  Pacific." 

It  is  probable  that  the  hills  from  which  Captain  Lewis  thus  obtained 
his  first  ravishing  view  of  the  outskirts  of  the  Rockies  were  what  are 
now  known  as  Little  Creek  Mountains,  as  shortly  afterward  the  members 
of  the  party  congratulated  themselves  "as  having  escaped  from  the  last 
ridges  of  the  Black  Mountains,"  and  discovered  and  named  "Bull  creek." 
"To  further  fix  the  locality,  on  the  following  day  they  came  to  a  handsome 
river,  which  discharges  itself  on  the  south  and  which  we  ascended  to 
the  distance  of  a  mile  and  a  half.  We  called  it  Judith  river;  it  rises 
in  the  Rocky  Mountains,  in  about  the  same  place  with  the  Muscleshell 
and  near  the  Yellowstone  river." 


"On  the  north,"  reads  the  journal  of  May  29,  1805,  "we  passed  a 
precipice  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  high,  under  which  lay 
scattered  the  fragments  of  at  least  one  hundred  carcasses  of  buffaloes, 
although  the  water,  which  had  washed  away  the  lower  part  of  the  hill, 
must  have  carried  off  many  of  the.  dead.  These  buffaloes  had  been 
chased  down  the  precipice  in  a  way  very  common  on  the  Missouri,  and 
by  which  vast  herds  are  destroyed  in  a  moment.  The  mode  of  hunting 
is  to  select  one  of  the  most  active  and  fleet  young  men,  who  is  disguised 
by  a  buffalo  skin  round  his  body,  the  skin  of  the  head,  with  the  ears  and 
horns,  fastened  on  his  own  head  in  such  a  way  as  to  deceive  the 
buffalo ;  thus  dressed  he  fixes  himself  at  a  convenient  distance  between  a 
herd  of  buffalo  and  any  of  the  river  precipices,  which  sometimes  extend 
for  some  miles.  His  companions,  in  the  meantime,  get  in  the  rear  and 
side  of  the  herd,  and  at  a  given  signal  show  themselves  and  advance 
toward  the  buffalo ;  they  instantly  take  the  alarm  and  finding  the  hunters 
beside  them,  they  run  toward  the  disguised  Indian  or  decoy,  who  leads 
them  on  at  full  speed  toward  the  river,  when  suddenly  securing  himself 
in  some  crevice  of  the  cliff  which  he  had  previously  fixed  on,  the  herd 


is  left  on  the  brink  of  the  precipice.  It  is  then  in  vain  for  the  foremost  to 
retreat  or  even  stop.  They  are  pressed  on  by  the  hindmost  rank,  who, 
seeing  no  danger  but  from  the  hunters,  goad  on  those  before  them 
till  the  whole  are  precipitated  and  the  shore  is  strewn  with  their  dead 

"Sometimes  in  this  perilous  seduction,  the  Indian  is  himself  either 
trodden  under  foot  by  the  rapid  movements  of  the  buffalo,  or  missing 
his  footing  in  the  cliff  is  urged  down  the  precipice  by  the  falling  herd. 
The  Indians  then  select  as  much  meat  as  they  wish,  and  the  rest  is 
abandoned  to  the  wolves,  and  creates  a  most  dreadful  stench.  The 
wolves  who  had  been  feasting  on  these  carcasses  were  very  fat,  and  so 
gentle  that  one  of  them  was  killed  with  an  esponton.  Above  this  place 


we  came  to  for  dinner  at  the  distance  of  seventeen  miles,  opposite  to  a 
bold  running  river  of  twenty  yards  wide,  and  falling  in  on  the  south. 
From  the  objects  we  had  just  passed  we  called  this  stream  Slaughter 

For  several  days,  the  party  passed  through  a  region  of  fantastic 
sandstone  cliffs  and  hills  of  freestone,  and  obtained  another  distant 
view  of  the  Rockies  from  some  of  the  most  considerable  eminences.  On 
the  2nd  of  June  a  string  of  islands  drew  their  attention,  and  at  night 
of  that  day  they  encamped  "in  a  handsome  low  cotton  wood  plain  on  the 
south,"  where  they  remained  "for  the  purpose  of  making  some  celestial 
observations  during  the  night,  and  of  examining  in  the  morning  a  large 
river"  which  flowed  into  the  Missouri  opposite  their  encampment,  from 
the  north. 

At  an  early  hour  of  the  following  day  (June  3rd),  the  expedition 
pitched  its  camp  in  the  point  formed  by  the  junction  of  Maria's  River 
with  the  Missouri.  "It  now  became  an  interesting  question,"  continues 


the  journal  of  the  perplexed  explorers,  "which  of  these  two  streams 
is  what  the  Minnetarees  call  Ahmateahza,  or  the  Missouri,  which  they 
described  as  approaching  very  near  to  the  Columbia.  On  our  right 
decision  much  of  the  fate  of  the  expedition  depends;  since  if,  after 
ascending  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  or  beyond  them,  we  should  find  that 
the  river  we  were  following  did  not"  come  near  the  Columbia,  and  be 
obliged  to  return,  we  should  not  only  lose  the  traveling  season,  two 
months  of  which  hard  already  elapsed,  but  probably  dishearten  the  men 
so  much  as  to  induce  them  either  to  abandon  the  enterprise,  or  yield 
us  a  cold  obedience  instead  of  the  warm  and  zealous  support  which  they 
have  hitherto  afforded  us. 

"We  determined,  therefore,  to  examine  well  before  we  decided  on 
our  future  course ;  and  for  this  purpose  dispatched  two  canoes  with  three 
men  up. each  of  the  streams,  with  orders  to  ascertain  the  width,  depth 
and  rapidity  of  the  current,  so  as  to  judge  of  their  comparative  bodies 
of  water.  At  the  same  time  parties  were  sent  out  by  land  to  penetrate 
the  country  and  discover  from  the  rising  grounds,  if  possible,  the  distant 
bearings  of  the  two  rivers;  and  all  were  directed  to  return  towards 
evening.  While  they  were  gone  we  ascended  together  the  high  grounds 
in  the  forks  of  these  two  rivers,  whence  we  had  a  very  extensive  prospect 
of  the  surrounding  country. 

"On  every  side  it  was  spread  into  one  vast  plain  covered  with  verdure, 
in  which  innumerable  herds  of  buffaloes  were  roaming,  .attended  by 
their  enemies,  the  wolves ;  some  flocks  of  elks  were  seen,  and  the  solitary 
antelopes  were  scattered  with  their  young  over  the  face  of  the  plain.  To 
the  south  was  a  range  of  lofty  mountains,  which  we  supposed  to  be  a 
continuation  of  the  South  Mountain,  stretching  themselves  from  southeast 
to  northwest  (probably  the  Belt  Range),  and  terminating  abruptly  about 
southwest  from  us.  These  were  partially  covered  with  snow;  but  at 
a  great  distance  behind  them  was  a  more  lofty  ridge  completely  covered 
with  snow,  which  seemed  to  follow  the  same  direction  as  the  first,  reaching 
from  west  to  the  north  of  northwest  (perhaps  the  Big  Belt  Mountains), 
where  their  snowy  tops  were  blended  with  the  horizon. 

"The  direction  of  the  rivers  could  not,  however,  be  long  dis- 
tinguished, as  they  were  soon  lost  in  the  extent  of  the  plain.  On  our 
return  we  continued  our  examination;  the  width  of  the  north  branch 
is  two  hundred  yards,  that  of  the  south  is  three  hundred  and  seventy-two. 
The  north,  although  narrower  and  with  a  gentler  current,  is  deeper  than 
the  south ;  its  waters,  too,  are  of  the  same  whitish  brown  color,  thickness 
and  turbidness ;  they  run  in  the  same  boiling  and  rolling  manner  which 
has  uniformly  characterized  the  Missouri ;  and  its  bed  is  composed  of 
some  gravel,  but  principally  mud.  The  south  fork  is  deeper,  but  its 
waters  are  perfectly  transparent;  its  current  is  rapid,  but  the  surface 
smooth  and  unruffled;  and  its  bed,  too,  is  composed  of  round  and  flat 
smooth  stones  like  those  of  rivers  issuing  from  a  mountainous  country. 
The  air  and  character  of  the  north  fork  so  much  resemble  those  of  the 
Missouri  that  almost  all  the  party  believe  that  to  be  the  true  course  to 
be  pursued.  We,  however,  although  we  have  given  no  decided  opinion 


are  inclined  to  think  otherwise,  because,  although  this  branch  does  give 
the  colour  and  character  to  the  Missouri,  yet  these  very  circumstances 
induce  an  opinion  that  it  rises  in  and  runs  through  an  open  plain  country, 
since  if  it  came  from  the  mountains  it  would  be  clearer,  unless,  which 
from  the  position  of  the  country  is  improbable,  it  passed  through  a  vast 
extent  of  low  ground  after  leaving  them.  We  thought  it  probable  that 
it  did  not  even  penetrate  the  Rocky  Mountains,  but  drew  its  sources 
from  the  open  country  towards  the  lower  and  middle  parts  of  the 
Saskashawan,  in  a  direction  north  of  this  place. 

"What  embarrasses  us  most  is,  that  the  Indians,  who  appeared  to  be 
well  acquainted  with  the  geography  of  the  country,  have  not  mentioned 
this  northern  river;  for  'the  river  which  scolds  at  all  others,'  as  it  is 
termed,  must  be,  according  to  their  account,  one  of  the  rivers  which  we 
have  passed;  and  if  this  north  fork  be  the  Missouri,  why  have  they  not 
designated  the  south  branch,  which  they  must  also  have  passed  in  order 
to  reach  the  great  falls  which  they  mention  on  the  Missouri?" 


The  foregoing  extracts  are  taken  from  the  journal  to  show  the  care 
with  which  the  leaders  examined  all  the  evidences  and  the  wisdom  of 
their  general  conclusion  that  their  way  to  the  mountains  lay  along  the 
south  rather  than  the  north  fork.  After  examining  the  streams  and 
the  neighboring  country  several  days  more,  Captain  Lewis  became  con- 
vinced that  the  northern  stream  pursued  a  direction  too  far  north  for 
their  desired  route  to  the  Pacific,  by  way  of  the  Columbia.  On  the  8th 
of  June,  1805,  as  his  party  came  down  the  river,  all  its  members,  except 
he  himself,  "were  of  opinion  that  this  river  was  the  true  Missouri;  but 
Captain  Lewis,  being  fully  persuaded  that  it  was  neither  the  main  stream 
nor  that  which  it  would  be  advisable  to  ascend,  gave  it  the  name  of 
Maria's  River.  After  travelling  all  day  they  reached  the  camp  at  five 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  found  Captain  Clark  and  the  party  very 
anxious  for  their  safety,  as  they  had  staid  two  days  longer  than  had 
been  expected." 

Elsewhere  Captain  Lewis  states :  "I  determined  to  give  it  a  name,  and 

in  honour  of  Miss  Maria  W d  called  it  Maria's  River.  It  is  true  that 

the  hue  of  the  waters  of  this  turbulent  and  troubled  stream  but  illy 
comport  with  the  pure  celestial  virtues  and  amiable  qualifications  of  that 
lovely  fair  one;  but  on  the  other  hand  it  is  a  noble  river;  one  destined 
to  become  in  my  opinion  an  object  of  contention  between  the  two  great 
powers  of  America  and  Great  Britain,  with  respect  to  the  adjustment  of 
the  North-westwardly  boundary  of  the  former,  and  that  it  will  become  one 
of  the  most  interesting  branches  of  the  Missouri." 

Dr.  Elliott  Coues,  the  learned  editor  of  the  1893  edition  of  the  journal, 
adds  this  enlightening  bit  of  information :  "The  Ulyssean  young  captain 
is  not  successful  in  concealing  the  name  of  'that  lovely  fair  one';  for 
<W— d'  spells  'Wood'  without  any  vowels.  This  lady  was  Miss  Maria 
Wood,  a  cousin  of  his,  afterward  Mrs.  M.  Clarkson.  There  were  a 


number  of  intermarriages  between  the  Virginia  Meriwethers,  Lewises 
and  Woods ;  but  one  such,  the  prospect  of  which  Captain  Lewis  may  have 
cherished  in  his  heart  of  hearts,  was  destined  never  to  be." 

Captain  Clark's  independent  explorations  up  the  valley  of  Maria's 
River  had  also  reconfirmed  his  belief  that  the  stream  mentioned  was 
not  the  one  to  be  pursued.  Furthermore,  as  he  states  in  his  contribution 
to  the  journal,  "the  Indians  had  assured  us,  also,  that  the  water  of 
the  Missouri  was  nearly  transparent  at  the  falls ;  this  is  the  case  with  the 
southern  branch;  that  the  falls  lay  a  little  to  the  south  of  sunset  from 
them ;  this,  too,  is  in  favor  of  the  southern  fork,  for  it  bears  considerably 
to  the  south  of  this  place ;  that  the  falls  are  below  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
and  near  the  northern  termination  of  one  range  of  those  mountains. 
Now,  there  is  a  ridge  of  mountains  which  appear  behind  the  South 
mountains  and  terminates  to  the  southwest  of  us  (Little  Belt  Mountains), 
at  a  sufficient  distance  from  the  unbroken  chain  of  the  Rocky  Mountains 
to  allow  spaces  for  several  falls,  indeed,  we  fear,  for  too  many  of  them." 

The  observations  and  conclusions  of  Captains  Lewis  and  Clark  were 
communicated  to  the  reunited  party.  But  every  one  of  them  were  of  a 
contrary  opinion,  and  much  of  their  belief  depended  on  Crusatte,  an 
experienced  waterman  on  the  Missouri,  who  gave  it  as  his  decided  judg- 
ment that  the  north  fork  was  the  genuine  Missouri.  The  men  therefore 
said  that  although  they  would  cheerfully  follow  their  leaders  wherever 
they  should  direct,  they  were  afraid  that  the  south  fork  would  soon 
terminate  in  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  leave  the  expedition  at  a  great 
distance  from  the  Columbia.  That  no  radical  error  might  be  committed, 
the  leaders  agreed  that  one  of  them  should  ascend  the  southern  branch 
by  land  until  either  the  falls  or  the  mountains  should  be  reached,  and 
that  the  main  camp  should  be  pitched  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri 
near  the  entrance  of  Maria's  River  and  await  the  return  of  the  in- 


On  June  nth,  Captain  Lewis,  with  four  men,  set  out  on  this  ex- 
pedition up  the  south  branch.  Two  days  afterward,  while  traveling 
southwardly  through  a  country  of  alternate  plains  and  river  hills,  from 
the  latter  of  which  he  could  obtain  views  of  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
"fearful  of  passing  the  falls  before  reaching  the  mountains,"  the  Lewis 
party  left  the  hills  and  proceeded  across  the  plain.  "In  this  direction," 
continues  his  narrative,  "Captain  Lewis  had  gone  about  two  miles  when 
his  ears  were  saluted  with  the  agreeable  sound  of  a  fall  of  water  and 
as  he  advanced  a  spray,  which  seemed  driven  by  a  high  southwest  wind, 
arose  above  the  plain  like  a  column  of  smoke  and  vanished  in  an  instant. 
Towards  this  point  he  directed  his  steps  and  the  noise,  increasing  as  he 
approached,  soon  became  too  tremendous  to  be  mistaken  for  anything 
but  the  great  falls  of  the  Missouri.  Having  travelled  seven  miles  after 
first  hearing  the  sound,  he  reached  the  falls  about  twelve  o'clock.  The 
hills,  as  he  approached,  were  difficult  of  access  and  two  hundred  feet 


high.  Down  these  he  hurried  with  impatience  and  seating  himself  on 
some  rocks  under  the  center  of  the  falls,  enjoyed  the  sublime  spectacle 
of  this  stupendous  object  which  since  the  creation  had  been  lavishing  its 
magnificence  upon  the  desert,  unknown  to  civilization." 


Captain  Lewis  gives  some  wonderful  descriptions  of  the  Great  Falls 
and  the  succession  of  smaller  falls  and  rapids  farther  up  the  river 
and  to  fully  enjoy  them,  the  reader  must  consult  the  text  of  the  Journal, 
especially  the  edition  of  1902,  edited  by  Dr.  James  K.  Hosmer.  At  this 
point  in  the  story,  it  reads:  "The  river  immediately  at  its  cascade  is 
three  hundred  yards  wide  and  is  pressed  in  by  a  perpendicular  cliff 
on  the  left,  which  rises  to  about  one  hundred  feet  and  extends  up  the 
stream  for  a  mile;  on  the  right  the  bluff  is  also  perpendicular  for  three 
hundred  yards  above  the  falls.  For  ninety  or  a  hundred  yards  from  the 
left  cliff,  the  water  falls  in  one  smooth,  even  sheet  over  a  precipice  of 
at  least  eighty  feet.  The  remaining  part  of  the  river  precipitates  itself 
with  a  more  rapid  current,  but  being  received,  as  it  falls,  by  the  irregu- 
lar and  somewhat  projecting  rocks  below,  forms  a  splendid  prospect 
of  perfectly  white  foam,  two  hundred  yards  in  length  and  eighty  in 
perpendicular  elevation.  This  spray  is  dissipated  into  a  thousand  shapes, 
sometimes  flying  up  in  columns  of  fifteen  or  twenty  feet,  which  are 
then  oppressed  by  larger  masses  of  the  white  foam,  on  all  which  the 
sun  impresses  the  brightest  colours  of  the  rainbow.  As  it  rises  from 
the  fall,  it  beats  with  fury  against  a  ledge  of  rocks  which  extend  across 
the  river  at  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  from  the  precipice  *  *  * 
At  the  distance  of  three  hundred  yards  from  the  same  ridge  is  a  second 
abutment  of  solid  perpendicular  rock  about  sixty  feet  high,  projecting 
at  right  angles  from  the  small  plain  on  the  north  for  one  hundred  and 
thirty-four  yards  into  the  river." 

Captain  Lewis  encamped  for  the  night  under  a  tree  near  the  falls 
and  walked  along  the  river  to  find  a  place  beyond  where  the  canoes 
might  be  again  launched,  but  for  three  miles  below  found  a  succession 
of  rapids  and  cascades.  On  the  following  morning  he  sent  one  of  his 
men  to  Captain  Clark  with  an  account  of  the  discovery  of  the  falls  and 
resumed  his  course  along  the  river  toward  the  southwest.  Five  miles 
above,  he  found  a  second  fall.  Here  the  river  was  about  four  hundred 
yards  wide,  and  for  the  distance  of  three  hundred  throws  itself  so 
irregularly  that  the  captain  called  this  succession  of  pitches  Crooked  Falls. 

"Above  this  fall,"  continues  the  narratice,  "the  river  bends  suddenly 
to  the  northward;  while  viewing  this  place  Captain  Lewis  heard  a  loud 
roar  above  him  and  crossing  the  point  of  a  hill  for  a  hundred  yards, 
he  saw  one  of  the  most  beautiful  objects  in  nature:  the  whole  Missouri 
is  suddenly  stopped  by  one  shelving  rock,  which,  without  a  single  niche, 
and  with  an  edge  as  straight  and  regular  as  if  formed  by  art,  stretches 
itself  from  one  side  of  the  river  to  the  other  for  at  least  a  quarter  of 
a  mile.  Over  this  it  precipitates  itself  in  an  even  uninterrupted  sheet 


to  the  perpendicular  depth  of  fifty  feet,  whence  dashing  against  the  rocky 
bottom  it  rushes  rapidly  down,  leaving  behind  it  a  spray  of  the  purest 
foam  across  the  river.  The  scene  wyhich  it  presented  was  indeed 
singularly  beautiful,  since,  without  any  of  the  wild,  irregular  sublimity 
of  the  lower  falls,  it  combined  all  the  regular  elegances  which  the  fancy 
of  a  painter  would  select  to  form  a  beautiful  waterfall." 

For  several  miles  above,  rapids  .and  cascades,  or  smaller  waterfalls, 
break  the  course  of  the  river.  During  the  day  Lewis  ascended  a  high 
hill,  whence  he  could  trace  the  course  of  the  Missouri  to  the  base  of  the 
Snow  Mountains  (Big  Belt  range)  toward  the  southwest,  as  well  as 
note  a  large  river  flowing  from  the  northwest  and  joining  it  about  four 
miles  above  his  point  of  observation.  After  descending  the  hill  and 
wounding  a  buffalo,  while  preparing  to  see  him  fall  and  provide  meat 
for  himself  and  men,  he  was  attacked  by  a  large  brown  bear.  His  rifle 
was  unloaded  and  he  only  escaped  death  by  fleeing  to  the  river,  plunging 
in  and  facing  boldly  about.  He  then  continued  his  course  toward  the 
western  river,  found  that  it  "was  a  handsome  stream  about  two  hundred 
yards  wide,  apparently  deep,  with  a  gentle  current,  its  waters  clear,  and 
its  banks,  which  were  formed  principally  of  dark  brown  and  blue  clay 
were  about  the  same  height  as  the  Missouri,  that  is,  from  three  to  five 
feet.  *  *  *  This  river  is  no  doubt  that  which  the  Indians  call 
Medicine  River,  which  they  mentioned  as  emptying  into  the  Missouri 
just  above  the  falls."  Before  he  returned  to  camp,  Captain  Lewis  was 
all  but  attacked  by  three  bull  buffaloes,  and  on  the  following  morning, 
when  awaking,  found  a  large  rattlesnake  on  the  trunk  of  the  tree  under 
which  he  had  been  sleeping.  All  of  which  were  taken  as  the  usual  risks 
of  such  an  adventure  as  his.  The  messenger  sent  to  Captain  Clark 
returned  with  the  information  that  the  latter  had  arrived  five  miles 
below  at  a  rapid,  which  he  did  not  think  it  prudent  to  ascend,  and  would 
wait  until  Captain  Lewis  and  his  party  rejoined  him. 


On  June  i6th,  the  two  parties  were  reunited  by  Captain  Lewis  joining 
the  main  body,  under  Captain  Clark,  about  five  miles  below  the  falls. 
Captain  Clark  spent  a  number  of  days  in  examining  the  surrounding 
country  for  some  feasible  portage  around  Great  Falls  and  the  succession 
of  rapids  and  cascades  beyond.  Portage  Creek,  so  called,  was  finally 
selected  for  that  purpose,  and  to  facilitate  the  transportation  of  the 
canoes  and  the  goods,  rough  carriages  or  wagons  were  made.  "We  were 
very  fortunate,"  notes  the  journal,  "in  finding,  just  below  Portage  Creek. 
a  cottonwood  tree  about  twenty-two  inches  in  diameter,  and  large  enough 
to  make  the  carriage  wheels;  it  was  perhaps  the  only  one  of  the  same 
size  within  twenty  miles ;  and  the  cottonwood,  which  we  were  obliged 
to  employ  in  the  other  parts  of  the  work,  is  extremely  soft  and  brittle. 
The  mast  of  the  white  periogue,  which  we  mean  to  leave  behind,  supplied 
us  with  two  axletrees." 

The  hunters  were  sent  out  to  kill  buffaloes  and  other  game,  in  order 


to  collect  meat  to  last  while  the  transportation  over  the  portage  was  being 
made.  He  carefully  examined  the  route  and  fixed  stakes  to  mark  the 
definite  line  of  the  portage,  having  decided  upon  a  locality  about  a  mile 
beyond  the  juncture  of  the  Medicine  with  the  Missouri  as  the  best  point 
for  the  farther  extremity  of  the  portage.  The  three  islands  at  that  place 
were  named  Whitebear  Islands,  from  the  fact  that  a  number  of  the 
animals  were  observed  upon  them.  The  portage  was  made  with  some 
difficulty,  as  various  parts  of  the  carriage  broke  under  the  weight  of 
the  goods  and  provisions,  but  finally  the  camp  was  selected  in  a  small 
grove  of  timber  opposite  the  Whitebear  Islands  and  various  scattered 
hunters  were  there  collected  before  a  general  forward  movement  was 
attempted.  Captain  Lewis  was  in  charge  of  the  camp  near  the  Medicine 
River  and  Captain  Clark,  the  one  at  Portage  Creek. 


On  June  28th,  Captain  Clark  started  for  the  other  end  of  the  portage 
with  a  portion  of  the  baggage,  but  was  overtaken  by  a  cloudburst  and 
was  obliged  to  leave  the  heaviest  articles  behind.  On  the  following  day 
"finding  it  impossible  to  reach  the  end  of  the  portage  with  their  present 
load,  in  consequence  of  the  state  of  the  road  after  the  rain,  he  sent  back 
nearly  all  his  party  to  bring  on  the  articles  which  had  been  left  yesterday. 
Having  lost  some  notes  and  remarks  which  he  had  made  on  first 
ascending  the  river,  he  determined  to  go  up  to  the  Whitebear  Island 
along  its  banks,  in  order  to  supply  the  deficiency.  He  left  one  man  to 
guard  the  baggage  and  went  on  to  the  falls,  accompanied  by  his  servant, 
York,  Charbonneau  and  his  wife  with  her  young  child.  On  his  arrival 
there,  he  observed  a  very  dark  cloud  rising  in  the  west  which  threatened 
rain,  and  looked  around  for  some  shelter,  but  could  find  no  place 
where  they  would  be  secure  from  being  blown  into  the  river  if  the  wind 
should  prove  as  violent  as  it  sometimes  does  in  the  plains.  At  length, 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  above  the  falls,  he  found  a  deep  ravine  where 
there  were  some  shelving  rocks  under  which  he  took  refuge.  They  were 
on  the  upper  side  of  the  ravine  near  the  river,  perfectly  safe  from  the 
rain,  and  therefore  laid  down  their  guns,  compass  and  other  articles 
which  they  carried  with  them.  The  shower  was  at  first  moderate,  it 
then  increased  to  a  heavy  rain,  the  effects  of  which  they  did  not  feel; 
soon  after  a  torrent  of  rain  and  hail  descended;  the  rain  seemed  to  fall 
in  a  solid  mass,  and  instantly  collecting  in  the  ravine  came  rolling  down 
in  a  dreadful  current,  carrying  the  mud  and  rocks  and  everything 
that  opposed  it.  Captain  Clark  fortunately  saw  it  a  moment  before 
it  reached  them,  and  springing  up  with  his  gun  and  shotpouch  in  his 
left  hand,  with  his  right  clambered  up  the  steep  bluff,  pushing  on  the 
Indian  woman  with-  her  child  in  her  arms ;  her  husband,  too  had  seized 
her  hand,  and  was  pulling  her  up  the  hill,  but  he  was  so  terrified  at  the 
danger  that,  but  for  Captain  Clark,  himself  and  his  wife  and  child  would 
have  been  lost. 

"So   instantaneous   was  the   rise  of  the  water  that  before   Captain 


Clark  had  reached  his  gun  and  begain  to  ascend  the  bank  the  water  was 
up  to  his  waist,  and  he  could  scarce  get  up  faster  than  it  rose,  till  it 
reached  the  height  of  fifteen  feet  with  a  furious  current,  which,  had 
they  waited  a  moment  longer,  would  have  swept  them  into  the  river  just 
above  the  great  falls,  down  which  they  must  inevitably  have  been  pre- 
cipitated. They  reached  the  plain  in  safety  and  found  York,  who  had 
been  separated  from  them  just  before  the  storm  to  hunt  some  buffalo, 
and  was  now  returning  to  find  his  master.  They  had  been  obliged  to 
escape  so  rapidly  that  Captain  Clark  lost  his  compass  and  umbrella, 
Charbonneau  left  his  gun,  shotpouch  and  tomahawk,  and  the  Indian 
woman  had  just  time  to  grasp  her  child  before  the  net  in  which  it  lay  at 
her  feet  was  carried  down  the  current." 


It  was  not  until  July  15,  1805,  that  the  expedition  was  ready  to  proceed 
up  the  Missouri.  Much  time  was  spent  in  attempting  to  complete  a 
large  boat  of  skins,  which  had  been  prepared  for  the  purpose  at  Harper's 
Ferry.  Its  frame  was  of  iron,  thirty-six  feet  long,  four  feet  and  a  half 
beam  and  twenty-six  inches  wide  at  the  bottom.  The  design  was  to 
complete  its  construction  with  timber,  but  the  native  supply  of  cotton- 
wood,  willow  and  box-alder  was  found  ill  adapted  for  the  purpose. 
Neither  were  the  builders  able  to  obtain  the  necessary  tar  to  properly 
close  the  seams.  As  a  substitute  they  formed  a  composition  of  pounded 
charcoal,  beeswax  and  buffalo  tallow,  and  sewed  the  skins  together  with 
sharp-edged,  instead  of  pointed  needle.  On  the  9th  of  July,  the  boat 
was  launched,  but  a  heavy  wind  prevented  its  departure  and  on  the 
following  morning  it  was  found  that  the  composition  had  separated 
from  the  skins,  leaving  the  seams  exposed,  and  the  boat  and  the  venture 
along  this  line  had  to  be  abandoned.  To  make  a  long,  trying  experience 
short  in  the  telling,  the  boat  was  taken  to  pieces  and  its  various  parts 
worked  into  canoes,  and  at  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  July  I5th  they 
were  loaded  with  the  expeditionary  baggage,  and  the  voyage  up  the 
Missouri  was  resumed. 


Smith's  River,  which  comes  into  the  Missouri  from  the  south,  rising 
in  the  Little  Belt  Mountains  and  flowing  through  the  west-central  por- 
tions of  Cascade  County,  was  named  after  Robert  Smith,  who  was  then 
secretary  of  the  navy.  "At  six  miles"  (from  camp),  the  journal  notes, 
"we  came  to  an  island  opposite  to  a  bend  toward  the  north  side,  and 
reached,  at  seven  and  a  half  miles,  the  lower  point  of  a  woodland  at  the 
entrance  of  a  beautiful  river,  which,  in  honour  of  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy,  we  called  Smith's  river.  This  stream  falls  into  a  bend  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Missouri  and  is  eighty  yards  wide.  As  far  as  we  could 
discern  its  course  wound  through  a  charming  valley  towards  the 
southeast,  in  which  many  herds  of  buffalo  were  feeding,  till  at  the  distance 
of  twenty-five  miles,  it  entered  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  was  lost  from 
our  view." 


Three  days  after  striking  and  naming  Smith's  River,  the  secretary 
of  war^  Henry  Dearborn,  was  honored  by  the  explorers  in  the  naming 
of  the  "handsome,  bold  and  clear  stream"  emptying  itself  from  the  north 
and  coming,  as  we  would  now  describe  it,  from  vast  masses  of  the  Con- 
tinental Divide,  through  the  Montana  county  of  Lewis  and  Clark.  Soon 
after  leaving  Dearborn's  river,  the  expedition  reached  a  creek  which  was 
named  after  Sergeant  John  Ordway,  and  on  the  following  day,  July 
I9th,  were  entering  the  rocky  wilds  of  the  present  Helena  district. ' 


For  a  dozen  miles,  or  more,  the  flotilla  of  canoes  had  been  following 
the  numerous  bends  of  the  Missouri,  through  a  hot  and  confined  valley, 


with  the  mountains  in  the  near  distance  covered  with  patches  of  pine, 
cedar  and  fir  and  capped  with  snow,  when  the  ranges  on  either  side 
suddenly  approached  the  river,  "forming  a  most  sublime  and  extraor- 
dinary spectacle.  For  five  and  three  quarters  miles  these  rocks  rise 
perpendicularly  from  the  water's  edge  to  the  height  of  nearly  twelve 
hundred  feet.  They  are  composed  of  a  black  granite  near  its  base,  but 
from  its  lighter  colour  above,  and  from  the  fragments,  we  suppose  the 
upper  part  to  be  flint  of  a  yellowish  brown  and  cream  colour.  Nothing 
can  be  imagined  more  tremendous  than  the  frowning  darkness  of  these 
rocks,  which  project  over  the  river  and  menace  us  with  destruction.  The 
river,  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards,  in  width,  seems  to  have  forced  its 
channel  down  this  solid  mass,  but  so  reluctantly  has  it  given  way  that 
during  the  whole  distance  the  water  is  very  deep,  even  at  the  edges,  and 
for  the  first  three  miles  there  is  not  a  spot,  except  one  of  a  few 
yards,  in  which  a  man  could  stand  between  the  water  and  the  towering 
perpendicular  of  the  mountain.  The  convulsion  of  the  passage  must 


have  been  terrible,  since  at  its  outlet  there  are  vast  columns  of  rock 
torn  from  the  mountain  which  are  strewed  on  both  sides  of  the  river, 
the  trophies,  as  it  were,  of  the  victory.  Several  fine  springs  burst  out 
from  the  chasms  of  the  rock,  and  contribute  to  increase  the  water,  which 
has  now  a  strong  current,  but  very  fortunately  we  are  able  to  overcome 
it  with  our  oars,  since  it  would  be  impossible  to  use  either  the  cord  or  the 
pole.  We  were  obliged  to  go  on  some  time  after  dark,  not  being  able  to 
find  a  spot  large  enough  to  encamp  on;  but  at  length,  about  two  miles 
above  a  small  island  in  the  middle  of  the  river,  we  met  with  a  spojt  on  the 
left  side  where  we  procured  plenty  of  lightwood  and  pitch  pine.  This 
extraordinary  range  of  rocks  we  called  the  Gates  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 

A  short  distance  from  the  Gates,  the  perpendicular  rocks  ceased 
and  the  hills  retired  from  the  valley  of  the  Missouri  which  again  broad- 
ened, bounded  by  parallel  chains  of  mountains.  Captain  Clark  lead  a 
party  along  the  valley  lands,  hunting  and  investigating  as  he  went. 
Before  encamping  for  the  night,  the  boats  stopped  and  took  aboard  the 
meat  which  his  men  had  collected  during  the  day's  hunt,  and  Captain 
Lewis  received  from  his  coworker  an  account  of  his  investigations  by 
land.  The  bed  of  the  river  was  now  diversified  by  many  islands  which 
were  much  frequented  by  otter  and  beaver.  Pryor,  Whitehouse  and  Gass 
creeks  were  named  after  John  Pryor,  Joseph  Whitehouse  and  Patrick 
Gass,  members  of  the  expedition. 



In  the  meantime,  Captain  Clark  had  continued  his  land  travel  along 
the  Indian  road,  and  on  July  25,  1805,  "arrived  at  the  three  forks  of  the 
Missouri.  Here  he  found  that  the  plains  had  been  recently  burnt  on 
the  north  side,  and  saw  the  track  of  a  horse  which  seemed  to  have  passed 
about  four  or  five  days  since.  After  breakfast  he  examined  the  rivers, 
and  finding  that  the  north  branch  (the  Jefferson)  although  not  larger, 
contained  more  water  than  the  middle  branch,  and  bore  more  to  the 
westward,  he  determined  to  ascend  it.  He  therefore  left  a  note  informing 
Captain  Lewis  of  his  intention,  and  then  went  up  that  stream  on  the 
north  side  for  about  twenty-five  miles.  Here  Charbonneau  was  unable 
to  proceed  any  further,  and  the  party  therefore  encamped,  all  of  them 
much  fatigued,  their  feet  blistered  and  wounded  by  the  prickly  pear." 


Captain  Lewis  and  his  party  were  ascending  the  Missouri,  while  his 
companion,  who  had  been  taken  sick  in  the  midst  of  his  explorations, 
was  endeavoring  to  join  him.  The  former  reached  the  three  forks  on 
the  27th.  He  says :  "A  range  of  high  mountains  partially  covered  with 
snow  is  seen  at  a  considerable  distance,  running  from  south  to  west, 
and  nearly  all  around  us  are  broken  ridges  of  country  like  that  below 
through  which  those  united  streams  appear  to  have  forced  their  passage. 



After  observing  the  country  (from  a  high  limestone  cliff,  which  he  had 
ascended),  Captain  Lewis  descended  to  breakfast.  We  then  left  the 
mouth  of  the  southeast  fork,  which,  in  honour  of  the  secretary  of  the 
treasury  we  called  Gallatin's  River,  and  at  the  distance  of  half  a  mile 
reached  the  confluence  of  the  southwest  and  middle  branches  of  the 
Missouri.  Here  we  found  the  letter  from  Captain  Clark,  and  as  agreed 
with  him  that  the  direction  of  the  southwest  fork  (the  Jefferson)  gave 
it  a  decided  preference  over  the  others,  we  ascended  that  branch  of  the 
river  for  a  mile,  and  encamped  in  a  level  handsome  plain  on  the  left,  hav- 
ing advanced  only  seven  miles.  Here  we  resolved  to  wait  the  return  of 


Captain  Clark,  and  in  the  meantime  make  the  necessary  celestial  observa- 
tions, as  this  seemed  an  essential  point  in  the  geography  of  the  western 
world,  and  also  to  recruit  men  and  air  the  baggage.  It  was  accordingly 
all  unloaded  and  stowed  away  on  shore. 

"Near  the  three  forks  we  saw  many  collections  of  the  mud-nests  of 
the  small  martin  attached  to  the  smooth  faces  of  the  limestone  rock, 
where  they  were  sheltered  by  projections  of  the  rock  above  it;  and  in 
the  meadows  were  numbers  of  the  duck  or  mallard,  with  their  young, 
who  are  now  nearly  grown.  The  hunters  returned  towards  evening 
with  six  deer,  three  otter  and  a  muskrat,  and  had  seen  great  numbers  of 
antelopes,  and  much  sign  of  the  beaver  and  elk. 

"During  all  last  night  Captain  Clark  had  a  high  fever  and  chills, 
accompanied  with  great  pain.  He,  however,  pursued  his  route  eight 
miles  to  the  middle  branch,  where  not  finding  any  fresh  Indian  tracks, 
he  came  down  it  and  joined  us  about  three  o'clock,  very  much  exhausted 


with  fatigue  and  the  violence  of  his  fever.  Believing  himself  bilious 
he  took  a  dose  of  Rush's  pills,  which  we  have  always  found  sovereign 
in  such  cases,  and  bathing  the  lower  extremities  in  warm  water. 

"We  are  now  very  anxious  to  see  the  Snake  Indians.  After  advanc- 
ing for  several  hundred  miles  into  this  wild  and  mountainous  country, 
we  may  soon  expect  that  the  game  will  abandon  us.  With  no  information 
of  the  route,  we  may  be  unable  to  find  a  passage  across  the  mountains 
when  we  reach  the  head  of  the  river,  at  least  such  a  one  as  will  lead 
us  to  the  Columbia,  and  even  were  we  so  fortunate  as  to  find  a  branch 
of  that  river,  the  timber  which  we  have  hitherto  seen  in  these  mountains 
does  not  promise  us  any  fit  to  make  canoes,  so  that  our  chief  dependence 
is  on  meeting  some  tribe  from  whom  we  may  procure  horses.  Our 
consolation  is  that  this  southwest  branch  can  scarcely  head  with  any 
other  river  than  the  Columbia,  and  that  if  any  nation  of  Indians  can 
live  in  the  mountains  we  are  able  to  endure  as  much  as  they,  and  have 
even  better  means  of  procuring  subsistence." 


The  entries  in  the  journal  under  date  of  July  28,  1805,  are  even 
of  greater  interest — historical,  geographical  and  personal — and  are  given 
without  further  comment:  "On  examining  the  two  streams,  it  became 
difficult  to  decide  which  was  the  larger  or  the  real  Missouri;  they  are 
each  ninety  yards  wide,  and  so  perfectly  similar  in  character  and  ap- 
pearance that  they  seem  to  have  been  formed  in  the  same  mould.  We 
were  therefore  induced  to  discontinue  the  name  of  Missouri  and  gave 
to  the  southwest  branch  the  name  of  Jefferson,  in  honor  of  the  president 
of  the  United  States  and  the  projector  of  the  enterprise,  and  called  the 
middle  branch  Madison,  after  James  Madison,  secretary  of  state.  These 
two,  as  well  as  Gallatin  River,  run  with  great  velocity  and  throw  out 
large  bodies  of  water.  Gallatin  River  is,  however,  the  most  rapid  of  the 
three  and,  though  not  quite  as  deep,  yet  navigable  for  a  considerable 
distance.  Madison  River,  though  much  less  rapid  than  the  Gallatin,  is 
somewhat  more  rapid  than  the  Jefferson;  the  beds  of  all  of  them  are 
formed  of  smooth  pebble  and  gravel,  and  the  waters  are  perfectly 
transparent.  *  *  *  * 

.  • 


"Sacajawea,  our  Indian  woman,  informs  us  that  we  are  encamped 
on  the  precise  spot  where  her  countrymen,  the  Snake  Indians,  had  their 
huts  five  years  ago,  when  the  Minnetarees  of  Knife  River  first  came  in 
sight  of  them,  and  from  which  they  hastily  retreated  three  miles  up  the 
Jefferson  and  concealed  themselves  in  the  woods.  The  Minnetarees, 
however,  pursued  and  attacked  them,  killed  four  men,  as  many  women, 
and  a  number  of  boys,  and  made  prisoners  of  four  other  boys  and  all  the 
females,  of  whom  Sacajawea  was  one;  she  does  not,  however,  show  any 
distress  at  these  recollections,  nor  any  joy  at  being  restored  to  her 





Vol.  1—4 


country;  for  she  seems  to  possess  the  folly  or  the  philosophy  of  not 
suffering  her  feelings  to  extend  beyond  the  anxiety  of  having  plenty 
to  eat  and  a  few  trinkets  to  wear." 

Two  days  afterward,  Captain  Clark,  feeling  much  better,  and 
observations  having  been  made  to  fix  the  longitude  of  this  important 
geographical  point  on  the  western  continent,  the  men  reloaded  the  canoes 
and  the  expedition  moved  up  the  Jefferson  River.  The  Indian  Bird 
Woman  was  now  on  home  ground  and  the  leaders  figuratively  placed 
themselves  in  her  hands.  For  some  time,  she  was  the  most  important 
member  of  the  party.  Soon  after  the  start  she  pointed  out  to  Captain 
Lewis  the  place  where  she  had  been  made  prisoner.  Her  fellow  country- 
men, being  too  few  to  contend  with  the  Minnetarees,  had  mounted  their 
horses  and  fled  as  soon  as  the  attack  began.  The  women  and  children 
dispersed,  and  Sacajawea,  as  she  was  crossing  the  river  at  a  shoal  place, 
was  overtaken  by  her  pursuers  and  captured. 


Captain  Lewis,  with  the  Indian  woman  as  guide  and  Charbonneau 
as  interpreter,  now  assumed  the  land  travel  in  search  of  the  Snake 
Indians.  He  found  and  named  Philosophy  River.  His  companions  were 
also  Sergeant  Gass  and  Drewyer.  Frazier  and  Fields  creeks  (named  after 
Robert  Frazier  and  Reuben  Fields)  were  also  placed  on  the  map  of  the 
present  Montana,  along  this  route.  Both  leaders  floundered  around, 
either  along  various  streams  or  over  the  surrounding  country,  endeavor- 
ing to  find,  beyond  mistake,  the  true  continuation  of  the  Jefferson,  and 
finally  decided  on  the  middle  branch.  Finally,  after  nine  days  from  the 
commencement  of  its  ascent,  or  August  8th,  Sacajawea  recognized  a 
curious  projection  into  the  river  of  an  elevated  plain  as  the  point  which 
her  people  called  Beaver  Head,  from  a  supposed  resemblance  to  that 
object.  She  said  it  was  not  far  from  the  summer  retreat  of  her  country- 
men, which  was  on  a  river  beyond  the  mountains  and  running  to  the 
west.  She  was  therefore  certain  that  the  Shoshonees  would  be  either 
on  the  Jefferson  River,  or  immediately  west  of  its  source,  which  from 
the  size  of  the  stream  was  judged  to  be  not  far  distant. 

Captain  Lewis,  with  three  of  his  men,  therefore  set  out  to  search  for 
the  Snake  Indians,  or  any  other  nation  which  could  supply  horses  with 
which  to  transport'  the  baggage  of  the  expedition  across  the  mountains 
opposite  the  source  of  the  Missouri.  Some  twenty  or  twenty-five  miles 
from  Beaver  Head,  on  the  following  day  (August  loth)  he  had  traced 
the  Jefferson  to  a  high  cliff,  which  he  christened  Rattlesnake,  from  the 
number  of  that  reptile  which  he  saw  there.  Beyond  the  stream  forked, 
and  choosing  the  road  along  the  one  which  showed  the  freshest  tracks 
of  horses,  he  fixed  a  dry  willow  pole  at  that  point  bearing  a  note  to 
Captain  Clark,  recommending  him  to  await  his  return  at  that  place.  On 
the  day  mentioned,  Captain  Lewis  and  his  men  had  travelled  thirty 


miles,  and  on  the  following  day  (August  nth)  the  former  "had  the 
mortification  to  find  the  track  which  he  followed  yesterday  soon  dis- 

While  he  and  his  companions  (Drewyer  and  Shields)  were  searching 
for  the  lost  trail,  "Captain  Lewis  perceived  with  the  greatest  delight, 
a  man  on  horseback  at  the  distance  of  two  miles  coming  down  the  plain 
toward  them.  On  examining  him  with  the  glass,  Captain  Lewis  saw  that 
he  was  of  a  different  nation  from  any  Indians  we  had  hitherto  met; 
he  was  armed  with  a  bow  and  a  quiver  of  arrows ;  mounted  on  an  elegant 
horse  without  a  saddle,  and  a  small  string  attached  to  the  under  jaw 
answered  as  a  bridle.  Convinced  that  he  was  a  Shoshonee,  and  knowing 
how  much  of  our  success  depended  on  the  friendly  offices  of  that  nation, 
Captain  Lewis  was  full  of  anxiety  to  approach  without  alarming  him, 
and  endeavor  to  convince  him  that  he  was  a  white  man.  He  therefore 
proceeded  on  towards  the  Indian  at  his  usual  pace.  When  they  were 
within  a  mile  of  each  other,  the  Indian  suddenly  stopped — Captain  Lewis 
immediately  followed  his  example,  took  his  blanket  from  his  knapsack 
and  holding  it  with  both  hands  at  two  corners  threw  it  above  his  head 
and  unfolded  it  as  he  brought  it  to  the  ground  as  if  in  the  act  of  spreading 
it.  This  signal,  which  originates  in  the  practice  of  spreading  a  robe  or 
a  skin,  as  a  seat  for  guests  to  whom  they  wish  to  show  a  distinguished 
kindness,  is  the  universal  sign  of  friendship  among  the  Indians  on  the 
Missouri  and  the  Rocky  Mountains.  As  usual,  Captain  Lewis  re- 
peated this  signal  three  times;  still  the  Indian  kept  his  position,  and 
looked  with  an  air  of  suspicion  on  Drewyer  and  Shields  who  were  now 
advancing  on  each  side.  Captain  Lewis  was  afraid  to  make  any  signal 
for  them  to  halt,  lest  he  should  increase  the  suspicion  of  the  Indian, 
who  began  to  be  uneasy,  and  they  were  too  distant  to  hear  his  voice. 
He  therefore  took  from  his  pack  some  beads,  a  looking  glass  and  a  few 
trinkets,  which  he  had  brought  for  the  purpose  and,  leaving  his  gun, 
advanced  unarmed  towards  the  Indian.  The  latter  remained  in  the  same 
position  till  Captain  Lewis  came  within  two  hundred  yards  of  him,  when 
he  turned  his  horse  and  began  to  move  off  slowly. 

"Captain  Lewis  then  called  out  to  him  in  as  loud  a  voice  as  he  could, 
repeating  the  words  tabba  bone  f  which  in  the  Shoshonee  language  means 
'white  man';  but  looking  over  his  shoulder  the  Indian  kept  his  eyes  on 
Drewyer  and  Shields,  who  were  still  advancing,  without  recollecting  the 
impropriety  of  doing  so  at  such  a  moment,  till  Captain  Lewis  made  a 
signal  to  them  to  halt;  this  Drewyer  obeyed,  but  Shields  did  not  observe 
it,  and  still  went  forward.  Seeing  Drewyer  halt,  the  Indian  turned  his 
horse  about  as  if  to  wait  for  Captain  Lewis,  who  now  reached  within 
150  paces,  repeating  the  words,  tabba  bone!  and  holding  up  the  trinkets 
in  his  hand,  at  the  same  time  stripping  up  the  sleeve  of  his  shirt  to  show 
the  colour  of  his  skin.  The  Indian  suffered  him  to  advance  within  100 
paces,  then  suddenly  turned  his  horse  and,  giving  him  the  whip,  leaped 
across  the  creek  and  disappeared  in  an  instant  among  the  willow  bushes  ; 
with  him  vanished  all  the  hopes  which  the  sight  of  him  had  inspired  of 
a  friendly  introduction  to  his  countrymen." 


Unfortunately  a  rain  obliterated  all  traces  of  the  Indian  or  his 
red  companions,  Captain .  Lewis  and  his  men  making  every  endeavor 
to  run  them  down.  While  thus  engaged,  they  passed  a  large  island 
which  they  called  Three-thousand-mile  Island,  "on  account  of  its  being 
that  distance  from  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri." 


The  lost  trail  and  the  persistent  search  for  it  resulted,  on  the  following 
day  (August  12,  1805),  in  one  of  the  great  events  of  history  and 
geography — the  discovery  and  passage  of  the  great  continental  watershed 
of  the  United  States  of  America.  In  view  of  the  significance  of  the 
event,  its  details,  as  recorded  in  the  Lewis-Clark  journal  are  of  absorbing 
interest.  The  morning  of  the  day  mentioned  saw  Captain  Lewis  and 
his  two  comrades  still  endeavoring  to  trace  the  tracks  of  the  horse 
which  they  had  lost  in  the  mountains,  on  the  previous  day.  The  waters 
of  the  Jefferson  were  now  shallow  and  rapid  and  flowed  from  a  cove  in 
the  mountains,  winding  across  a  low  plain  which  was  further  inter- 
sected by  bayous. 

The  story  is  thus  told  in  the  journal:  "Captain  Lewis  now  decided 
on  making  the  circuit  along  the  foot  of  the  mountains  which  formed  the 
cove,  expecting  by  that  means  to  find  a  road  across  them,  and  accordingly 
sent  Drewyer  on  one  side  and  Shields  on  the  other.  In  this  way  they 
crossed  four  small  rivulets  near  each  other,  on  which  were  some  bowers 
or  conical  lodges  of  willow  brush,  which  seemed  to  have  been  made 
recently.  From  the  manner  in  which  the  ground  in  the  neighborhood 
was  torn  up,  the  Indians  appeared  to  have  been  gathering  roots,  but 
Captain  Lewis  could  not  discover  what  particular  plant  they  were  search- 
ing for,  nor  could  he  find  any  fresh  track,  till  at  the  distance  of  four  miles 
from  his  camp  he  met  a  large  plain  Indian  road  which  came  into  the 
cove  from  the  northwest,  and  wound  along  the  foot  of  the  mountains 
to  the  southwest,  approaching  obliquely  the  main  stream  he  had  left 
yesterday.  Down  this  road  he  now  went  toward  the  southwest;  at  the 
distance  of  five  miles  it  crossed  a  large  run  or  creek,  which  is  a  principal 
branch  of  the  main  stream  into  which  it  falls,  just  above  the  high  cliffs 
or  gates  observed  yesterday,  and  which  they  now  saw  before  them.  Here 
they  halted  and  breakfasted  on  the  last  of  the  deer,  keeping  a  small  piece 
of  pork  in  reserve  against  accident.  They  then  continued  through  the 
low  bottom  along  the  main  stream,  near  the  foot  of  the  mountains  on 
the  right. 

"For  the  first  five  miles  the  valley  continues  towards  the  southwest 
from  two  to  three  miles  in  width;  then  the  main  stream,  which  had 
received  two  small  branches  from  the  left  in  the  valley,  turns  abruptly 
to  the  west  through  a  narrow  bottom  between  the  mountains.  The  road 
was  still  plain,  and  as  it  led  them  directly  on  towards  the  mountain  the 
stream  gradually  became  smaller,  till  after  going  two  miles  it  had  so 
greatly  diminished  in  width  that  one  of  the  men  in  a  fit  of  enthusiasm, 
with  one  foot  on  each  side  of  the  river,  thanked  God  that  he  had  lived 
to  bestride  the  Missouri ! 


"As  they  went  along,  their  hopes  of  soon  seeing  the  waters  of  th'e 
Columbia  arose  almost  to  painful  anxiety;  when,  after  four  miles  from 
the  last  abrupt  turn  of  the  river,  they  reached  a  small  gap  formed  by 
the  high  mountains  which  recede  on  each  side,  leaving  room  for  the 
Indian  road.  From  the  foot  of  one  of  the  lowest  of  these  mountains, 
which  rises  with  a  gentle  ascent  of  about  half  a  mile,  issues  the  remotest 
water  of  the  Missouri.  They  had  now  reached  the  hidden  sources  of 
that  river,  which  had  never  yet  been  seen  by  civilized  man;  and  as 
they  quenched  their  thirst  at  the  chaste  and  icy  fountain — as  they  sat 
down  by  the  brink  of  that  little  rivulet,  which  yielded  its  distant  and 
modest  tribute  to  the  parent  ocean — they  felt  themselves  rewarded  for 
all  their  labours  and  all  their  difficulties. 

"They  left  reluctantly  this  interesting  spot  and,  pursuing  the  Indian 
road  through  the  intervals  of  the  hills,  arrived  at  the  top  of  a  ridge, 
from  which  they  saw  high  mountains  covered  with  snow,  still  to  the  west 
of  them.  The  ridge  on  which  they  stood  formed  the  dividing  line 
between  the  waters  of  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  oceans.  They  followed  a 
descent  much  steeper  than  on  the  eastern  side,  and  at  the  distance  of  three 
quarters  of  a  mile  reached  a  handsome  bold  creek  of  cold  clear  water 
running  to  the  westward.  They  stopped  to  taste  for  the  first  time  the 
waters  of  the  Columbia." 

The  expedition  had  achieved  one  of  its  chief  objects — that  is,  to 
find  the  gateway  through  the  Rocky  Mountains  by  which  communication 
might  be  obtained  between  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri  and  the 
Columbia,  and  a  virtually  continuous  waterway  be  opened  from  the 
Mississippi  Valley  to  the  Pacific  Coast.  The  secondary  step  in  the 
venture  was  to  get  into  touch  with  the  Shoshonee  Indians  or  other 
interior  tribe  who  could  supply  information,  or  guidance,  which  should 
enable  further  progress  toward  the  far  western  destination. 


So  Captain  Lewis  and  his  two  companions  resumed  the  Indian  road 
which  had  led  them  through  the  mountains  and  to  the  headwaters  of 
the  Salmon  River,  or  the  commencement  of  the  Columbia  River  Valley. 
They  soon  met  a  number  of  female  Shoshones,  whom  they  propitiated 
with  trinkets  and  whose  cheeks  were  painted  with  bright  vermillion  by 
the  whites  as  an  even  more  effective  peace  offering.  The  Indian  women 
conducted  Captain  Lewis  and  his  men  toward  the  camp  of  their  nation 
down  the  river,  and  after  going  about  two  miles  "met  a  troop  of  nearly 
sixty  warriors,  mounted  on  excellent  horses  riding  at  full  speed  toward 
them.  As  they  advanced  Captain  Lewis  put  down  his  gun,  and  went  with 
the  flag  about  fifty  paces  in  advance.  The  chief,  who,  with  two  men, 
was  riding  in  front  of  the  main  body,  spoke  to  the  women,  who  now 
explained  that  the  party  was  composed  of  white  men,  and  showed 
exultingly  the  presents  they  had  received.  The  three  men  immediately 
leaped  from  their  horses,  came  up  to  Captain  Lewis  and  embraced  him 
with  great  cordiality,  putting  their  left  arm  over  his  right  shoulder 


and  clasping  his  back;  applying,  at  the  same  time,  their  left  cheek  to 
his,  and  frequently  vociferating  ah  hi  e!  ah  hi  e!  'I  am  much  pleased, 
I  am  much  rejoiced !'  The  whole  body  of  warriors  now  came  forward, 
and  our  men  received  the  caresses,  and  no  small  share  of  the  grease  and 
paint,  of  their  new  friends.  After  this  fraternal  embrace  of  which  the 
motive  was  much  more  agreeable  than  the  manner,  Captain  Lewis  lighted 
a  pipe  and  offered  it  to  the  Indians,  who  had  now  seated  themselves 
in  a  circle  around  the  party.  But  before  they  would  receive  this  mark 
of  friendship  they  pulled  off  their  moccasins,  a  custom,  as  we  afterwards 
learned,  which  indicates  the  sacred  sincerity  of  their  professions  when 
they  smoke  with  a  stranger,  and  which  imprecates  upon  themselves  the 
misery  of  going  barefoot  forever  if  they  are  faithless  to  their  words, 
a  penalty  by  no  means  light  to  those  who  rove  over  the  thorny  plains 
of  their  country." 

More  presents  were  distributed — this  time,  among  the  warriors — 
and  about  four  miles  distant  Captain  Lewis  and  his  men  were  introduced 
to  their  quarters  in  the  Indian  camp,  which  was  on  a  level  meadow  on 
the  bank  of  the  river.  After  formally  smoking  a  pipe  of  peace  with  the 
chief  and  his  warriors,  Captain  Lewis  explained  the  purposes  of  his 
visit  and  distributed  the  remainder  of  the  small  articles  he  had  brought 
with  him.  The  chief  informed  him  that  the  stream  discharged  itself, 
•at  the  distance  of  half  a  day's  march  into  another  of  twice  its  size  coming 
from  the  southwest.  There  were  a  great  number  of  horses  feeding 
in  every  direction  around  the  camp,  which  encouraged  the  captain  to 
believe  that  the  expeditionary  stores  and  goods  could  be  transported 
across  the  mountains,  if  necessary.  On  his  way  from  the  river  to  his 
lodge,  Captain  Lewis  met  an  Indian  who  "invited  him  into  his  bower 
and  gave  him  a  small  morsel  of  boiled  antelope  and  a  piece  of  fresh 
salmon.  This  was  the  first  salmon  he  had  seen  and  perfectly  satisfied 
him  that  he  was  now  on  the  waters  of  the  Pacific." 


After  some  persuasion,  the  chief  of  the  Shoshones,  Cameahwait, 
with  eight  of  his  warriors,  was  induced  to  accompany  Captain  Lewis 
and  his  men  on  the  return  trip  to  the  forks  of  the  Jefferson,  where 
Captain  Clark  and  the  remainder  of  the  expedition  were  to  meet  them. 
Captain  Lewis  was  obliged  to  resort  to  all  sorts  of  stratagems  in  order 
to  allay  the  suspicions  of  the  Indians  that  they  were  being  led  into 
some  kind  of  a  trap,  various  articles  of  clothing  being  exchanged  so 
that  it  would  be  difficult  for  an  enemy  to  distinguish  a  white  from  a 
red  man. 

The  i/th  of  August,  1805,  marked  the  day  when  final  preparations 
were  made  to  enter  the  second  stage  of  the  journey  to  the  Pacific ; 
therefore,  the  interesting  events  of  that  day  are  quoted  at  length  from 
the  official  journal,  and  thereafter  the  main  events  of  the  expedition 
must  be  condensed.  Under  date  of  Saturday,  August  i/th,  the  story  runs: 
"Captain  Lewis  rose  very  early  and  despatched  Drewyer  and  the  Indian 


down  the  river  in  quest  of  the  boats.  Shields  was  sent  out  at  the  same 
time  to  hunt,  while  M'Neal  prepared  a  breakfast  out  of  the  remainder 
of  the  meat.  Drewyer  had  been  gone  about  two  hours,  and  the  Indians 
were  all  anxiously  waiting  for  some  news,  when  an  Indian  who  had 
straggled  a  short  distance  down  the  river  returned  with  a  report  that 
he  had  seen  the  white  men,  who  were  only  a  short  distance  below,  and 
were  coming  on.  The  Indians  were  all  transported  with  joy  and  the 
chief,  in  the  warmth  of  his  satisfaction  renewed  his  embrace  to  Captain 
Lewis,  who  was  quite  as  much  delighted  as  the  Indians  themselves. 

"The  report  proved  most  agreeably  true.  On  setting  out  at  seven 
o'clock,  Captain  Clark,  with  Charbonneau  and  his  wife,  walked  on  shore ; 
but  they  had  not  gone  more  than  a  mile  before  Captain  Clark  saw 
Sacajawea,  who  was  with  her  husband  100  yards  ahead,  begin  to  dance 
and  show  every  mark  of  the  most  extravagant  joy,  turning  round  him  and 
pointing  to  several  Indians,  whom  he  now  saw  advancing  on  horseback, 
sucking  her  fingers  at  the  same  time  to  indicate  that  they  were  of  her 
native  tribe.  As  they  advanced,  Captain  Clark  discovered  among  them 
Drewyer  dressed  like  an  Indian,  from  whom  he  learned  the  situation  of  • 
the  party.  While  the  boats  were  performing  the  circuit  he  went  toward 
the  forks  with  the  Indians,  who,  as  they  went  along,  sang  aloud  with 

the  greatest  appearance  of  delight. 



"We  soon  drew  near  to  the  camp,  and  just  as  we  approached  it,  a 
woman  made  her  way  through  the  crowd  towards  Sacajawea,  and,  recog- 
nizing each  other,  they  embraced  with  the  most  tender  effection.  The 
meeting  of  these  two  young  women  had  in  it  something  peculiarly  touching( 
not  only  in  the  ardent  manner  in  which  their  feelings  were  expressed  but 
from  the  real  interest  of  their  situation.  They  had  been  companions 
in  childhood;  in  the  war  with  the  Minnetarees  they  had  both  been  taken 
prisoners  in  the  same  battle,  they  had  shared  and  softened  the  rigours 
of  their  captivity,  till  one  of  them  had  escaped  from  the  Minnetarees, 
with  scarce  a  hope  of  ever  seeing  her  friend  relieved  from  the  hands  of 
her  enemies. 


"While  Sacajawea  was  renewing  among  the  women  the  friendships  of 
former  days,  Captain  Clark  went  on  and  was  received  by  Captain  Lewis 
and  the  chief,  who,  after  the  first  embraces  and  salutations  were  over, 
conducted  him  to  a  sort  of  circular  tent  or  shade  of  willow.  Here  he 
was.  seated  on  a  white  robe,  and  the  chief  immediately  tied  in  his  hair 
six  small  shells  resembling  pearls,  an  ornament  highly  valued  by  these 
people,  who  procured  them  in  the  course  of  trade  from  the  seacoast.  The 
moccasins  of  the  whole  party  were  then  taken  off,  and  after  much 
ceremony  the  smoking  began.  After  this,  the  conference  was  to  be 
opened,  and  glad  of  an  opportunity  of  being  able  to  converse  more  in- 



telligibly,  Sacajawea  was  sent  for;  she  came  into  the  tent,  sat  down  and 
was  beginning  to  interpret,  when  in  the  person  of  Cameahwait  she 
recognized  her  brother;  she  instantly  jumped  up,  and  ran  and  embraced 
him,  throwing  over  him  her  blanket  and  weeping  profusely;  the  chief 
was  himself  moved,  though  not  in  the  same  degree.  After  some  con- 
versation between  them  she  resumed  her  seat  and  attempted  to  inter- 
pret for  us,  but  her  new  situation  seemed  to  overpower  her,  and  she 
was  frequently  interrupted  by  her  tears.  After  the  council  was  finished, 
the  unfortunate  woman  learnt  that  all  her  family  were  dead  except  two 
brothers,  one  of  whom  was  absent,  and  a  son  of  her  eldest  sister,  a  small 
boy,  who  was  immediately  adopted  by  her. 

"The  canoes  arriving  soon  after,  we  formed  a  camp  in  a  meadow  on 
the  left  side,  a  little  below  the  forks,  took  out  our  baggage,  and  by 
means  of  our  sails  and  willow  poles  formed  a  canopy  for  our  Indian 
visitors.  About  four  o'clock  the  chiefs  and  warriors  were  collected, 
and  after  the  customary  ceremony  of  taking  off  the  moccasins  and  smok- 
ing a  pipe,  we  explained  to  them  in  a  long  harangue  the  purposes  of  our 
visit,  making  themselves  one  conspicuous  object  of  the  good  wishes  of 
our  government,  on  whose  strength  as  well  as  its  friendly  disposition 
we  expatiated.  We  told  them  of  their  dependence  on  the  will  of  our  gov- 
ernment for  all  future  supplies  of  whatever  was  necessary  either  for 
their  comfort  or  defence ;  that  as  we  were  soon  to  discover  the  best 
route  by  which  merchandise  could  be  conveyed  to  them,  and  no  trade 
would  be  begun  before  our  return,  it  was  mutually  advantageous  that  we 
should  proceed  with  as  little  delay  as  possible;  that  we  were  under 
the  necessity  of  requesting  them  to  furnish  us  with  horses  to  transport 
our  baggage  across  the  mountains,  and  a  guide  to  show  us  the  route,  but 
that  they  should  be  amply  remunerated  for  their  horses,  as  well  as  for 
every  other  service  they  should  render  us.  In  the  meantime  our  first 
wish  was  that  they  should  immediately  collect  as  many  horses  as  were 
necessary  to  transport  our  baggage  to  their  village,  where,  at  our  leisure, 
we  could  trade  with  them  for  as  many  horses  as  they  could  spare." 

It  was  finally  agreed  that  Captain  Clark  should  set  off  in  the  morn- 
ing with  eleven  men,  furnished,  besides  their  arms,  with  tools  for  mak- 
ing canoes;  that  he  should  take  Charbonneau  and  his  wife  to  the  camp 
of  the  Shoshones,  where  he  was  to  leave  them  in  order  to  hasten  the 
collection  of  the  horses ;  that  he  was  then  to  lead  his  men  down  the 
Columbia,  and  if  he  found  it  navigable  and  the  timber  in  sufficient  quan- 
tity, begin  to  build  canoes.  As  soon  as  he  had  decided  as  to  the  pro- 
priety of  proceeding  down  the  Columbia  or  across  the  mountains,  he 
was  to  send  back  one  of  the  men  with  information  of  it  to  Captain 
Lewis,  who  by  that  time  would  have  brought  up  the  whole  party  and  the 
rest  of  the  baggage  as  far  as  the  Shoshonee  village. 

It  is  impossible  to  give  the  details  of  the  journey  of  the  expedi- 
tion, now  divided  under  the  two  leaders,  now  reunited,  but  always  harmo- 
nious ;  the  discovery  and  naming  of  Lewis  River  by  Captain  Clark  and 
Clark  River,  by  Captain  Lewis,  and  the  terrible  sufferings  of  the  party, 
which  caused  all  their  Shoshone  friends  to  desert  them  except  one  old 


man,  the  final  entrance  into  the  Snake (  Lewis)  River,  the  joyful  arrival 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Snake,  where  it  joins  the  Columbia,  and  their  cheering 
sight  of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  on  November  16,  1805.  A  winter  camp  was 
built  close  to  the  ocean,  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Columbia. 


On  March  23,  1806,  camp  was  broken  and  the  loaded  flotilla  of 
canoes  started  up  the  Columbia  on  the  long  return  trip  eastward.  If  re- 
membered, the  toils  and  hardships  of  the  western  trip  were  ignored. 
On  June  3Oth,  the  party  had  arrived  at  what  was  noted  as  Travelers' 
Rest  Creek,  where  it  empties  into  Clark's  (Flathead)  River.  There, 
the  leaders  decided  upon  a  separation,  the  party  under  Captain  Lewis 
to  pursue  a  northerly  route  through  Montana  and  that  under  Captain 
Clark,  a  southerly.  Specifically,  as  recorded  in  the  journal  entry  of 
July  i,  1806,  the  plan  agreed  upon  was  as  follows:  "Captain  Lewis,  with 
nine  men,  was  to  pursue  the  most  direct  route  to  the  falls  of  the  Mis- 
souri, where  three  of  his  party  were  to  be  left  to  prepare  carriages  for 
transporting  baggage  and  canoes  across  the  portage  of  eighteen  miles 
from  Portage  Creek  to  Whitebear  Island.  With  the  remaining  six 
he  was  to  ascend  Maria's  River,  to  explore  the  country  and  ascertain 
whether  any  branch  of  it  reaches  as  far  north  as  the  latitude  of  fifty 
degrees,  after  which  he  was  to  descend  that  river  to  its  mouth. 

"The  rest  of  the  men  were  to  accompany  Captain  Clark  to  the  head  of 
Jefferson  river,  which  Sergeant  Ordway  and  a  party  of  nine  men  would 
descend  with  the  canoes  and  other  articles  deposited  there.  Captain 
Clark's  party,  which  would  thereby  be  reduced  to  ten,  would  then  pro- 
ceed to  the  Yellowstone  at  its  nearest  approach  to  the  three  forks  of 
the  Missouri.  There,  he  was  to  build  canoes  and  descend  that  river 
with  seven  of  his  party  and  wait  at  its  mouth  till  the  rest  of  the 
party  should  join  him.  Sergeant  Pryor,  with  two  other,  was  then  to 
take  the  horses  by  land  to  the  Mandans.  From  that  nation  he  was  to  go 
to  the  British  posts  on  the  Assiniboine  with  a  letter  to  Mr.  Henry,  to 
procure  his  endeavors  to  prevail  on  some  of  the  Sioux  chiefs  to  accom- 
pany him  to  the  city  of  Washington." 


All  preparations  being  completed,  "the  two  parties  who  had  been 
long  companions  now  separated,  with  an  anxious  hope  of  soon  meeting 
after  each  had  accomplished  the  purpose  of  its  destination."  The  plan 
as  arranged  by  Lewis  and  Clark  was  carried  out  in  all  its  essentials. 
Captain  Lewis,  directed  by  the  Indians,  followed  the  eastern  branch  of 
Clark's  River.  They  also  told  him  of  a  river  (Cokalahishkit),  "the  river 
of  the  road  to  buffalo,"  which  would  guide  him  to  the  dividing  ground 
between  the  headwaters  of  the  Columbia  and  the  Missouri  along  the 
northern  route.  Pursuing  this  route,  in  about  three  days  a  rather  flat 
country  was  reached,  on  the  western  side  of  the  mountains,  which  Cap- 


tain  Lewis  called  "Prairie  of  the  Knobs."  Along  this  he  traveled  for  a 
few  miles  and  reached  a  ridge,  passed  over  the  divide,  and  after  thirty 
or  forty  miles  reached  the  headwaters  of  Medicine  River,  which  flows 
into  the  Missouri  near  the  great  falls.  The  captain  'then  cut  across 
country  to  Whitebear  Island,  while  his  hunters  were  sent  out  for 
game.  On  opening  the  cache,  it  was  found  that  a  number  of  bearskins 
there  deposited  had  been  destroyed  by  the  river  flood  as  well  as  valuable 
specimens  of  plants ;  "but  the  chart  of  the  Missouri  River  still  remained 
unhurt."  Preparations  were  continued  for  transporting  the  preserved 
articles,  as  the  carriage  wheels  were  in  good  order  and  the  iron  frame 
of  the  boat  had  not  materially  suffered.  On  the  i6th  of  July,  1806, 
started  with  Drewyer  and  the  two  Fields,  with  six  horses,  to  seek  the 
sources  of  Maria's  River.  He  again  slept  under  the  Great  Falls,  which 
he  sketched.  Two  days  out,  the  party  reached  the  river,  and  traveled 
up  its  northern  side,  ascending  its  northern  branch  until  it  entered  the 
mountains.  On  the  22nd,  his  journal  makes  the  record:  "And  as  we 
have  ceased  to  hope  that  any  branches  of  Maria's  river  extend  as  far 
north  as  the  fiftieth  degree  of  north  latitude,  we  deem  it  useless  to  pro- 
ceed farther,  and  rely  chiefly  on  Milk  and  White  Earth  rivers  for  the 
desired  boundary." 

While  preparing  to  return  down  the  river,  Captain  Lewis  and  his 
party  fell  in  with  a  band  of  thieving  Gros  Ventres,  or  Minnetarees,  who, 
after  smoking  a  peace  pipe  and  accepting  the  warmth  of  the  white  men's 
camp  fire,  attempted  to  steal  the  rifles  of  Captain  Lewis  and  the  Field 
brothers.  One  of  the  Fields,  in  attempting  to  regain  them,  fatally  stabbed 
one  of  the  Indian  thieves.  The  Indians  afterward  attempted  to  run  off 
the  horses  of  the  party,  and,  in  the  pursuit,  one  of  the  ungrateful  savages 
was  fatally  shot  by  Captain  Lewis,  who  was  using  his  pistol.  The  white 
leader  himself  had  a  narrow  escape  from  death  as  the  wounded  Indian 
returned  his  fire  just  before  expiring.  In  the  melee,  the  whites  captured 
four  of  the  Indians'  horses  and  lost  only  one  of  their  own.  "Besides 
which,"  continues  the  captain's  account  of  the  affair,  "we  found  in  the 
camp  four  shields,  two  bows  with  quivers,  and  also  the  flag  which  we  had 
presented  to  them,  but  left  the  medal  around  the  neck  of  the  dead  man,  in 
order  that  they  might  be  informed  who  we  were." 

Captain  Lewis  and  his  men  now  made  a  dash  for  the  mouth  of 
Maria's  River,  fearful  not  only  for  their  own  safety  and  the  valuable 
papers  and  instruments  which  he  carried,  but  for  Sergeant  Gass  and 
Willard  who  had  been  left  at  the  falls.  By  good  fortune  they  met,  as 
well  as  Sergeant  Ordway's  party,  which  had  spent  six  days  in  descending 
the  river  from  the  mouth  of  the  Madison  to  White  Bear  Island,  and 
spending  another  week  there  at  the  falls,  in  collecting  the  baggage,  trans- 
porting it  over  the  portage  and  starting  it  down  the  river  in  the  periogue 
of  five  canoes.  Gass  and  Willard  had  set  out  from  the  falls  at  the  same 
time  with  the  horses  of  the  main  expedition. 

It  was  more  than  two  weeks,  however,  before  the  two  leaders  re- 
joined their  forces  below  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone,  on  the  Mis- 
souri. On  the  7th  of  August  Captain  Lewis  made  a  run  of  eighty-three 


miles  down  the  Missouri,  in  order  to  reach  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone. 
"At  four  o'clock,"  it  was  noted  in  the  journal  of  that  date,  "we  reached 
the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone,  where  we  found  a  note  from  Captain  Clark 
informing  us  of  his  intention  of  waiting  for  us  a  few  miles  below.  We 
therefore  left  a  memorandum  for  our  two  huntsmen,  whom  we  now  sup- 
posed must  be  behind  us,  and  then  pursued  our  course  till  night  came  on, 
and  not  being  able  to  overtake  Captain  Clark,  we  encamped." 

Captain  Lewis  and  most  of  his  men  were  now  over  what  is  now  the 
North  Dakota  boundary,  and  it  was  not  until  the  I2th  of  August,  1806, 
at  i  :oo  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  at  a  point  in  the  Missouri  River,  be- 
yond the  mouth  of  the  White  Earth  River,  in  the  region  of  the  Burnt 
Hills,  that  Lewis  especially  desired  to  "make  the  observation  of  the  lati- 
tude of  the  Burnt  Hills,  which  is  chiefly  desirable,"  he  notes,  "as 
being  the  most  northern  parts  of  the  Missouri."  As  he  did  not  reach 
the  locality  until  twenty  minutes  after  noon  it  was  too  late  to  take 
the  meridian  altitude,  and  while  waiting  over  until  the  following  day 
to  do  so  he  was  severely  wounded  in  the  thigh  by  one  of  his  huntsmen 
who  had  mistaken  his  hidden  movements  on  the  bank  of  the  river  for 
those  of  elk  which  had  been  sighted.  The  wound  was  very  painful  and 
brought  on  a  high  fever,  but  the  journey  was  continued  and  on  the  fol- 
lowing day,  August  I2th,  he  and  his  men  came  up  with  Captain  Clark. 


During  the  nine  days  of  their  separation,  the  journey  of  the  Cap- 
tain Clark  contingent  had  been  of  interest,  although  not  so  stirring  as 
that  of  Captain  Lewis.  On  taking  leave  of  Lewis,  July  3,  1806,  with 
fifteen  men  and  fifty  horses,  Clark  had  set  out  through  the  valley  of 
Clark's  River,  along  the  western  side  of  which  they  rode  in  a  south- 
erly direction.  "Having  made  sixteen  miles  (in  the  morning  of  July 
4th),  we  halted  at  an  early  hour  for  the  purpose  of  doing  honor  to  the 
birthday  of  our  country's  independence.  The  festival  was  not  very  splen- 
did, for  it  consisted  of  a  mush  made  of  cows  and  a  saddle  of  venison,  nor 
had  we  anything  to  tempt  us  to  prolong  it."  , 

On  the  6th  of  July  the  watershed  was  reached  which  separates  the 
middle  fork  of  Clark's  River  from  the  waters  of  Wisdom  and  Lewis 
rivers.  Reaching  the  other  side  of  the  mountain,  they  came  to  Glade 
Creek.  They  found  "appearances  of  old  buffalo  paths,  and  some  old 
heads  of  buffaloes;  and  as  these  animals  have  wonderful  sagacity  in  the 
choice  of  their  routes,  the  coincidence  of  a  buffalo  with  an  Indian  road 
was  the  strongest  assurance  that  it  was  the  best.  In  the  afternoon  we 
passed  along  the  hillside  north  of  the  creek  till  in  the  course  of  six  miles 
we  entered  an  extensive  level  plain.  Here  the  tracks  of  the  Indians 
scattered  so  much  that  we  could  no  longer  pursue  it,  but  Sacajawea 
recognized  the  plain  immediately.  She  had  traveled  it  often  during  her 
childhood,  and  informed  us  that  it  was  the  great  resort  of  the  Shoshones, 
who  came  for  the  purpose  of  gathering  quamash  and  cows,  and  of  taking 
beaver,  with  which  the  plain  abounded ;  and  that  Glade  Creek  was  a 


branch  of  Wisdom  River,  and  that  on  reaching  the  highest  part  of  the 
plain  we  should  see  a  gap  in  the  mountain,  on  the  course  to  our  canoes, 
and  from  that  gap  a  high  point  of  mountain  covered  with  snow. 

"At  the  distance  of  a  mile  we  crossed  a  large  creek  from  the  right 
rising,  as  well  as  Fish  creek,  in  a  snowy  mountain  over  which  there  is 
a  gap.  Soon  after,  on  ascending  a  rising  ground,  the  country  spreads 
itself  into  a  beautiful  plain  extending  north  and  south,  about  fifteen 
miles  wide  and  thirty  in  length,  and  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  high 
points  of  mountains  covered  with  snow,  among  which  was  the  gap  pointed 
out  by  the  squaw,  bearing  S.  56  E." 

On  the  7th,  Captain  Clark's  party  reached  Wisdom  River,  following 
it  to  a  gap  in  the  mountains,  which  led  him  to  the  west  branch  of  the 
Jefferson  River.  Down  this  the  men  went  to  the  "forks,"  where  they 
had  deposited  their  merchandise  in  the  previous  August.  The  lack  of 
tobacco  had  been  their  greatest  deprivation,  "and  such  was  their  eager- 
ness to  procure  it  after  so  long  a  deprivation  that  they  scarcely  took 
their  saddles  from  their  horses  before  they  ran  to  the  cave,  and  were 
delighted  at  being  able  to  resume  this  fastidious  indulgence."  Some  of 
the  men  whose  tomahawks  were  so  constructed  as  to  answer  the  purpose 
of  pipes,  broke  the  handles  of  these  instruments,  and  after  cutting  them 
into  small  fragments,  chewed  them,  the  wood  having  by  frequent  smok- 
ing become  strongly  impregnated  with  the  taste  of  that  plant. 

The  party  led  by  Captain  Clark  had  now  traveled  from  Traveler's 
Rest  Creek  to  the  head  of  Jefferson  River,  about  160  miles,  and  the 
journal  records:  "It  is  a  very  excellent,  and  by  cutting  a  few  trees 
might  be  rendered  a  good  route  for  wagons,  with  the  exception  of  about 
four  miles  over  one  of  the  mountains  which  would  require  some  levelling. 
On  July  loth,  with  a  white  frost  covering  the  ground  and  ice  forming 
the  boats  were  loaded  and  the  men  divided  into  two  bands,  one  to  de- 
scend the  river  with  the  baggage,  while  Clark,  with  the  other  party, 
proceeded  on  horseback  to  the  Rochejaume  (Yellowstone).  After  travel- 
ing about  fifteen  miles  down  the  eastern  side  of  Jefferson  river,  through 
Service  valley  and  over  the  Rattlesnake  mountain  into  Beaverhead  val- 
ley, Captain  Clark  discovered  that  the  canoes  could  advance  more  rapidly 
than  the  horses;  he  therefore  left  the  horses  with  Sergeant  Pryor  and 
himself  continued  by  water.  Three  Thousand  Mile  Island,  Beaver  Head, 
Philanthrophy  river,  Wisdom  river,  Panther  and  Field  creeks,  and 
other  features  made  familiar  by  the  outward  voyage  of  the  previous 
year.  The  entrance  of  Madison  river  into  the  Missouri  was  reached 
by  Clark  and  the  boats  about  an  hour  after  Sergeant  Ordway  had  arrived 
with  the  horses,  on  Sunday,  July  I3th.  The  horses  were  then  driven 
across  Madison  and  Gallatin  rivers,  and  the  whole  party  halted  to  dine  and 
unload  the  canoes  below  the  mouth  of  the  latter.  Here  the  two  parties 
again  separated,  Ordway  with  nine  men  setting  out  in  six  canoes  to  de- 
scend the  river,  while  Captain  Clark,  with  the  remaining  twenty  and  the 
wife  and  child  of  Charbonneau,  and  fifty  horses,  started  by  land  for 
the  Yellowstone.  This  was  according  to  programme,  but  had  Clark  not 
taken  the  precaution  to  take  with  him  the  faithful,  astute  and  thoroughly 


posted  Bird  Woman,  the  prompt  performance  of  his  part  of  the  pre- 
arranged plan  is  problematical." 

Late  in  the  afternoon  of  the  I3th,  the  land  party  set  out  from  the 
forks  of  the  Missouri,  but  because  of  the  sore  feet  of  the  horses  were 
obliged  to  travel  slowly  and  halted  for  the  night,  after  going  only 
four  miles,  on  the  bank  of  Gallatin's  River.  The  plain  beyond  led  to  a 
gap  in  the  mountains,  twenty  miles  distant,  which  the  captain  would 
have  taken,  had  not  the  Indian  woman  recommended  one  farther  to  the 
south.  Under  her  guidance,  the  main  channel  of  the  Medicine  River 
was  reached,  and  finally,  on  the  I4th,  the  gap  in  the  mountains  was 


reached  through  the  three  branches  of  the  Gallatin  Pass,  as  well  as  the 
great  buffalo  road  described  by  the  invaluable  squaw. 


The  journal  entry  of  Tuesday,  I5th  (July,  1806),  is  of  special  sig- 
nificance: "After  an  early  breakfast  they  pursued  the  buffalo  road 
over  a  low  gap  in  the  mountain  to  the  heads  of  the  eastern  fork  of  Gal- 
latin's  river  near  which  they  had  encamped  last  evening,  and  at  the 
distance  of  six  miles  reached  the  top  of  the  dividing  ridge  (Bozeman 
pass)  which  separates  the  waters  of  the  Missouri  and  the  Yellowstone; 
and  on  descending  the  ridge  they  struck  one  of  the  streams  of  the  latter 
river.  They  followed  its  course  through  an  open  country,  with  high 
mountains  on  each  side,  partially  covered  with  pine  and  watered  by  sev- 
eral streams,  crowded  as  usual  by  beaver  dams.  Nine  miles  from  the 
top  of  the  ridge  they  reached  the  Yellowstone  itself,  about  a  mile  and  a 
half  below  where  it  issues  from  the  Rocky  mountains. 

"It  now  appeared  that  the  communication  between  the  two  rivers 
was  short  and  easy.  From  the  head  of  the  Missouri  at  its  three  forks 
to  this  place  is  a  distance  of  forty-eight  miles,  the  greater  part  of  which 
is  through  a  level  plain ;  indeed,  from  the  forks  of  the  eastern  branch 


of  Gallatin's  river,  which  is  here  navigable  for  small  canoes  to  this  part 
of  the  Yellowstone,  the  distance  is  no  more  than  eighteen  miles,  with 
an  excellent  road  over  a  high,  dry  country,  with  hills  of  inconsiderable 
height  and  no  difficulty  in  passing.  *  *  * 

"At  the  distance  of  nine  miles  from  the  mountain  a  river  discharges 
itself  into  the  Yellowstone  from  the  northwest,  under  a  high  rocky 
cliff.  It  rises  from  the  snowy  mountains  in  that  direction;  is  about 
thirty-five  yards  wide;  has  a  bold,  deep  current; 'is  skirted  by  some 
cottonwood  and  willow  trees ;  and,  like  the  Yellowstone  itself,  seems  to 
abound  in  beaver.  They  gave  it  the  name  of  Shield's  river,  after  one 
of  the  party." 

As  many  of  the  horses  in  the  Clark  party  were  either  lamed  by  the 
hard  travel  or  stolen  by  the  Indians,  two  canoes  were  built,  twenty- 
eight  feet  in  length,  lashed  together,  and  on  the  23rd  of  July  all  but  three 
of  its  members  continued  the  trip  down  the  Yellowstone.  Sergeant  Pryor, 
with  two  other  men,  was  directed  to  take  the  remaining  horses  to  the 
Mandans,  and  (still  according  to  programme)  "if  he  found  that  Mr. 
Henry  (Indian  agent)  was  on  the  Assiniboin  river,  to  go  thither  and  de- 
liver him  a  letter,  the  object  of  which  was  to  prevail  on  the  most  dis- 
tinguished chiefs  of  the  Sioux  to  accompany  him  to  Washington." 


Sergeant  Pryor  was  to  join  Clark  where  the  Big  Horn  River  entered 
the  Yellowstone.  A  wide  river  coming  in  from  the  south  was  at  first 
thought  to  be  the  Big  Horn;  "but  afterwards  when  the  Big  Horn  was 
found  the  name  of  Clark's  fork  was  given  to  this  stream."  Pryor's 
Creek  was  also  named  along  the  route.  Littlewolf  Mountains  were 
passed  on  the  way,  and  one  of  the  cliffs  which  juts  into  the  Yellow- 
stone in  that  region  was  named  by  Captain  Clark,  Pompey's  Pillar. 
Just  before  reaching  the  Big  Horn  River,  on  the  26th,  he  shot  two  of 
the  animals  from  his  boat  which  gave  their  name  to  that  stream.  He 
states  that  "there  are  no  permanent  settlements  near  it,  but  the  whole 
country  which  it  waters  is  occasionally  visited  by  roving  bands  of  hunt- 
ers from  the  Crow  tribe,  the  Paunch,  a  band  of  Crows,  and  the  Castahana, 
a  small  band  of  Snake  Indians."  On  the  morning  of  July  27,  1806, 
"they  again  set  out  very  early,  and  on  leaving  the  Big  Horn  took  a  last 
look  at  the  Rocky  mountains,  which  had  been  constantly  in  view  from 
the  first  of  May." 

Their  course  down  the  Yellowstone  brought  them  through  a  country 
crowded  with  buffalo,  elk  and  wolves,  and  on  Tuesday,  August  3,  1806, 
eight  miles  below  Field's  Creek,  reached  its  junction  with  the  Missouri. 
He  had  traveled  down  its  valley  for  a  distance  of  more  than  eight  hun- 
dred miles.  At  the  confluence  of  the  two  rivers  he  wrote  the  note  to  Cap- 
tain Lewis  which  the  latter  found  four  days  afterward.  On  the  8th, 
Clark  was  joined  by  Sergeant  Pryor  and  his  two  companions  but  minus 
the  horses  which  had  been  stolen  by  the  Indians. 



Under  date  of  August  12,  1806,  Clark's  journal  says:  "The  party 
continued  to  slowly  descend  the  river.  One  of  the  skin  canoes  was  by 
accident  pierced  with  a  small  hole,  and  they  halted  for  the  purpose  of 
mending  it  with  a  piece  of  elk-skin  and  also  to  wait  for  two  of  the 
party  who  were  behind.  Whilst  there  they  were  overjoyed  at  seeing 
Captain  Lewis's  boats  heave  in  sight  about  noon.  But  this  feeling  was 
changed  into  alarm  on  seeing  the  boats  reach  the  shore  without  Captain 
Lewis,  who  they  then  learned  had  been  wounded  the  day  before,  and  was 
then  lying  in  the  periogue.  After  giving  to  hi,s  wound  all  the  atten- 
tion in  our  power  we  remained  here  some  time,  during  which  we  were 
overtaken  by  our  two  men,  accompanied  by  Dickson  and  Hancock,  who 
wished  to  go  with  us  as  far  as  the  Mandans.  The  whole  party  being  now 
happily  reunited,  we  left  the  two  skin  canoes,  and  all  embarked  together 
about  three  o'clock  in  the  boats." 


The  "happily  reunited"  expedition  arrived  at  the  Mandan  Village 
August  14,  1806.  Three  days  afterward  Lewis  and  Clark  parted  from 
Sacajawea,  the  faithful  Indian  "squaw"  and  guide,  and  Charbonneau, 
her  unreliable,  cowardly  and  unworthy  husband,  who,  however,  had  been 
of  considerable  service.  The  wife,  however,  had  been  of  far  greater 
service,  but  both  preferred  to  remain  with  the  Indians.  Sacajawea  is 
thus  noted  in  the  journal :  "Indeed,  she  has  borne  with  a  patience  truly 
admirable  the  fatigues  of  a  long  route,  encumbered  with  the  charge 
of  an  infant,  who  is  even  now  only  nineteen  months  old.  We  therefore 
paid  Charbonneau  his  wages,  amounting  to  $500.33,  including  the  price  of 
a  horse  and  a  lodge  purchased  of  him ;  and  soon  afterward  dropped  down 
to  the  village  of  Big  White,  attended  on  shore  by  all  the  Indian  chiefs 
who  went  to  take  leave  of  him." 


In  sketching  the  leading  characters  of  the  most  famous  land  expedi- 
tion recorded  in  American  history,  Doctor  Hosmer  writes :  "Though  the 
closing  weeks  of  summer  the  boats  drifted  rapidly  down,  and  one  day  in 
September,  1806,  saluting  the  flag  they  had  carried  so  far  with  a  part- 
ing volley,  the  Captains  and  their  men  stepped  ashore  at  St.  Louis. 
Never  was  success  more  complete.  From  first  to  last  all  went  smoothly, 
not  at  all  because  the  dangers  and  difficulties  were  small,  but  because 
the  skill  and  courage  with  which  they  were  confronted  were  consummate. 
Lewis  and  Clark  were  never  found  wanting,  and  in  all  the  effort  they 
co-operated  without  a  touch  of  jealousy.  From  first  to  last  among  the 
men  there  was  scarcely  a  trace  of  insubordination;  each  worked  to  his 
full  capacity,  yielding  to  the  guidance  of  the  leaders,  whose  natural 
ascendency  they  thoroughly  recognized.  The  student  of  Lewis  and  Clark 


learns  to  respect  them  all— the  stout  sergeants,  Pryor,  Ordway  and 
Patrick  Gass,  the  latter  of  whom  in  his  quaint  diary  supplements  nobly 
the  record  of  the  chiefs;— the  blacksmith  Shields,  York  the  negro  slave 
whom  the  Indians  thought  great  'medicine',  the  half-breed  Drewyer, 
past-master  of  woodcraft,  the  Frenchman,  Cruzat,  whose  fiddle  re- 
sounded night  after  night  in  the  desolate  camps  while  the  men  danced 
off  their  pains  and  fears. 


"But  most  of  all  the  lone  woman,  Sacajawea,  is  an  object  of  inter- 
est. Her  figure  in  the  story  of  Lewis  and  Clark  is  very  pathetic  and 
engaging,  and  in  Indian  story  few  characters  appear  whose  desert  was 
greater.  A  captive  and  a  slave,  she  followed  the  trail  or  worked  with 
the  men  in  forcing  on  the  canoes.  Her  husband,  Charbonneau,  soon 
proved  to  be  inefficient  and  cowardly;  but  as  dangers  and  hardships 
gathered,  the  heart  and  head  of  the  squaw  showed  ever  new  resources.  It 
is  doubtful  if  the  expedition  could  have  pushed  its  way  through  without 

In  after  years,  Charbonneau's  name  appears  in  the  record  of  various 
American  explorers  as  an  interpreter,  and  as  one  of  small  character  he 
fades  away.  His  noble  wife  was  tenderly  cared  for  by  her  son,  Baptiste, 
and  her  adopted  son,  Bazil — the  orphaned  son  of  her  eldest  sister,  whom 
she  adopted  in  the  Shoshone  country,  while  about  to  return  to  civilization. 
The  latter  especially  thoughtful  of  the  welfare  of  his  mother,  by  adoption, 
cared  for  her  in  her  declining  years,  and  was  buried  with  the  medal  around 
his  neck  which  Lewis  and  Clark  had  presented  to  Charbonneau.  Saca- 
jawea lived  to  be  one  hundred  years  of  age,  and  died  and  was  buried  in 
1884,  on  the  Shoshone,  or  Wind  River  reservation,  in  Fremont  County, 
Wyoming.  Over  her  grave  is  a  tablet  which  reads :  "Sacajawea,  guide  to 
Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition,  1805-1807.  Identified  by  Rev.  John  Roberts, 
who  officiated  at  her  burial,  April  21,  1884." 


Captains  Lewis  and  Clark  started  for  Washington  about  .five  months 
after  they  arrived  in  St.  Louis.  The  sad  sequel  of  the  former's  brilliant 
and  brief  public  career  is  thus  sketched  by  his  great  patron  and  warm 
friend,  Jefferson :  "It  was  the  middle  of  February,  1807,  before  Captain 
Lewis  and  his  companion,  Captain  Clark,  reached  the  city  of  Washing- 
ton, where  Congress  was  then  in  session.  That  body  granted  to  the 
two  chiefs  and  their  followers  the  donation  of  lands  which  they  had 
been  encouraged  to  expect  in  reward  of  their  toils  and  dangers.  Cap- 
tain Lewis  was  soon  after  appointed  governor  of  Louisiana,  and  Cap- 
tain Clark  a  general  of  militia,  and  agent  of  the  United  States  for  Indian 
affairs  in  that  department.  A  considerable  time  intervened  before  the 
governor's  arrival  at  St.  Louis.  He  found  the  territory  distracted  by 
feuds  and  contentions  among  the  officers  of  the  government  and  the 

Vol.  1—5 


people  themselves  divided  by  these  into  factions  and  parties.  He  de- 
termined at  once  to  take  no  sides  with  either;  but  to  use  every  endeavor 
to  conciliate  and  harmonize  them.  The  even-handed  justice  he  adminis- 
tered to  all  soon  established  a  respect  for  his  person  and  authority ;  and 
perseverance  and  time  wore  down  animosities  and  reunited  the  citizens 
again  into  one  family. 

"Governor  Lewis  had,  from  early  life,  been  subject  to  hypochon- 
driac affections.  It  was  a  constitutional  disposition  in  all  the  nearer 
branches  of  the  family  of  his  name,  and  was  more  immediately  inher- 
ited by  him  from  his  father.  They  had  not,  however,  been  so  strong  as 
to  give  uneasiness  to  his  family.  While  he  lived  with  me  in  Washing- 
ton I  observed  at  times  sensible  depressions  of  mind;  but  knowing  their 
constitutional  source,  I  estimated  their  course  by  what  I  had  seen  in 
the  family.  During  his  western  expedition,  the  constant  exertion  which 
that  required  of  all  the  faculties  of  body  and  mind,  suspended  these 
distressing  affections;  but  after  his  establishment  in  St.  Louis  in 
sedentary  occupations  they  returned  upon  him  with  redoubled  vigor  and 
began  seriously  to  alarm  his  friends.  He  was  in  a  paroxysm  of  one  of 
these  when  his  affairs  rendered  it  necessary  for  him  to  go  to  Washington. 
He  proceeded  to  Chickasaw  Bluffs,  where  he  arrived  on  the  i6th  of 
September,  1809,  with  a  view  of  continuing  his  journey  thence  by  water. 

"Mr.  Neely,  agent  of  the  United  States  with  the  Chickasaw  Indians, 
arriving  there  two  days  after,  found  him  extremely  indisposed,  and  be- 
traying at  times  some  symptoms  of  a  derangement  of  mind.  The  rumors 
of  a  war  with  England,  and  apprehensions  that  he  might  lose  the  papers 
he  was  bringing  on,  among  which  were  the  vouchers  of  his  public  accounts 
and  the  journals  and  papers  of  his  western  expedition,  induced  him  here 
to  change  his  mind,  and  to  take  his  course  by  land  through  the  Chick- 
asaw country.  Although  he  appeared  somewhat  relieved,  Mr.  Neely 
kindly  determined  to  accompany  and  watch  over  him.  Unfortunately, 
at  their  encampment,  after  having  passed  the  Tennessee  one  day's  jour- 
ney, they  lost  two  horses,  which  obliging  Mr.  Neely  to  halt  for  their 
recovery,  the  governor  proceeded,  under  a  promise  to  wait  for  him  at 
the  house  of  the  first  white  inhabitant  on  his  road.  He  stopped  at  the 
house  of  a  Mr.  Grinder,  who,  not  being  at  home,  his  wife  alarmed  at 
the  symptoms  of  derangement  she  discovered,  gave  him  up  the  house 
and  retired  to  rest  herself  in  an  out-house,  the  governor's  and  Neely's 
servants  lodging  in  another.  About  three  o'clock  in  the  night  he  did 
the  deed*  which  plunged  his  friends  into  affliction  and  deprived  his 
country  of  one  of  her  most  valued  citizens,  whose  valor  and  intelli- 
gence would  now  have  been  employed  in  avenging  the  wrongs  of  his  coun- 
try, and  in  emulating  by  land  the  splendid  deeds  which  have  honored 
her  arms  on  the  ocean.  It  lost,  too,  to  the  nation  the  benefit  of  receiv- 

*  The  facts  accompanying  the  death  of  Meriwether  Lewis  have  never  been 
consistently  stated,  and  his  death  by  pistol  shot  at  a  public  house  of  questionable 
reputation — Grinder's  Stand,  on  the  Natchez  Trace  (military  road) — is  still  open 
to  discussion  as  to  whether  it  was  through  suicide  or  murder.  Jefferson,  obviously, 
favors  the  former  explanation.  A  monument  of  Tennessee  marble  stands  at  the 
locality  where  his  death  occurred. 


ing  from  his  own  hand  the  narrative  now  offered  them  of  his  suffer- 
ings and  successes,  in  endeavoring  to  extend  for  them  the  boundaries  of 
science,  and  to  present  to  their  knowledge  that  vast  and  fertile  country, 
which  their  sons  are  destined  to  fill  with  arts,  with  science,  with  free- 
dom and  happiness." 


After  serving  for  six  years  as  brigadier  general  of  militia  and 
Indian  agent  for  the  territory  of  Louisiana,  in  1813  General  Clark  was 
made  governor  of  Missouri.  He  honored  that  position  until  Missouri 
became  a  state  in  1820,  and  afterward  became  superintendent  of  Indian 
affairs,  which  he  held  at  the  time  of  his  death.  Clark  held  other  re- 
sponsible public  positions  and  died  in  St.  Louis,  generally  respected  and 
loved,  in  1838.  There  was  probably  no  character  better  known  or  loved 
by  the  Indians  in  the  West  than  General  Clark,  who  affectionately  spoke 
of  him  as  the  "Red-Head,"  and  St.  Louis  was  known  by  his  red  friends 
as  "Red-Head's  town." 


Two  days  after  Lewis  and  Clark  had  joined  each  other,  with  their 
parties,  below  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  and  started  for  the  Man- 
dan  country,  on  their  way  to  St.  Louis,  John  Colter,  a  member  of  the 
expedition,  obtained  an  honorable  discharge  from  the  leaders  and,  again 
answered  the  call  of  the  wilds.  The  journal  narrates  the  incident,  thus, 
under  date  of  August  14,  1806:  "In  the  evening  we  were  applied  to  by 
one  of  our  men,  Colter,  who  was  desirous  of  joining  the  two  trappers  who 
had  accompanied  us  and  who  now  proposed  an  expedition  up  the  river 
(Missouri),  in  which  they  were  to  find  traps  and  give  him  a  share  of 
the  profits.  The  offer  was  a  very  advantageous  one,  and  as  he  had  always 
performed  his  duty  and  his  services  might  be  dispensed  with,  we  agreed 
that  he  might  go,  provided  none  of  the  rest  would  ask  or  expect  a  similar 
indulgence.  To  this  they  cheerfully  answered  that  they  wished  Colter 
every  success  and  would  not  apply  for  liberty  to  separate  before  we 
reached  St.  Louis.  We  therefore  supplied  him,  as  did  his  comrades  also, 
with  powder  and  lead,  and  a  variety  of  articles  which  might  be  useful 
to  him  and  he  left  us  the  next  day. 


"The  example  of  this  man  shows  how  easily  men  may  be  weaned  from 
the  habits  of  a  civilized  life  to  the  ruder  but  scarcely  less  fascinating 
manners  of  the  woods.  This  hunter  has  been  now  absent  for  many  years 
from  the  frontiers,  and  might  naturally  be  presumed  to  have  some  anxiety, 
or  some  curiosity  at  least,  to  return  to  his  friends  and  his  country ;  yet 
just  at  the  moment  when  he  is  approaching  the  frontiers  he  is  tempted, 
by  a  hunting  scheme,  to  give  up  those  delightful  prospects  and  go  back 
without  the  least  reluctance  to  the  solitude  of  the  woods." 

Before  Colter  was  to  return  to  American  civilization,  he  was  to 
have  adventures  and  wide  wanderings  among  the  grandeurs  and  wonders 
of  the  Rockies  which  would  thrill  even  a  hardened  boy  of  scout  and 
Indian  literature.  Where  he  spent  the  winter  of  1806-07  is  not  recorded, 
but  in  the  spring  of  the  latter  year  he  built  a  canoe  of  logs  and  started 
down  the  Missouri  river  for  St.  Louis.  Even  now  he  was  not  to  lead  the 
q[uiet  life  of-  a  settler;  for  at  the  mouth  of  the  Platte,  he  met  a  party 
winding  up  the  river  from  Missouri,  under  the  leadership  of  the  keen  and 
fearless  Spanish  fur  trader,  Manuel  Lisa,  and  under  the  immediate  guid- 
ance of  George  Drewyer,  Lewis  and  Clark's  old  hunter  and  interpreter 



and  one  of  the  mainstays  of  the  expedition.  Lisa  was  headed  for  the  great 
beaver  country,  through  which  the  expedition  had  passed;  Colter  had 
since  investigated  the  trapping  grounds  at  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri 
and  was  the  man  most  needed  to  insure  success  to  the  commercial  venture 
of  the  Spanish  fur  trader. 


Colter  was  therefore  again  turned  back  toward  the  western  wilds  and 
the  re-enforced  party  proceeded  up  the  Missouri  to  the  mouth  of  the  Yel- 
lowstone, thence  up  that  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn.  There 
(in  the  spring  or  early  summer  of  1807)  Lisa  established  the  post  known 
variously  as  Fort  Lisa,  Fort  Manuel  and  Manuel's  Fort.  He  then  sent 
out  Colter  alone  as  a  herald  to  announce  to  the  neighboring  Indians  the 
fact  and  object  of  his  coming.  The  exact  route  of  his  wanderings  in  1807 
is  not  known,  although  Capt.  William  Clark,  whom  he  met  in  1810  and 
who  obtained  from  him  a  narrative  of  his  travels,  marked  upon  one  of 
the  maps  of  the  expedition  "Colter's  route  in  1807."  From  this  and  other 
reports  gathered  from  others  whom  Colter  met  in  St.  Louis,*  it  is  prob- 
able that  he  traveled  from  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  to  the  forks  of  the 
Shoshone  or  Snake  River,  where  he  found  a  great  tar  spring,  which  came 
to  bear  the  name  of  Colter's  "Hell  Hole."  Then  journeying,  in  a  north- 
westerly direction,  through  what  is  now  the  Yellowstone  National  Park, 
he  reached  Yellowstone  Lake,  forded  the  Yellowstone  River  near  Twin 
Falls  and  followed  the  Indian  trail  that  led  to  the  Valley  of  Clark's  Fork. 
Thence  he  returned  to  the  forks  of  the  Shoshone  and  up  the  Big  Horn 
Valley  to  Lisa's  Fort. 

The  difficulties  encountered  in  this  journey  and  so  bravely  over- 
come by  Colter  place  him  in  the  front  rank  of  the  heroic  explorers  of 
interior  America.  It  is  believed  that  he  met  the  Crows  somewhere  in 
the  Wind  River  region  and,  with  a  small  band  of  them,  crossed  the  great 
Wind  River  Mountains  by  way  of  Union  Pass  and  the  Teton  Range 
through  the  pass  by  that  name.  The  Crows  were  attacked  by  a  war  party 
of  Blackfeet  and  Colter  was  badly  wounded  in  the  leg.  The  Indians,  with 
whom  he  was  traveling  and  with  whom  he  had  fought,  turned  back  in 
alarm  and  left  the  white  man,  wounded  as  he  was,  to  shift  for  himself. 
It  was  now  impossible  for  him  to  think  of  treating  with  the  Blackfeet 
at  the  three  forks  of  the  Missouri,  as  had  been  the  original  intention, 
for  he  had  been  seen  by  their  warriors  in  the  mountain  encounter.  He 
therefore  started  for  Lisa's  Fort,  and.  wounded  as  he  was,  struck  bravely 
down  the  wooded  northern  slope  of  the  Teton  Mountains  and  across  the 
southern  part  of  the  present  Yellowstone  Park.  In  the  words  of  Chit- 
tendenrt  "It  may,  with  difficulty,  be  imagined  what  must  have  been  his 
astonishment  when,  emerging  from  the  forests  upon  the  shores  of  that 
surpassingly  beautiful  mountain  lake  near  the  source  of  the  Yellowstone 

*John  Bradbury,  English  botanist,  and  author  of  "Travels  in  the  Interior  of 
America";  Henry  W.  Brackenridge,  explorer  and  writer. 

f  Captain  H.  M.  Chittenden :    "American  Fur  Trade  of  the  Far  West." 


river,  he  found  its  shores  steaming  with  innumerable  boiling  springs  and 


Exactly  where  he  met  with  the  most  remarkable  adventure  of  his 
stirring  carreer  is  not  known.  Neither  is  it  known  when  or  where  he  met 
the  Potts,  who  figures  in  the  story  and  who  incidentally  appears  as  a 
member  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  party.  The  main  facts,  as  related  to 
Bradbury,  after  Colter's  return  to  St.  Louis,  are  these :  Colter  and  Potts 
were  examining  their  traps  early  one  morning  in  a  creek  which  they  were 
ascending  in  a  canoe,  when  they  suddenly  heard  a  great  noise  resembling 
the  tramping  of  animals ;  but  they  could  not  ascertain  the  fact,  as  the  high, 
perpendicular  banks  on  each  side  of  the  river  impeded  their  view.  Colter 
immediately  pronounced  it  to  be  occasioned  by  Indians  and  advised  an  in- 
stant retreat,  but  was  accused  of  cowardice  by  Potts,  who  insisted  the 
noise  was  occasioned  by  buffaloes,  and  they  proceeded  on.  In  a  few 
minutes  afterward,  their  doubts  were  removed  by  the  appearance  of  five 
or  six  hundred  Indians  on  both  sides  of  the  creek,  who  beckoned  them 
to  come  ashore.  As  retreat  was  now  impossible,  Colter  turned  the  head 
of  the  canoe  to  the  shore ;  and  at  the  moment  of  its  touching  an  Indian 
seized  the  rifle  belonging  to  Potts.  But  Colter,  who  was  a  remarkably 
strong  man,  immediately  retook  it  and  handed  it  to  Potts,  who  remained 
in  the  canoe  and,  upon  receiving  it,  pushed  off  into  the  river.  He 
had  scarcely  quitted  the  shore,  when  an  arrow  was  shot  at  him  and  he 
cried  out  'Colter,  I  am  wounded !'  Colter  remonstrated  with  him  on  the 
folly  of  attempting  to  escape  and  urged  him  to  come  ashore.  Instead  of 
complying,  he  instantly  leveled  his  rifle  at  an  Indian  and  shot  him  dead 
on  the  spot. 

This  conduct  may  appear  to  have  been  an  act  of  madness,  but  it  was 
doubtless  the  effect  of  sudden,  but  sound  enough  reasoning;  for  if 
taken  alive,  he  must  have  expected  to  have  been  tortured  to  death,  ac- 
cording to  the  Indian  custom.  And,  in  this  respect,  the  Indians  of 
that  region  excelled  all  others  in  the  ingenuity  they  displayed  in  tor- 
turing their  prisoners.  He  was  instantly  pierced  with  arrows,  so  numer- 
ous that,  to  use  the  language  of  Colter,  "he  was  made  a  riddle  of." 

They  now  seized  Colter,  stripped  him  entirely  naked,  and  began  to 
consult  on  the  manner  in  which  he  should  be  put  to  death.  They  were 
first  inclined  to  set  him  up  as  a  mark  to  be  shot  at;  but  the  chief 
interfered  and,  seizing  him  by  the  shoulder,  asked  him  if  he  could  run 
fast.  Colter,  who  had  been  some  time  among  the  Kee  Katsa,  or  Crow  In- 
dians, had,  in  a  considerable  degree,  acquired  the  Blackfoot  language, 
and  was  also  well  acquainted  with  Indian  customs.  He  knew  that  he  had 
now  run  for  his  life,  with  the  dreadful  odds  of  five  or  six  hundred  against 
him,  and  these  armed  Indians.  He  therefore  cunningly  replied  that  he 
was  a  very  bad  runner,  although,  in  truth,  he  was  considered  by  the 
hunters  as  remarkably  swift. 

The  chief  now  commanded  the  party  to  remain  stationary,  and  led 
Colter  out  on  the  prairie  three  or  four  hundred  yards,  and  released  him, 


to  save  himself  if  he  could.  At  that  instant,  the  war-whoop  sounded 
in  the  ears  of  poor  Colter  who,  urged  with  the  hope  of  preserving  life, 
ran  with  a  speed  at  which  he  himself  was  surprised.  He  proceeded  to- 
ward Jefferson's  Fork,  having  to  traverse  a  plain  six  miles  in  breadth, 
abounding  with  the  prickly  pear,  on  which  he  every  instant  was  tread- 
ing with  his  naked  feet.  He  ran  nearly  half  way  across  the  plain  before  he 
ventured  to  look  over  his  shoulder,  when  he  perceived  that  the  Indians 
were  very  much  scattered,  and  that  he  had  gained  ground  to  a  considerable 
distance  from  the  main  body;  but  one  Indian,  who  carried  a  spear,  was 
much  before  all  the  rest,  and  not  more  than  a  hundred  yards  from  him. 

A  faint  gleam  of  hope  now  cheered  the  heart  of  Colter.  He  derived 
confidence  from  the  belief  that  escape  was  within  the  bounds  of  pos- 
sibility. But  that  confidence  was  nearly  fatal  to  him;  for  he  exerted 
himself  to  such  a  degree  that  the  blood  gushed  from  his  nostrils  and 
soon  almost  covered  the  fore  part  of  his  body.  He  had  now  arrived 
within  a  mile  of  the  river,  when  he  distinctly  heard  the  appalling  sound 
of  footsteps  behind  him,  and  every  instant  expected  to  feel  the  spear 
of  his  pursuer.  He  again  turned  his  head  and  saw  the  savage  not  twenty 
yards  from  him. 

Determined,  if  possible,  to  avoid  the  expected  blow,  he  suddenly 
stopped,  turned  around  and  spread  out  his  arms.  The  Indian,  surprised 
at  the  suddenness  of  the  action  and  perhaps  at  the  bloody  appearance  of 
Colter,  also  attempted  to  stop;  but,  exhausted  with  running,  he  fell 
while  attempting  to  throw  his  spear,  which  stuck  in  the  ground  and 
broke  in  his  hand.  Colter  instantly  snatched  up  the  pointed  part,  with 
which  he  pinned  him  to  the  earth,  and  then  continued  his  flight. 

The  foremost  of  the  Indians,  on  arriving  at  the  place,  stopped 
until  others  came  up  to  join  them,  and  then  gave  a  hideous  yell.  Every 
moment  of  this  time  was  improved  by  Colter  who,  although  fainting  and 
exhausted,  succeeded  in  gaining  the  skirting  of  cottonwood  trees  on  the 
borders  of  the  fork  to  which  he  ran  and  plunged  into  the  river.  For- 
tunately for  him,  a  little  below  this  place  was  an  island,  against  the 
upper  point  of  which  a  raft  of  drift  timber  had  lodged.  He  dived 
under  the  raft  and,  after  several  efforts,  got  his  head  above  water, 
among  the  trunks  of  trees  covered  over  with  smaller  wood  to  the  depth 
of  several  feet.  Scarcely  had  he  secured  himself  when  the  Indians 
arrived  on  the  river,  screeching  and  yelling,  as  Colter  expressed  it,  "like 
so  many  devils." 

They  were  frequently  on  the  raft  during  the  day  and  were  seen 
through  the  chinks  by  Colter,  who  was  congratulating  himself  on  his 
escape,  until  the  idea  arose  that  they  might  set  the  raft  on  fire.  In 
horrible  suspense,  he  remained  until  night,  when,  hearing  no  more  from 
the  Indians,  he  dived  under  the  raft  and  swam  down  the  river  to  a  con- 
siderable distance,  when  he  landed  and  traveled  all  night.  Although 
happy  in  having  escaped  frorp  the  Indians,  his  situation  was  still  dread- 
ful. He  was  completely  naked,  under  a  burning  sun ;  the  soles  of  his 
feet  were  filled  with  the  thorns  of  the  prickly  pear;  he  was  hungry,  and 
had  no  means  of  killing  game,  although  he  saw  abundance  around  him ; 


and  was  at  a  great  distance  from  the  nearest  settlement.  Almost  any  man 
but  an  American  hunter  would  have  despaired  under  such  circumstances. 
The  fortitude  of  Colter  remained  unshaken.  After  seven  days  of  sore 
travel,  during  which  he  had  no  other  sustenance  than  the  root  known  by 
naturalists  under  the  name  of  'psoralea  esculenta,  he  at  length  arrived 
in  safety  at  Lisa's  Fort,  on  the  Big  Horn  branch  of  the  Roche  Jaune, 
or  Yellowstone  River. 

.  In  May,  1810,  Colter  returned  alone  to  St.  Louis,  where,  for  the 
first  time,  he  met  Bradbury,  the  botanist,  and  Brackenridge,  the  exploror, 
and  renewed  his  friendship  with  Capt.  (then  General)  William  Clark, 
who  was  brigadier  general  and  Indian  agent  of  Louisiana  Territory.  To 
them  he  narrated  his  remarkable  adventures,  and  it  is  from  their  pens 
that  history  is  mainly  indebted  for  the  narrative.  The  last  view  of 
Colter  recorded  in  the  annals  of  those  times  was  his  meeting  with  Brad- 
bury on  March  18,  1811,  and  the  final  decision  of  the  frontiersman  to  join 
the  naturalist  and  his  party,  members  of  the  Astoria  Company,  in  a 
journey  up  the  Missouri  River.  At  last  he  yielded  to  the  love  of  a 
newly-wedded  wife  and  remained  with  civilization,  forever  divorced  from 
the  wilderness. 



While  the  Lewis  and  Clark  explorations  were  being  conducted  by  the 
Government,  in  1805-06,  the  Northwest  Fur  Company  of  Canada  was 
sending  its  agents  into  the  furthermost  limits  of  the  great  domain  covered 
by  its  operations,  and  it  was  but  natural  that  Government  and  Trade 
should  cross  lines.  Among  the  prominent  agents  of  the  fur  company  were 
the  McKenzies  and  Francois  Antoine  Larocque.  Charles  McKenzie  and 
Larocque,  clerks,  were  particularly  intimate  and  made  three  expeditions 
together,  in  1804-06,  at  least  two  of  which  were  in  charge  of  the  latter. 
It  is  the  second  journey  which  is  of  most  interest  to  readers  of  Montana 
history,  as  it  included  a  visit  of  about  three  months  to  the  Crow  Indians 
of  what  is  now  our  state — with  the  exception  of  the  La  Verendrye  ex- 
plorers, the  first  whites  to  leave  a  record  of  the  habits  and  peculiarities 
of  that  tribe.  A  daily  journal,  written  by  Larocque,  and  which  had  been 
obtained  by  Roderick  McKenzie,  of  the  Northwest  Fur  Company,  for  a' 
projected  work  never  realized,  has  never  been  recovered;  "but  what 
purports  to  be  an  exact  copy  is  now  in  the  library  of  Laval  University, 
Montreal,  with  a  number  of  other  manuscripts  bequeathed  to  that  institu- 
tion by  the  late  Judge  Baby  of  that  city.  This  'Journal  of  a  Voyage  to  the 
Rocky  Mountains  from  my  leaving  the  Assinibois  River  on  the  2d  June, 
1805,'  as  it  is  entitled,  is  now  (1910)  printed  for  the  first  time,  being, 
so  far  as  can  be  ascertained  at  present,  a  verbatim  translation  of  the 

From  the  best  information  obtainable,  it  would  appear  that  La- 
rocque was  a  man  of  intellectual  abilities  and  great  courage,  well  read 
in  French  and  English.  He  had  a  brother  who  became  even  more  prom- 
inent in  the  fur  trade  than  he  himself.  The  author  of  the  Journal  soon 


left  the  employ  of  the  Northwest  Fur  Company  and  located  in  Montreal, 
where  he  failed  as  a  merchant.  He  passed  the  last  years  of  his  life  in 
close  retirement  and  arduous  study  and  died,  much  advanced  in  years, 
in  the  Grey  Nunnery  of  St.  Hyacinthe.  Whatever  his  ambitions,  the 
Journal  of  his  trip  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the  Crow  Indians  is  the 
only  piece  of  his  work  which  has  survived,  and  even  Lewis  and  Clark 
anticipated  his  first  view  of  the  great  continental  divide  by  some  six  weeks. 

Larocque  was  sent  by  Charles  J.  B.  Chaboillez,  a  partner  of  the 
Northwest  Company  in  charge  of  the  Upper  Red  River  (Assiniboine) 
Department,  to  ascertain  whether  there  were  any  beaver  in  the  Crow 
country  and,  if  so,  to  open  up  a  fur  trade  with  the  Indians.  He  had  en- 
tered the  service  of  the  company  in  1801  and  for  about  three  years  was 
in  its  employ  in  the  region  of  the  Saskatchewan  and  Red  rivers,  Canada. 
In  the  autumn  of  1804,  he  was  stationed  at  Fort  Assiniboine  and,  with 
Charles  Mackenzie,  J.  B.  Lafrance  and  four  voyageurs,  took  a  trip  to 
the  Mandans  of  the  Missouri.  Both  his  Journal  and  the  first  part  of 
Charles  Mackenzie's  "Missouri  Indians"  cover  the  journey  to  the  Man- 
dan  country.  There  Mackenzie  left  the  expedition  and  the  recovered 
Larocque  Journal  (or  the  well  authenticated  copy  of  it)  is  relied  upon  to 
convey  the  graphic  details  of  the  trip  through  Southeastern  Montana, 
along  the  valley  of  the  Yellowstone  to  the  regions  of  the  Big  Horn  River 
and  mountains  and  the  4and  of  the  Crows. 

Larocque's  expedition  started  from  Fort  a  la  Bosse,  on  the  Assini- 
boine, Canada,  on  June  2,  1805.  As  he  states,  he  there  "prepared  for 
going  on  a  voyage  of  discovery  to  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  set  of  (sic) 
on  2nd  June  with  two  men  having  each  of  us  two  horses,  one  of  which 
was  laden  with  goods  to  facilitate  an  intercourse  with  the  Indians  we 
might  happen  to  see  on  our  road.  Mr.  Charles  MacKenzie  and  Mr.  Las- 
sana  set  out  with  me  to  go  and  pass  the  summer  at  the  Missouri,  and  hav- 
ing to  pursue  (sic)  the  same  road  we  kept  company  as  far  as  the 
B.  B.* 

Larocque  and  his  men  crossed  what  is  now  the  international  bound- 
ary at  a  branch  of  the  Souris,  or  Mouse  River,  in  the  northwestern  part 
of  Botineau  County,  North  Dakota,  just  west  of  Turtle  Mountain.  Strik- 
ing toward  the  southwest,  the  party  crossed  the  Souris  River.  On  ac- 
count of  the  high  water,  the  goods  were  loaded  on  a  raft  and  the  horses 
swam  over.  On  the  loth  of  June,  about  a  week  out,  they  slept  in  the 
Mandan  plain — the  Coteau  du  Missouri,  or  tableland  separating  the 
waters  of  the  Missouri  from  those  of  the  Assiniboine.  The  banks  of  the 
Missouri  were  sighted  on  the  following  day,  and  the  expedition  arrived  in 
the  Mandan  territory  on  the  I2th. 


The  Mandans  seem  to  have  been  disagreeably  insistent  to  sell  their 
horses  to  the  white  travelers,  but  Larocque  set  them  right  on  that  point. 
"I  told  them,"  he  said,  "that  the  purpose  of  our  coming  was  not  to  pur- 

*  Big  Bellies,  called  by  the  French  Gros  Ventres.     The  name  has  been  applied 
to  tribes  of  both  Algonquin  and  Sioux  stock. 


chase  horses  either  from  them  or  the  Rocky  Mountains,  that  we  came  for 
Skins  and  Robes,  and  that  for  that  purpose  one  of  us  was  to  pass  the 
summer  with  them  and  one  at  the  Mandans;  that  I  and  two  men  were 
sent  by  the  white  people's  Chief  to  smoke  a  pipe  of  peace  and  amity  with 
the  Rocky  Mountain  Indians  and  to  accompany  them  to  their  lands  to 
examine  them  and  see  if  there  were  Beavers  as  is  reported,  and  to  engage 
them  to  hunt  it,  that  we  would  not  purchase  a  horse  from  none,  therefore 
that  their  best  plan  would  be  to  dress  buffalo  robes,  so  as  to  have  ammuni- 
tion to  trade  with  the  Rocky  Mountain  Indians. 

"They  pretend  to  be  in  fear  of  the  surrounding  nations,  that  is, 
Assineboines,  Sioux,  Chetenne  and  Ricaras  (Pawnees),  so  as  to  have 
an  excuse  for  not  trading  with  their  guns  with  the  Rocky  Mountain 
Indians  and  likewise  to  prevent  us.  Some  of  those  Rocky  Mountain 
Indians  have  been  here  already,  and  are  gone  back,  but  more  are  expected, 
with  whom  I  intend  to  go." 

On  the  following  day,  Larocque  was  sent  for  by  one  of  the  chiefs 
of  the  Big  Bellies  who,  says  the  leader,  "asked  me  what  I  intended  to 
do  with  the  pipe  stem  I  had  brought.  Upon  my  telling  him  that  it  was  for 
the  Rocky  Mountain  Indians  he  made  a  long  harangue  to  dissuade 
me  from  going  there,  saying  that  I  would  be  obliged  to  winter  there 
on  account  of  the  length  of  the  way,  that  the  Cayennes  and  the  Ricaras 
were  enemies  and  constantly  on  the  road  and  that  it  was  probable  that 
we  should  be  killed  by  them."  Various  other  alarming  stories  were  told 
to  discourage  the  further  progress  of  the  expedition. 



Finally,  a  considerable  band  of  Rocky  Mountain  Indians  arrived. 
"About  one  in  the  afternoon,"  says  the  leader,  "the  Rocky  Mountain 
Indians  arrived.  They  encamped  at  a  little  distance  from  the  village 
with  the  warriors  to  the  number  of  645;  passed  through  the  village  on 
horseback  with  their  shields  and  other  warlike  implements."  When  the 
chiefs  of  the  different  bands  had  assembled,  two  days  afterward, 
Larocque  made  them  the  following  presents:  Two  large  and  two  small 
axes;  eight  ivory  combs,  ten  wampum  shells,  eight  fire  steels  and  flint, 
four  cassetete  (combination  of  tomahawk  and  pipe),  six  masses  B.  C. 
(Blue  Canton),  four  f.  tobacco,  eight  cock  feathers,  sixteen  large  knives, 
twelve  small  knives,  two  pounds  of  vermillion,  eight  dozen  rings,  four 
papers,  co'd  glasses,  four  dozen  awls,  one  and  a  half  pounds  of  blue 
beads,  two  dozen  blue  beads  and  1,000  balls  and  powder.  He  induced 
the  Crows  to  smoke  a  pipe  of  peace  and  told  them  the  Chief  of  the 
White  People  knew  that  "they  were  pitiful  and  had  no  arms  to  defend 
themselves  from  their  enemies,  but  that  they  should  cease  to  be  pitiful  as 
soon  as  they  sliould  make  themselves  brave  hunters."  He  informed  the 
Crows  that  he  and  two  men  were  going  with  them  to  see  their  lands  and 
that  if  they  would  behave  well  and  "kill  beavers,  otters  and  bears,  they 
would  have  white  people  on  the  lands  in  a  few  years  who  would  winter 
with  them  and  supply  them  with  all  their  wants."  They  then  exchanged 


presents  and  Larocque  promised  the  chief  who  came  to  meet  him  that 
if  the  Crows  encouraged  the  white  people  "all  their  chiefs  who  would 
behave  well  would  get  a  Coat." 

Camp  was  broken  on  the  29th  of  June  and  a  fair  start  was  made  for 
the  Rocky  Mountain  country  of  the  southwest,  along  the  north  bank 
of  the  Big  Knife  River,  which  enters  the  Missouri  from  the  south.  On 
the  fourth  of  July,  the  expedition  had  reached  the  Heart  River,  also  a 
little  branch  of  the  Missouri  in  Western  North  Dakota,  and  on  the  I3th 
had  reached  the  banks  of  the  Little  Missouri.  Two  days  later,  still 
traveling  in  a  generally  southwestern  direction,  the  men  encamped  on  its 
banks  about  fourteen  miles  higher  up.  There  the  Indians  killed  "a  few 
beaver,  of  which  I  got  two  dressed  by  my  men  to  show  them  how  to  do 
it.  We  remained  the  whole  day  here,"  continued  the  Journal.  "The 
Indians  tried  to  dance  the  Bull  dance  in  imitation  of  the  B.  Belley's,  but 
did  it  very  ill." 

As  the  party  left  the  Little  Missouri  and,  headed  still  toward  the 
southwest,  its  route  took  them  over  the  present  line  between  North 
Dakota  and  Montana  into  a  land  of  beaver  and  buffalo,  on  the  26th  of 
July  it  reached  the  Powder  River  mountains  and,  on  the  following  day, 
the  river  itself,  as  it  took  its  northerly  course  toward  the  Yellowstone. 
In  that  locality  herds  of  elks  were  found  in  the  woods  and  beaver  dams 
were  seen  all  along  the  river.  "When  we  arrived  here,"  says  Larocque, 
"the  plains  on  the  western  side  of  the  river  were  covered  with  buffaloes 
and  the  bottoms  full  of  elk  and  jumping  deer  (antelope)  and  bears, 
which  last  are  mostly  yellow  and  very  fierce  (grizzlies).  It  is  amazing  • 
how  very  barren  the  ground  is  between  this  and  the  lesser  Missouri ; 
nothing  can  hardly  be  seen  but  those  Corne  de  Raquettes.*  Our  horses 
were  nearly  starved.  There  is  grass  in  the  woods  but  none  in  the  plains 
which  by  the  by  might  (sic)  with  more  propriety  be  called  hills,  for 
though  there  is  very  little  wood  it  is  impossible  to  find  a  level  spot  of  one 
or  two  miles  in  extent  except  close  to  the  river.  The  current  in  that  river 
is  very  strong  and  the  water  so  muddy  as  to  be  hardly  drinkable.  The 
Indians  say  it  is  always  so,  and  that  is  the  reason  they  call  it  Powder 
River,  from  the  quantity  of  drifting  fine  sand  set  in  motion  by  the 
coast  wind  t  which  blinds  people  and  dirtys  the  water.  There  are  very 
large  sand  shoals  along  the  river  for  several  acres  breadth  and  length, 
the  bed  of  the  river  is  likewise  sand  and  its  course  north  east." 

Under  date  of  July  3Oth  it  is  recorded:  "Early  this  morning  we  set 
out;  the  body  of  the  people  followed  the  river  for  about  seventeen  miles 
S.  W.  while  I  with  the  chief  and  a  few  others  went  hunting.  We  wounded 
cabrio,  buffalo  and  the  large  horned  animal  (mountain  sheep,  or  Big 
Horn),  but  did  not  kill  any,  which  made  the  chief  say  that  some  one  had 
thrown  bad  medicine  on  our  guns  and  that  if  he  could  know  him  he  would 
surely  die. 

"The  country  is  very  hilly  about  the  river,  but  it  does  not  appear  to 
be  so  much  so  towards  the  north.  About  two  miles  above  the  encampment 

*  Probably   the   dogwood    (Cornus). 

f  Probably  refers  to  the  well-known  Chinook  winds. 


a  range  of  high  hills  begins  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  and  continues 
north  for  about  twenty  miles,  when  it  appears  to  finish.  The  Tongu 
River  *  is  close  on  the  other  side  of  it.  There  is  a  parting  ridge  between 
the  two  rivers. 

"I  ascended  (sic)  some  very  high  hills  on  the  side  of  which  I  found 
plenty  of  shells  of  the  Cornu  anionys  species  t  by  some  called  snake  shell, 
likewise  a  kind  of  shining  stone  lying  bare  at  the  surface  of  the  ground 
having  to  all  appearance  been  left  there  by  the  rain  water  washing  away 
the  surrounding  earth.  They  are  of  different  size  and  form,  of  a  clear 
water  colour  and  reflect  with  as  much  force  as  a  looking  glass  of  its  size. 
It  is  certainly  those  stones  have  given  the  name  of  shining  to  that 
mountains.^  The  hills  are  high,  rugged  and  barren,  mostly  rocks  with 
beds  of  loose  red  gravel  on  their  tops  or  near  it  which  being  washed  down 
by  the  rain  water  give  the  hills  a  reddish  appearance.  On  many  hills 
a  heap  of  calomid  stone  (calumet  or  pipestone?)  among  which  some- 
times I  find  pumice  stone. 

"When  we  left  the  encampment  this  morning  we  were  stopped  by  a 
party  of  their  soldiers  who  would  not  allow  us  to  proceed,  as  they  intended 
to  have  a  general  hunt,  for  fear  that  we  should  rise  the  buffaloes,  but 
upon  promises  being  made  by  the  chief  whom  I  accompanied  that  he 
would  not  hunt  in  the  way  of  the  camp,  and  partly  on  my  account,  we 
were  suffered  to  go  on.  We  were,  however,  under  the  necessity  of  gliding 
away  unperceived  to  prevent  jealousy." 

Larocque  and  his  expedition  continued  up  the  Tongue  River,  and  on 
August  2nd,  the  leader  reports:  "Last  night  some  children  playing  at 
some  distance  from  the  Camp  on  the  river  were  fired  at.  The  Camp 
was  alarmed  (sic)  and  watchers  were  set  for  the  night,  but  nothing 
appeared.  *  *  *  The  hills  of  the  river  are  at  a  less  distance  from 
one  another  than  they  were  here  before.  The  bottoms  or  points  of  the 
river  are  not  so  large  nor  so  well  wooded  and  the  grass  entirely  eaten  up 
by  the  Buffaloes  and  Elk. 

"Saturday  3rd  (August) — We  sat  out  at  sun  rise  and  encamped  at 
one  in  the  afternoon,  having  pursued  a  South  Course  with  fare  (fair) 
weather  and  a  south  east  wind.  We  followed  the  River  (Tongue)  as 
usually;  its  bends  are  very  short  not  exceeding  two  miles  and  many  not 
one.  The  face  of  the  country  indicates  our  approach  to  the  large  Moun- 
tains and  to  the  heads  of  the  River.  A  few  Jumping  (deer)  or  Chev- 
reuils  were  killed  today.  It  has  been  very  Cold  these  few  nights. 


"Sunday  4th.— We  did  not  rise  the  Camp  till  late  in  the  evening. 
In  the  morning  we  ascended  (sic)  the  hills  of  the  River  and  saw  the 


*  The  Tongue  River.    Indian  name,  Lazeka. 

t  Ammonite;  a  fossil  shell  related  to  the  nautilus.    Popularly  known  as  snake 

>n±Says  the  editor  of  the  Journal:  "Larocque's  statement  is  scarcely  probable 
It  seems  more  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  name— which  must  have  first  reached 
European  ears  through  Indian  report— had  its  origin  in  the  brilliant  snow-capped 
peaks  of  the  Rockies.  See  Thwaites'  'Rocky  Mountain  Explorations,  Chapter  II. 


Rocky  Mountains  not  at  a  very  great  distance  with  Spy  Glass,  its  cliffs 
and  hollows  could  be  easily  observed  with  the  woods  interspersed  among 
the  Rocks." 

L.  J.  Burpee,  editor  of  the  "Journal  of  Larocque,"  published  (in 
1910)  "by  authority  of  the  minister  of  agriculture  and  under  the  direction 
of  the  archivist"  of  the  Canadian  Government,  has  this  commenting  foot- 
note :  "Lewis  and  Clark  anticipated  Larocque  by  a  few  weeks  in  their 
first  view  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  but  neither  could  claim  the  honor  of 
discovery,  La  Verendrye  having  achieved  that  distinction  some  sixty-two 
years  before.  Larocque  had,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  only  reached  the  Big 
Horn,  an  offshoot  of  the  main  range." 


The  generally  southwesternly  course  of  the  expedition  brought  it  to 
the  Montana  streams  of  the  Big  Horn,  the  Indians  killing  many  buffalo, 
and  quite  a  number  of  beaver,  although  in  the  supplies  of  the  latter 
Larocque  was  apparently  disappointed.  Under  date  of  August  nth, 
while  encamped  at  the  foot  of  the  Mountains,  the  Journal  notes :  "They 
(the  Indians)  are  undetermined  in  what  course  to  proceed  from  this 
place.  They  have  sent  a  party  of  young  men  along  the  Mountains 
Westerly  and  are  to  wait  here  until  they  return.  They  often  enquire  with 
anxious  expectation  of  our  departure,  when  I  intend  to  leave  them,  and 
today  they  were  more  troublesome  than  usual.  What  I  have  seen  of  their 
lands  hitherto  has  not  given  me  the  satisfaction  I  look  for  (in)  Beavers. 
I  told  them  that  I  would  remain  with  them  20  or  30  days  more.  That 
I  wished  very  much  to  see  the  River  aux  Roches  Jaunes*  and  the  place 
they  usually  inhabit,  otherwise  that  I  would  be  unable  to  return  and 
bring  them  their  wants.  They  saw  it  was  true,  but  to  remove  the  ob- 
jection of  my  not  knowing  their  lands  a  few  of  them  assembled  and 
draughted  on  a  dressed  skin  I  believe  a  very  good  map  of  their  Country 
and  they  showed  me  the  place  where  at  different  season  they  were  to  be 
found.  The  only  reason  I  think  they  have  in  wishing  my  departure,  is 
their  haste  to  get  the  goods  I  still  have." 

On  the  I2th  of  August,  after  a  conference  among  the  Indian  leaders 
and  guides  with  the  Larocque  party,  it  was  decided  to  proceed  west  along 
the  Tongue  River  and  thence  to  the  region  of  the  Rosebud  Mountains, 
which  separate  the  streams  of  that  river  from  the  Little  Horn.  On  the 
way,  Larocque  traded  with  the  Indians,  purchasing  a  horse,  beavers,  etc., 
saddle  and  bridle,  for  English  flannels,  powder,  balls,  etc.  His  Journal 
makes  note  that:  "The  Indians  Killed  Buffaloes  and  a  few  Bears.  The 
latter  they  hunt  for  pleasure  only,  as  they  do  not  eat  the  flesh  but  in  case 
of  absolute  necessity.  Perhaps  the  whole  nation  is  employed  about  a 
bear,  whom  they  have  caused  to  take  refuge  in  a  thicket.  There  they 
plague  him  a  long  while  and  then  Kill  him ;  he  is  seldom  stripped  of  his 
skin.  *  *  *  The  Indians  having  hunted  yesterday  (August  i6th), 

*  Yellowstone  River.    Riviere  aux  Roches  Jaunes  was  the  original  French  name, 
probably  derived  from  some  native  equivalent. 


we  did  not  rise  the  Camp  but  remained  here  all  day.  There  were  many 
bears  hereabout,  who  are  attracted  by  the  quantity  of  Choak  Cherries  and 
other  fruit  there  is  here.  The  Woods  along  the  Rivers  are  as  thickly 
covered  with  Bears  Dung  as  a  Barn  floor  of  that  of  the  cattle.  Large 
Cherry  trees  are  broken  down  by  them  in  Great  number.  The  Indians 
kill  one  or  two  almost  every  day.  The  Tongue  River  here  is  small,  being 
only  about  20  feet  broad  with  two  feet  water  in  the  deepest  part  of 
the  rapids.  It  receives  many  additional  small  streams  in  its  way  to  the 
River  Roches  Jaunes.  *  *  * 

"Sunday  i8th  (August).  At  7  o'clock  we  left  our  encampment  and 
proceeded  Northward ;  at  noon  we  stopped  on  a  branch  of  the  small  Horn 
River  and  the  greatest  part  of  the  Indians  went  on  to  the  small  Horn 
River  to  hunt.  At  half  past  two  in  the  afternoon  we  sat  off  again  and 
crossing  the  River  we  encamped  on  its  Borders  where  we  found  the 
hunting  party  with  their  horses  loaded  with  fresh  meat.  We  travelled 
about  15  miles  this  day  and  are  farther  from  the  mountain  than  yes- 
terday though  still  Close  to  it. 

"Monday  ipth.  Since  we  are  close  to  the  mountain  many  women  have 
deserted  with  their  lovers  to  their  fine  tents  that  are  across  the  mountain. 
There  are  no  Cattle  in  the  mountain  nor  on  the  other  side,  so  that  they 
are  loth  to  go  that  way,  while  the  desertion  of  their  wives  strongly  call 
them  there.  Harangues  were  twice  made  to  rise  the  Camp,  and  counter 
orders  were  given  before  the  tents  were  thrown  down.  The  reason  of 
this  is  that  the  wife  of  the  Spotted  Crow  who  regulates  our  movements 
has  deserted.  He  is  for  going  one  way  while  the  Chief  of  the  other  bands 
are  for  following  our  old  course.  Horses  have  been  killed  and  women 
wounded  since  I  am  with  them  on  the  score  of  jealousy.  Today  a  Snake 
Indian  shot  his  wife  dead  but  it  seems  not  without  reason,  for  it  is  said 
it  was  the  third  time  he  found  her  and  the  Gallant  together.  The  Small 
Horn  River  runs  east  from  the  Mountain  to  this  place.  Here  it  makes  a 
bend  N.  by  East  and  passing  round  of  the  wolf  teeth  it  falls  into  the 
large  Horn  river.  The  bed  of  the  River  here  is  Rocks,  a  continual  rapid, 
the  water  clear  and  cold  as  ice,  the  ground  barren  on  the  banks  of  the 
river  thinly  wooded  with  some  kind  of  wood  as  heretofore." 

The  record  indicates  that  on  August  22nd,  Larocque  was  called  to 
a  council  of  the  Indians,  at  which  Spotted  Crow  resigned  his  "employ- 
ment of  regulating  the  marches,"  and  that  "another  old  man  took  the 
office  upon  himself,"  announcing  that  "he  intended  to  pursue  their  old 
course  to  the  River  aux  Roches  Jaune."  The  march  was  then  resumed 
northerly  toward  the  Big  Horn  River  and,  eventually  the  Yellowstone. 


At  this  point  in  the  narrative,  Larocque's  "Journal"  depicts  an  in- 
cident illustrative  of  the  horrors  of  Indian  warfare.  "This  morning" 
(August  24th),  it  says,  "we  were  allarmed  (sic)  by  the  report  that  three 
Indians  had  been  seen  on  the  first  hill  of  the  mountain  and  that  three 
Buffaloes  were  in  motion  and  that  two  shots  had  been  heard  towards 


the  large  Horn  River.  Thirty  men  saddled  their  horses  and  immediately 
went  off  to  see  what  was  the  matter  while  all  the  other  Kept  in  readiness 
to  follow  if  necessary.  In  a  few  hours  some  came  back  and  told  us  that 
they  had  seen  35  on  foot  walking  on  the  banks  of  one  of  the  branches 
of  the  Large  Horn  River.  In  less  time  than  the  Courier  Could  well  tell 
his  news  no  one  remained  in  the  Camp,  but  a  few  old  men  and  women,  all 
the  rest  scampered  off  in  pursuit.  I  went  along  with  them.  We  did  not 
all  Set  off  together  nor  could  we  all  Keep  together  as  some  horses  were 
slower  than  others,  but  the  foremost  stopped  galloping  on  a  hill  and  con- 
tinued on  with  a  small  trot  as  people  came  up.  They  did  the  dance  (war 
dance)  when  the  Chief  arrived.  He  and  his  band,  or  part  of  it,  galloped 
twice  before  the  main  body  of  the  people  who  still  continued  their  trot 
intersecting  the  line  of  their  course  while  one  of  his  friends,  I  suppose 
his  aide-de-camp,  harangued.  They  were  all  dressed  in  their  best  Cloths. 
Many  of  them  were  followed  by  their  wives  who  carried  their  arms,  and 
who  were  to  deliver  them  at  the  time  of  Battle.  There  were  likewise 
many  children,  but  who  could  Keep  their  saddles.  Ahead  of  us  were 
some  young  men  on  different  hills  making  signs  with  their  robes  which 
way  we  were  to  go.  As  soon  as  all  the  chiefs  were  come  up  and  had 
made  their  harangue  everyone  set  off  the  way  he  liked  best  and  pursued 
according  to  his  best  judgment.  The  Country  is  very  hilly  and  full  of 
large  Creeks  whose  banks  are  Rocks,  so  that  the  pursued  had  the  ad- 
vantage of  being  able  to  get  into  places  where  it  was  impossible  to  go 
with  horses  &  hide  themselves. 

"All  escaped  but  two  of  the  foremost  who  being  scouts  of  the  party 
had  advanced  nearer  to  us  than  the  others  and  had  -not  discovered  us. 
They  were  surrounded  after  a  long  race  but  Killed  and  scalped  in  a 
twinkling.  When  I  arrived  at  the  dead  bodies  they  had  taken  but  his 
scalp  and  the  fingers  of  his  right  hand  with  which  the  outor  was  off.  They 
borrowed  my  hanger  with  which  they  cut  off  his  left  hand  and  returned  it 
(the  knife)  to  me  bloody  as  a  mark  of  honour.  Men,  women  and  children 
were  thronging  to  see  the  dead  Bodies  and  taste  the  Blood.  Everyone 
was  desirous  of  stabbing  the  bodies  to  show  what  he  would  have  done 
had  he  met  them  alive,  and  insulted  and  frotted  at  them  in  the  worst 
language  they  could  give.  In  a  short  time  the  remains  of  a  human  body 
was  hardly  distinguishable.  Every  young  man  had  a  piece  of  flesh  tied  to 
his  gun  or  lance  with  which  he  rode  off  to  the  Camp  singing  and  ex- 
ultingly  showing  it  to  every  young  woman  in  his  way.  Some  women 
had  whole  limbs  dangling  from  their  saddles.  The  sight  made  me  shudder 
with  horror  at  such  Cruelties  and  I  returned  home  in  quite  different  frame 
from  that  in  which  I  left  it. 

"Sunday  25th.  The  Scalp  dance  was  danced  all  night  and  the  scalps 
carried  in  procession  through  the  day." 

En  route,  the  camp  was  in  constant  expectation  of  attack  from  enemy 
Indians,  the  young  children  being  often  tied  to  the  saddles  and  the  horses 
loaded  with  valuables  during  the  night  and  early  morning.  "The  Indians 
hunted  and  saw  Strange  Indians,"  continued  Larocque.  "There  was  a 
continual  harangue  by  different  Chiefs  the  whole  night  which  with  the 


singing  and  dancing  of  the  scalp  prevented  any  Sleep  being  had.  We 
pitched  the  tents  on  a  small  creek  running  into  the  large  Horn  River 
distant  about  20  miles  from  our  last  encampment." 

Farther  along,  a  few  miles,  one  of  the  famous  canons  of  the  Big  Horn 
River  was  described,  and  the  additional  information  given:  "There  is  a 
fall  in  this  River  30  or  40  miles  above  this  where  presides  a  Manitoin  or 
Devil.*  These  Indians  say  it  is  a  Man  Wolf  who  lives  in  the  fall  and 
rises  out  of  it  to  devour  any  person  or  beast  that  go  too  near.  They  say  it 
is  impossible  to  Kill  him  for  he  is  ball  proof.  *  *  *  The  Mountain 
is  here  a  solid  Rock  in  most  places  bare  and  naked  ,in  other  places 
Cloathed  with  a  few  Red  Pine.  The  sides  of  some  Coule  are  as  smooth 
and  perpendicular  as  any  wall  and  of  an  amazing  height;  and  in  some 
places  there  are  holes  in  those  perpendicular  Rocks  resembling  much  those 
niches  in  which  statues  are  placed.  Others  like  church  doors  &  vaults, 
the  tout  ensemble  is  grand  and  striking.  Beautiful  prospects  are  to  be 
had  from  some  parts  of  those  Rocks,  but  the  higher  places  are  inex- 
cessible.  The  Large  Horn  River  is  seen  winding  through  a  level  plain  of 
about  3  miles  breadth  for  a  great  distance  almost  to  its  conflux  with  the 
River  aux  Roches  Jaunes." 

This  stage  of  the  journey  brings  the  time  to  September  ist,  and  the 
expedition  was  ascending  the  Big  Horn  Valley  toward  the  Yellowstone. 
Traveling  in  a  generally  northwesternly  direction,  it  swerved  from  the 
Big  Horn  Valley,  in  what  would  now  be  the  northern  part  of  the  Crow 
Indian  Reservation,  and  at  two  o'clock,  in  the  afternoon  of  September 
loth,  arrived  at  the  Yellowstone,  below  what  is  known  as  Pryor's 
Fork,  Yellowstone  County,  a  few  miles  northeast  of  Billings.  There  the 
expedition  camped  on  a  large  island,  and  three  days  afterward  crossed 
to  the  west  side  of  the  river  and  about  nine  miles  farther  up  stream 
encamped  at  a  point  where  the  Indians  "usually  make  their  fall  medicine." 

When  the  expedition  arrived  at  the  Yellowstone,  a  delegation  of  Big 
Bellies  arrived  to  see  if  they  could  trade  horses.  They  were  well  re- 
ceived by  the  other  Indians  and  presents  of  different  articles  were  made 
to  them.  They  told  Larocque  that  they  had  traded  during  the  previous 
winter  with  Mr.  McDonald  (John),  whom  they  called  Crooked  Arm, 
because  of  his  deformed  arm.  When  McDonald  was  eighty-five  years 
of  age,  he  wrote  a  series  of  interesting  Autobiographical  Notes  (1791- 
1816).  Although  graphically  written,  they  are  not  always  to  be  relied 


The  arrangements  made  with  his  Indian  comrades  and  co-traders  and 
his  final  departure  from  the  Crow  country,  on  Saturday,  September  14, 
1805,  are  thus  described  in  the  "Journal  of  Larocque,"  the  original 
spelling,  capitalization,  etc.,  being  generally  retained :  "Having  now  full 

*  Foot  Note  by  the  editor  of  the  Journal :  "Manitou,  or  more  properly, 
Windego.  Scores  of  waterfalls  have  been  the  reputed  home  of  this  picturesque 
but  rather  bloodthirsty  spirit.  In  one  form  or  another,  and  under  varying  names, 
the  Windego  ranged  almost  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific." 


filled  the  instructions  I  received  from  Mr.  Chaboillez,  which  were  to 
examine  the  lands  of  the  Crow  Indians  and  see  if  there  is  Beaver  as  was 
reported,  and  I  to  invite  them  to  hunt  it,  I  now  prepared  to  depart.  I 
assembled  the  Chiefs  in  Council,  and  after  having  smoked  a  f»w  pipes, 
I  informed  them  that  I  was  setting  off,  that  I  was  well  pleased  with  them 
and  their  behavior  toward  me,  and  that  I  would  return  to  them  next 
fall.  I  desired  them  to  kill  Beavers  and  Bears  all  winter,  for  that  I 
would  come  and  trade  with  them  and  bring  them  their  wants.  I  added 
many  reasons  to  show  them  that  it  was  their  interest  to  hunt  Beavers, 
and  then  proceeded  to  settle  the  manners  of  Knowing  one  another  next 
fall,  and  how  I  am  to  find  them  which  is  as  follows:  Upon  my  arrival 
at  the  Island  if  I  do  not  find  them  I  am  to  go  to  the  Mountain  called 
Amanchabe  Chije  &  then  light  4  fires  on  4  successive  days,  and  they  will 
Come  to  us  (for  it  is  very  high  and  the  fire  can  be  seen  at  a  great  dis- 
tance) in  number  4  &  not  more.  If  more  than  four  come  to  us  we  are 
to  act  upon  the  offensive,  for  it  will  be  other  Indians.  If  we  light  less 
than  3  fires,  they  will  not  come  to  us,  but  think  it  is  enemies.  They  told 
me  that  in  winter  they  were  always  to  be  found  at  a  Park  by  the  foot 
of  the  Mountain  a  few  mile's  from  this  or  there  abouts.  In  the  spring 
and  fall,  they  are  upon  this  River  and  in  summer  upon  the  Tongue  and 
Horses  River.*" 

"I  have  122  Beavers  4  Bears  and  two  otters  which  I  traded,  not  so 
much  for  their  value  (for  they  are  all  summer  skins)  as  to  show  them 
that  I  set  some  value  on  the  Beavers  and  our  property.  The  presents 
I  made  them  I  thought  were  sufficient  to  gain  their  good  will,  in  which 
I  think  I  succeeded. 

"I  never  gave  them  anything  without  finding  means  to  let  them  know 
it  was  not  for  nothing.  Had  more  been  given,  they  would  have  thought 
that  goods  were  so  common  among  us  than  to  set  no  value  upon  them, 
for  Indians  that  have  seen  few  white  men  will  be  more  thankful  for  a 
few  articles  given  them  than  for  a  great  many,  as  they  think  that  little 
or  no  value  is  attached  to  what  is  so  liberally  given.  It  was  therefore  I 
purchased  their  Bears  and  likewise  as  a  proof  that  there  is  Beaver  in 
those  parts.  Besides  it  saved  to  distribute  the  goods  I  had  into  the  most 
deserving  hands,  that  is  the  less  lazy. 

"We  departed  about  noon.  2  Chiefs  accompanied  us  about  8  miles. 
We  stopped  and  smoked  a  parting  pipe.  They  embrased  (sic)  us.  We 
shook  hands  and  parted.  They  followed  us  about  one  mile,  at  a  distance 
gradually  lessening  their  steps  till  we  were  almost  out  of  sight  and  Crying 
or  pretending  to  Cry  they  then  turned  their  backs  and  went  home.  At 
parting  they  promised  that  none  of  their  young  men  would  follow  us. 
They  took  heaven  and  earth  to  witness  to  attest  their  sincerity  in  what 
they  told  us,  and  they  had  opened  their  ears  to  my  words  and  would  do 
as  I  desired  them.  They  made  me  swear  by  the  same  that  I  would  re- 
turn; and  that  I  told  them  no  false  words  (and  I  certainly  had  no  in- 

*  Possibly,  Pumpkin  Creek,  the  chief  branch  of  Tongue  River. 


tention  of  breaking  my  oath  nor  have  I  still.    If  I  do  not  keep  them  my 
word  it  certainly  is  not  my  fault.)" 


On  the  next  day  (Sunday,  September  15*),  the  Larocque  party 
crossed  to  the  south  side  of  the  Yellowstone,  and  near  what  is  now 
Shannon's  Creek  mentions  a  "Whitish  perpendicular  Rock  on  which  is 
painted  with  Red  earth  a  battle  between  three  persons  on  horseback  and 
3  on  foot."  The  editor  of  Larocque's  Journal  believes  it  to  be  the  same 
remarkable  rock,  visited  by  Captain  Clark  in  July,  1806,  while  he  was 
descending  the  Yellowstone  on  his  return  from  the  Pacific  Coast.  Clark 
describes  it  as  "nearly  four  hundred  paces  in  circumference,  two  hundred 
feet  high,  and  accessible  only  from  the  northeast,  the  other  sides  being  a 
perpendicular  cliff  of  a  light-coloured  gritty  rock.  The  Indians  have 
carved  the  figures  of  animals  and  other  objects  on  the  sides  of  the  rock, 
and  on  the  top  are  raised  two  piles  of  stones."  He  named  this  remarkable 
rock  Pompey's  Pillar,  and  it  is  so  marked  on  his  map. 

Two  days  afterward,  the  Big  Horn  River  was  crossed.  The  ex- 
pedition passed  through  some  rough,  rocky  country,  as  it  had  no  guides  on 
the  return  trip.  At  times,  also,  the  weather  was  so  cold  that  ice  formed 
on  the  Yellowstone  and  other  streams.  The  Tongue  River  was  reached 
in  about  a  week  and  the  Powder  a  day  afterward,  about  midway  between 
the  forks  and  the  mouth.  By  the  first  week  in  October,  the  party  arrived 
at  the  Little  Missouri  in  southeastern  Montana,  and  took  substantially  the 
same  course  through  western  and  northwestern  Dakota  to  the  region  of 
the  Assiniboine  River,  as  it  had  taken  in  the  outward  trip.  The  last  week 
was  windy  and  cold.  As  stated,  River  la  Sourie  Fort,  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Assiniboine,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sourie  River,  was  reached  Octo- 
ber 22,  1805,  and  thus  was  concluded  a  journey  which  made  known  to 
the  world  a  large  portion  of  southeastern  Montana  which  had  not  before 
been  explored  or  described. 


Larocque's  Journal  also  contains,  as  a  section  separate  from  the  con- 
tinuous narrative,  "A  Few  Observations  on  the  Rocky  Mountain  Indians 
with  Whom  I  Passed'  the  Summer,  1805,"  in  which  the  customs  of  the 
Crow  and  Flathead  tribes  are  so  particularly  described  as  to  constitute 
a  real  contribution  to  the  aboriginal  lore  of  that  day.  The  author  in- 
troduces his  dissertation  by  observing  that:  "This  nation  (the  Rocky 
Mountain  Indians)  known  among  the  Sioux  by  the  name  of  Crow  In- 
dians inhabit  the  eastern  part  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  at  the  head  of  the 
River  aux  Roches  Jaunes  (which  is  known  by  the  Kinistinaux  and 
Assiniboines  by  the  name  of  the  River  a  la  Biche,  from  the  great  number 
of  elks  with  which  all  the  country  along  it  abounds)  and  its  branches 
and  close  to  the  head  of  the  Missouri."  On  account  of  the  ravages  of 
small  pox  for  many  successive  years,  which  had  continued  up  to  about 


1802,  the  Crows  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  had  been  reduced  from  2,000 
lodges  or  tents,  to  300  tents,  comprising  some  2,400  persons.  In  1805 
they  were  "able  to  raise  600  warriors,  like  the  Sioux  and  Assiniboines. 
They  wander  about  in  leather  tents  and  remain  where  there  are  buffaloes 
and  elks.  After  having  remained  a  few  days  in  one  place  so  that  game  is 
not  so  plentiful,  as  it  was,  they  flit  to  another  place  where  there  are 
buffaloes  or  deers  and  so  on  all  the  year  around." 

Continuing  to'  adapt  this  account  from  Larocque,  it  was  stated  that 
many  of  the  Indians  who  did  not  expose  themselves  to  the  sun  were 
almost  as  fair  as  white  people.  One  of  their  marked  peculiarities  was  the 
early  age  at  which  many  of  them  became  gray.  They  were  so  well 
supplied  with  horses  that  they  were  able  to  transport  their  sick  and 
infirm,  and  the  result  was  a  noticeable  prevalence  of  cripples  and 
decrepid  old  men.  As  the  country  abounded  in  buffaloes  and  deer,  the 
Crows  found  little  difficulty  in  providing  for  a  plurality  of  wives  and 
large  families.  Unlike  the  Assiniboines,  the  Crows  were  sociable  and 
upstanding.  As  noted  in  the  Journal :  "When  a  Sauteux  or  Assiniboine 
enter  a  stranger's  tent,  they  (sic)  keep  down  their  head,  or  muffle  it  so 
in  their  robe  or  blanket  that  it  can  hardly  be  seen.  These  Indians  never 
do  it.  They  are  bold  and  keep  up  their  heads  in  any  place,  and  say  it  is 
a  sign  of  having  bad  designs  when  one  is  ashamed  to  show  his  face. 
*  *  *  It  is  not  out  of  bashfulness  that  the  Sautaux  hide  their  face 
when  entering  a  strange  tent,  but  they  esteem  it  polite.  When  they  begin 
to  smoke,  or  after  they  have  smoked  a  few  pipes,  they  uncover  their 
face,  but  the  custume  (sic)  is  in  general  with  the  young  men  than  those 
of  a  certain  age." 

Like  all  other  Indian  nations,  the  women  did  most  of  the  work.  The 
men  would  kill  the  buffaloes  and  their  wives  would  follow  and  skin 
the  animals  and  dress  them,  while  the  husbands  sat  calmly  looking  on. 
The  women  even  saddled  the  horses,  and  their  lords,  when  they  retired, 
did  not  take  the  trouble  to  remove  shoes  or  leggings.  "In  flitting,"  adds 
Larocque,  "the  women  ride  and  have  no  loads  to  carry  on  their  backs, 
as  is  common  among  other  nations,  though  it  is  certain  had  they  no 
horses  they  would  be  in  the  same  predicament  as  their  less  fortunate 
neighbors,  for  though  the  men  are  fond  of  their  wives  and  use  them 
well,  yet  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  they  Ovould  take  a  greater  share  of 
work  than  other  Indians.  The  women  are  indebted  solely  to  their  having 
horses  for  the  ease  they  enjoy  more  than  their  neighbours.  They  are 
very  fond  of  their  children,  but  seldom  or  never  reprimand  them."  In 
short,  the  Crows  were  considered  among  the  Indian  aristocrats.  They 
squandered  their  food,  it  was  so  plentiful,  killing  an  "amazing"  number 
of  buffaloes  and  deer,  and  taking  with  them  only  the  choicest  cuts.  They 
seldom  ate  bear  or  beaver  flesh;  and  fish,  never.  An  old  chief  was 
always  chosen  to  conduct  their  hunts,  and  regulate  their  encampments 
and  feasts.  The  Conductor,  as  he  was  called,  must  consult  the  other 
chiefs  before  doing  anything  of  consequence. 



Correcting  and  adapting  the  spelling  and  punctuation  to  modern  re- 
quirements, Larocque's  description  of  "Breaking  Camp"  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  Conductor  reads :  "His  tent  is  thrown  down  the  first  when 
they  rise  the  camp.  He  goes  foremost  all  the  way  (except  a  few  young 
men  who  go  far  before  as  scouts)  and  pitches  his  tent  the  first.  All  the 
others  encamp  about  him.  Previous  to  their  flitting,  he  rides  about  the 
camp  and  tells  them  to  throw  down  their  tents ;  that  they  are  going  to 
such  a  place  and  for  such  and  such  reason.  Some  of  the  soldiers  go 
far  ahead  and  others  remain  far  behind  to  watch  and  see  if  there  be  no 
enemies.  When  buffaloes  are  seen  on  the  road  and  they  wish  to  hunt 
they  cause  the  people  to  stop  and  the  old  man  harangues  from  one  end 
to  the  other.  When  all  are  ready  the  huntsmen  set  off  and  the  body  of 
the  people  follow  slowly." 

It  would  seem  that  the  young  male  before  marriage  seldom  hunted, 
but  spent  most  of  his  time  in  preening  himself  like  a  peacock,  and  was 
far  more  vain  than  the  young  female.  "A  young  man,"  says  the  narrative, 
"rises  late  in  the  morning,  about  midday  he  begins  to  dress  and  has  not 
finished  until  late  in  the  evening.  He  then  mounts  his  horse,  on  which 
he  has  spread  red  and  blue  blankets,  and,  in  company  with  his  associates 
he  rides  about  the  camp,  with  the  wing  of  a  bustard  or  hawk  before  his 
face,  in  lieu  of  a  fan,  to  keep  him  from  the  burning  sun.  At  night,  he 
dismounts,  courts  the  women,  or  goes  to  the  place  of  rendezvous,  and 
at  daylight  comes  in  to  sleep." 

The  ceremonials  and  regulations  attending  the  smoking  of  a  pipe  of 
tobacco,  would  hardly  be  tolerated  by  the  impatient  white  man.  "A  pipe 
is  never  smoked,"  remarks  Larocque,  "without  the  first  whiffs  being 
offered  to  the  rising  midday  and  setting  sun,  to  the  earth,  to  the  heavens, 
and  to  these  the  stem  is  pointed  to  the  respective  place  they  occupy,  and 
a  whiff  is  blown  to  the  same  quarter.  Then  a  few  whiffs  are  blown  to 
diverse  spirits  which  the  smoker  names  and  to  whom  he  mutters  a  few 
words ;  and  then  the  pipe  goes  round,  each  person  smoking  four  whiffs 
and  no  more.  The  pipe  must  always  go  to  your  left  hand  man,  as  that 
is  the  course  that  the  sun  takes.  *  *  * 


"They  are  not  superstitious  with  regard  to  the  pipe,  which  is  the 
object  of  their  most  sacred  regard.  Numberless  are  the  ceremonies  at- 
tended on  smoking  a  pipe  of  tobacco.  The  regulations  common  to  all 
are  these :  The  pipe  and  stem  must  be  clean ;  a  coal  must  be  drawn  out 
of  the  fire  to  light  the  pipe  with ;  care  must  be  taken  not  to  light  the  pipe 
in  the  flames  or  ashes,  and  none  must  empty  the  ashes  out  of  the  pipe 
but  he  that  filled  or  lighted  it.  There  being  but  little  fire,  I  once  lighted 
the  pipe  in  the  ashes.  My  landlord  told  me  a  few  days  after  that  his 
eyes  were  sore,  and  my  lighting  the  pipe  in  the  ashes  was  the  occasion 


"Some  will  not  smoke  if  the  pipe  has  touched  grass ;  another  if  there 
are  women  in  the  tent;  if  there  are  guns;  if  shoes  are  seen  when  smoking; 
if  a  part  ot  wearing  apparel  be  thrown  over  the  pipe ;  if  some  one  biows 
in  the  pipe  stem  to  clean  it.  Some  will  not  allow  the  stem  before  the  door. 
Another  must  empty  the  ashes  on  cowdung  brought  in  on  purpose.  An- 
other, again,  will  not  smoke  unless  every  smoker  be  naked,  and  none  but 
smokers  are  allowed  to  remain  in  the  tent.  To  one  the  pipe  must  be 
given  stem  foremost,  to  another  the  reverse.  Another  will  not  take  it 
unless  you  push  it  as  hard  as  you  can;  to  some  it  must  be  given  quite 
slowly.  In  short,  every  man  has  his  particular  way  of  smoking,  from 
which  it  seems  he  has  vowed  never  to  swerve.  *  *  *  Some  who  are 
ceremonious  in  their  smoking  do  not  smoke  but  with  their  intimates  and 
those  that  are  well  acquainted  with  their  mummery;  those  that  are  less 
so  take  care  to  sit  next  to  a  man  that  knows  in  what  manner  the  pipe 
is  to  be  given  to  them.  The  women  never  smoke.  Before  the  smoking 
begins,  he  that  has  some  peculiarity  in  his  way  of  smoking  tells  in  what 
manner  it  is,  and  everyone  attends  to." 


Larocque  again  refers  to  the  Crows  as  an  Indian  nation  of  horses  and 
horsemen.  They  obtained  most  of  their  horses  from  the  Flatheads  and 
traded  them,  at  double  the  purchase  price,  to  the  Big  Bellies  and  the 
Mandans.  "He  is  reckoned  a  poor  man  that  has  not  ten  horses  in  the 
spring  before  the  trade  at  the  Missouri  takes  place,  and  many  have  thirty 
or  forty.  Everybody  rides— men,  women  and  children.  The  females 
ride  astride  as  the  men  do.  A  child  that  is  too  young  to  keep  his  saddle 
is  tied  to  it,  and  a  small  whip  is  tied  to  his  wrist.  He  whips  away,  and 
gallops  or  trots  the  whole  day,  if  occasion  requires.  Their  saddles  are 
so  made  as  to  prevent  falling  either  backwards  or  forward,  the  hind  part 
reaching  as  high  as  between  the  shoulders  and  the  fore  part  of  the  breast. 
The  women  saddles  are  especially  so.  Those  of  the  men  are  not  quite 
so  high,  and  many  use  saddles  such  as  the  Canadians  make  in  the  N.  W. 

Being  thus  trained  from  infancy,  the  Crows  were  naturally  most 
expert  horsemen.  As  warriors  on  horseback  they  were  unexcelled.  De- 
pending upon  them  as  they  do,  these  Indians  were  very  fond  and  careful 
of  their  horses.  They  were  not  warlike,  but  courageous  and  fierce  when 
attacked.  Their  arms  were  bows  and  arrows,  lances  and  guns.  When 
they  went  to  war  they  took  their  medicine  bags,  which  they  opened 
before  beginning  the  attack.  Shortly  afterward,  the  warriors  smoked 
and  then  went  into  action.  They  were  pronounced  excellent  marksmen 
with  the  bow  and  arrow,  and,  although  "poor  shots"  with  the  gun,  on 
account  of  lack  of  ammunition,  they  were  becoming  expert  with  daily 
practice  of  late  years.  They  were  getting  their  guns  and  ammunition  from 
the  Mandans  and  the  Big  Bellies,  in  exchange  for  horses,  robes,  leggins 
and  shirts.  They  likewise  purchased  corn,  pumpkins  and  tobacco  from 
the  Big  Bellies,  as  they  did  not  cultivate  the  ground. 



After  describing  in  detail  the  elaborate  dress  of  the  men  and  the 
more  simple  costume  of  the  women,  made  of  deer,  elk,  buffalo,  wolf  and 
skunk  skins,  ornamented  with  porcupine  quills,  bear's  claws,  beads, 
fringes,  etc.,  variously  colored,  the  author  adds  that  "the  boys  go  naked 
till  they  are  eight  or  ten  years  old,  not  for  want  of  clothes,  but  to  be 
more  at  their  ease;  but  the  girls  never.  Both  sexes  are  very  cleanly, 
washing  and  bathing  every  morning  in  the  river,  and  in  winter  in  the 
snow.  They  keep  their  clothes  clean  and  as  white  as  snow,  with  a  kind 
of  white  earth  resembling  chalk,  with  which  they  daily  clean  their  clothes. 
*  *  *  A  woman  never  sets  the  kettle  on  the  fire  in  the  morning 
without  first  washing  her  hands,  and  the  men  do  not  eat  without  the 
same  precaution.  *  *  * 

"They  make  very  expressive  signs  with  their  hands  to  a  person  that 
does  not  understand  their  language.  They  often  told  me  long  stories 
without  hardly  opening  their  lips  and  I  understood  very  well.  They 
represent  a  Sioux  by  passing  the  edge  of  their  hand  across  their  neck, 
a  Panis  by  showing  large  ears,  a  Flathead  by  pressing  with  both  hands  on 
each  side  the  head." 



The  Journal  of  Larocque  has  this  to  say  (the  text  edited  somewhat) 
regarding  the  Flathead  Indians,  which  then  held  the  western  slopes  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains:  "The  Flatheads  inhabit  the  western  side  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains  at  the  heads  of  the  rivers  that  have  a  southwesterly 
course  and  flow  into  the  western  ocean.  The  ridge  of  mountains  that 
parts  those  waters  from  the  Missouri  can  be  crossed  in  two  days  and  no 
more  mountains  are  found  to  the  ocean.  They  come  every  fall  to  the 
fort  of  the  Missouri  or  thereabout  to  kill  buffaloes,  of  which  there  are 
none  across  that  range  of  mountains,  dress  robes  and  dry  meat  with  which 
they  returned  as  soon  as  the  winter  set  in.  They  have  deers  of  various 
kinds  on  their  lands  and  beaver  with  which  they  make  themselves  robes, 
but  they  prefer  buffaloes.  They  have  a  great  many  horses  which  they 
sell  for  a  trifle  and  give  many  for  nothing." 


The  explorations  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  discovered  the 
bold  natural  features  of  the  "Land  of  the  Shining  Mountains,"  which 
was  not  to  be  christened  by  the  sonorous  and  characteristic  name  of  the 
present  until  more  than  half  a  century  had  elapsed  since  those  able  and 
intrepid  young  men  made  history  and  geography  for  Jefferson  and  the 
United  States  of  America.  They  not  only  traced  the  main  courses  of  the 
mighty  Missouri  to  their  sources,  but  found  that  its  great  northern  trib- 
utary headed  in  the  mountain  ranges  of  the  Hudson  Bay  divide.  After 
careful  investigation  and  the  wise  weighing  of  natural  data — such  as  the 
color,  the  volume  and  the  current  of  the  Milk  River  and  its  tributaries — 
they  decided,  in  opposition  to  the  opinion  of  the  old  and  experienced 
boatmen  of  their  party,  that  they  must  follow  the  southern  branches  of 
the  main  stream  to  the  clear  waters  rushing  from  the  purifying  rocks 
and  valleys  of  the  mountains  before  they  could  hope  to  reach  a  position 
on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  continental  divide  which  should  be  sub- 
stantially opposite  the  sources  of  any  streams  which  would  lead  to  a 
western  waterway  to  the  Pacific.  The  deduction  and  decision  of  Lewis 
and  Clark  saved  the  expedition  from  defeat,  if  not  disaster,  the  Missouri 
was  traced  to  its  true  southern  source,  and  the  real  fountain  of  its  might, 
the  Jefferson  fork  of  the  river,  and  a  few  miles  over  an  easy  pass  in  the 
continental  divide  were  found  the  equally  limpid  and  lively  waters  of  the 
great  southern  branch  of  the  Columbia. 


The  explorers  of  1805  had  decided  from  all  their  available  data  that 
the  Jefferson  was  the  parent  stream,  and  their 'conclusion  was  verified 
scientifically  and  accurately  nearly  seventy  years  afterward.  In  1872, 
Thomas  P.  Roberts,  under  the  direction  of  the  government,  examined  the 
upper  Missouri  from  the  Three  Forks  to  Fort  Benton  for  the  purpose 
of  ascertaining  its  capacity  for  navigation  by  light-draught  steamers. 
The  part  of  his  report  which  is  pertinent  is  this :  "The  junction  of  the 
Gallatin,  Madison  and  Jefferson  rivers — which  streams  from  the  Missouri 
proper — is  effected  in  a  basin  or  valley  some  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  in 
diameter,  with  mountains  in  full  view  west,  south  and  east,  varying  in 
altitude  from  two  thousand  to  four  thousand  feet  above  the  sea.  Some 
presented  a  denuded  appearance,  while  others  were  well  timbered,  and 
though  it  was  late  in  July,  their  highest  summits  and  gorges  were  still 
streaked  with  silvery  lines  of  snow. 




"It  is  difficult  to  determine  from  which  points  of  the  compass  the 
three  rivers  debouch,  though  from  the  top  of  the  bluffs  at  the  exit  pas- 
sage of  the  united  rivers,  which  almost  deserves  to  be  called  a  canyon, 
there  is  a  fine  view  of  their  meanderings.  The  courses  of  the  streams,' 
with  their  numerous  cut-offs  and  sloughs,  are  marked  by  graceful  belts 
and  lines  of  cotton  wood  and  black  alder,  by  islands  clothed  with  the 
richest  verdure  and  by  groves  and  jungles  of  the  wild  currant,  but  by 
far  the  greater  portion  of  this  immense  park  is  open  and  covered  with 
varieties  of  the  rich  bunch-grass,  for  which  Montana  is  celebrated.  The 
sheen  of  the  sparkling  waters  seen  through  openings  of  timber  among 
the  islands  and  channels,  with  the  soft  shadowy  forms  of  the  silvery 
rimmed  mountains  in  the  distance  surrounding  the  landscape,  formed  in 
the  long  twilight,  a  beautiful  and  enchanting  picture. 

"While  here  we  gauged  the  volume  of  the  rivers,  not  only  to  discover 
which  of  the  three  was  the  largest  or  parent  stream,  but  also  to  ascer- 
tain how  much  water  there  was  to  deal  with  at  that  season  of  the  year, 
for  the  purpose  of  navigation. 

"When  we  began  the  reconnoissance,  the  streams  were  about  four  feet 
below  the  high-water  mark,  and,  according  to  the  statement  of  the  old 
ferryman,  only  eight  inches  above  the  lowest  water-mark.  It  is  one  of 
the  most  striking  characteristics  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  and  the  same 
may  be  said  of  nearly  all  the  Montana  streams,  that  they  never  overflow 
their  banks  to  any  extent,  and  that  they  are  more  regular  and  unfailing 
in  their  discharge  than  streams  of  equal  annual  flowage  in  the  United 
States  east  of  the  Mississippi  River.  This  equable  flowage  is  due  almost 
entirely  to  the  regularity  of  the  melting  of  the  snow  in  the  highest  regions 
of  the  mountains,  from  which  source  their  principal  supply  is  drawn. 

"We  found  that  the  Jefferson  discharged  226,728  cubic  feet  per 
minute,  the  Madison,  160,277,  and  the  Gallatin,  125,480.  There  can, 
therefore,  be  but  little  doubt  that  the  Jefferson  is  the  father  of  the 
Missouri,  which  fact  makes  it,  by  fair  inheritance,  the  grandfather  of  the 
Mississippi,  a  distant  but  noble  relative.  Adding  these  figures  together, 
we  have  a  total  flowage  of  512,408  cubic  feet  per  minute  for  the  Upper 
Missouri  at  the  Three  Forks.  Reducing  their  quantity  to  tfye  lowest  stage 
known,  there  will  remain  over  300,000  cubic  feet  per  minute  in  the 
Missouri  at  this  point,  which  is  three  times  the  volume  of  the  Ohio  at 
Pittsburgh  when  at  its  lowest  stage. 

"The  length  of  this  wonderful  watercourse,  the  Missouri,  can  be 
best  appreciated  when  it  is  considered  that  we  were  here  camped  two 
hundred  and  fifty  miles  below  the  extreme  heads  of  the  Jefferson  and 
about  the  same  distance  above  Fort  Benton.  Fort  Benton  is  not  less 
than  2,900  miles  above  St.  Louis,  which  city  is  still  1,200  miles  above 
the  mouth  of  the  river.  The  entire  length  of  the  river  is  not  less  than 
4,600  miles,  some  geographies  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding,  they  var- 
iously estimating  its  length  to  be  from  4,000  to  4,300  miles. 

"Returning  to  the  Jefferson — a  large  island  at  its  mouth  divides  the 
stream  and  in  exploring  it  a  mile  above  our  camp  we  discovered  where 
its  waters  first  mingle  with  those  of  the  Madison.  I  note  this  particular 


junction  because  I  never  before  saw  streams  unite  in  the  same  manner. 
They  run  with  swift  current  five  or  six  feet  deep  and  some  two  hundred 
feet  wide  directly  toward  each  other,  and  thence,  at  a  right  angle,  their 
united  volume,  agitated  with  the  rude  contact,  rushes  northward.  The 
meeting  of  the  currents  created  great  swirls  in  the  water,  which  nearly 
swamped  our  boat  when  we  attempted  to  shoot  through.  A  basin  seems 
to  have  been  scoured  out  in  the  gravelly  bottom  by  the  action  of  the 
stream,  the  depth  of  which  we  were  unable  to  ascertain  with  either  pole 
or  line." 

The  Jefferson  River,  thus  admitted  to  be  the  father  of  the  Missouri, 
does  not  rise  in  the  exact  locality  described  by  Captain  Lewis  in  the 
journal  of  the  expedition,  but  farther  to  the  east  in  the  rivulets  which 
feed  Red  Rock  Lake,  near  the  extreme  southern  point  of  Montana  and 
not  far  west  of  the  National  Park.  Both  the  Gallatin  and  the  Madison 
have  their  fountain  heads  in  the  park,  outside  the  bounds  of  Montana, 
as  well  as  the  Yellowstone,  the  great  southern  tributary  of  the  Missouri. 
Yellowstone  Lake,  its  source,  is  believed  to  have  been  discovered  by 
John  Colter,  the  noted  adventurer  of  the  Lewis-Clark  expedition.  Cap- 
tain Clark  explored  the  Yellowstone  within  Montana  on  the  return  trip 
(1806),  while  Captain  Lewis  was  investigating  Maria's  River,  the  north- 
ern tributary  of  the  Missouri. 

Clark's  fork  of  the  Columbia  drains  most  of  the  western  or  Pacific 
watershed  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  in  western  and  northwestern  Montana. 
What  Captain  Lewis  named  Clark's  Fork  is  now  known  as  the  Bitter 
Root  River,  rises  in  the  triangle  formed  by  the  mountain  range  by  that 
name  and  the  Continental  Divide,  and  flows  along  the  eastern  bases  of 
the  Bitter  Root  Mountains.  It  empties  into  the  Hellgate  River,  in  the 
vicinity  of  Missoula,  and  the  two  streams  thus  united  take  the  name  of 
Missoula,  which,  in  turn,  flows  into  Lake  Pend  d'Oreille,  Idaho,  and 
emerges  as  Clark's  River,  or  the  Clark's  Fork  of  the  Columbia,  as  now 
recorded  on  the  maps.  From  Montana  it  passes  between  the  Bitter  Root 
and  the  Cabinet  mountains  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the  state,  through 
the  northern  corner  of  Idaho  and  joins  the  Columbia  at  49°  north,  on 
the  boundary  Jbetween  the  state  of  Washington  and  British  Columbia. 
Before  leaving  Montana,  however,  it  receives  a  large  and  intricate  system 
of  waters  from  the  north.  The  backbone  of  this  combination  of  rivers 
and  lakes  is  the  Flathead  River,  the  north  fork  of  which  rises  just  across 
the  international  border  and  bounds  Glacier  National  Park  on  the  west. 
The  south  fork  heads  in  the  great  north-and-south  Continental  Divide 
in  Powell  and  Lewis  and  Clark  counties,  flows  northwest  between  that 
vast  range  and  the  Flathead  Mountains,  and  unites  with  the  'north  fork 
and  a  smaller  tributary  stream  near  Columbia  Falls,  Fhthead  County, 
and  thence  enters  Flathead  Lake.  The  river  emerges  from  the  south- 
western extremity  of  the  lake,  is  reinforced  by  the  Little  Bitter  Root, 
the  Jocko  and  other  streams  and  finally  reaches  Clark's  Fork  near  the 
western  boundary  line  of  the  state  in  the  Mineral  Range  of  mountains, 
an  outlying  flank  of  the  Bitter  Root  Range. 

The  more  northerly  branch  of  the  Columbia,  the  Kootenai,  takes  a 


small  loop  out  of  Northwestern  Montana,  rising  in  British  Columbia  and 
through  its  tributaries,  the  Stillwater  and  Yaak  rivers,  draining  a  small 
portion  of  that  part  of  the  state.  To  the  east  of  the  drainage  basin  of 
the  Clark's  Fork  and  the  Kootenai  is  the  St.  Mary's  River,  which  is  a 
tributary  of  the  Saskatchewan  and  empties  into  Hudson  Bay! 

It  is  evident  that  Western  Montana,  the  birthplace  of  the  vast  river 
systems  which  mold  the  valleys  and  basins  of  the  state,  holds  the  key 
to  the  topography  of  the  country  included  in  its  bounds.  That  region 
contains  the  fountain  heads  of  the  rushing  waters  and  their  commercial 
powers.  Mountains,  valleys  and  basins  comprise  the  grand  natural  fea- 
tures of  Montana. 


As  to  its  mountains,  the  following  is  a  fair  summary,  mainly  drawn 
from  data  furnished  by  Robert  H.  Chapman,  the  geologist  and  topog- 
rapher: The  main  Rocky  mountain  mass  is  actually  made  up  of  two 
principal  ranges,  generally  parallel  with  axes  in  a  northwesterly  and 
southwesterly  direction,  the  easternmost  of  which  is  the  Lewis  range, 
which  extends  but  a  short  distance  across  the  Canadian  boundary.  The 
western  or  Livingston  range,  persists  much  farther  northward.  At  a 
point  about  eleven  miles  south  of  Canada  it  becomes  the  watershed  of  the 
Continental  divide,  which  has  previously  followed  the  ridge  of  the 
Livingston  range. 

The  range  is  rugged  in  contour  and  vast  in  extent,  with  many  spurs, 
buttresses  and  lesser  ranges.  Magnificent  pinnacles  and  peaks,  cloaked 
with  eternal  snow,  encrusted  with  glacial  ice,  mark  its- serrated  outline. 
Nevertheless  the  mountains  of  Montana,  though  equally  noble  in  form  are 
not  so  lofty  as  those  of  Colorado.  Immediately  east  of  the  Continental 
divide,  at  the  extreme  north,  is  the  Hudson  Bay  divide,  and  the  Big 
Belt  Mountains,  which  commence  in  the  center  of  the  state  and  run 
parallel  with  the  main  Rocky  mountain  range.  To  the  east  of  the  Big 
Belt  is  Bird  Tail  divide,  and  to  the  south  the  Tobacco  Root,  the  Ruby, 
the  Madison,  the  Gallatin  and  the  Bridger  ranges.  East  of  the  Big  Belt 
range  and  also  in  central  Montana,  are  the  Teton  ridge,  the  Little  Belt 
and  Belt  ranges,  and  to  the  south,  in  southern  Montana,  are  the  Cayuse 
Hills  and  the  Assaroka  range.  East  of  the  Little  Belt  range,  in  East- 
central  Montana,  are  the  Big  Snowy  Mountains,  and  just  northeast  of  the 
northern  extremity  of  the  range  lie  the  Highwood  Mountains.  Still 
farther  to  the  east,  in  North-eastern  Montana,  are  other  minor  ranges  or 
groups  of  high  hills  dignified  with  such  names  as  Bear  Paw,  Little  Rocky 
or  Little  Creek  mountains.  The  easternmost  hills  of  any  considerable 
magnitude  are  Piney  Buttes,  in  the  triangle  formed  by  the  Missouri  and 
its  tributary,  Big  Dry  River.  In  the  far  southeast,  the  Big  Horn  Moun- 
tains protrude  into  the  Crow  Indian  Reservation  from  Wyoming,  and 
the  smaller  independent  range  formed  by  the  Wolf  and  Rosebud  moun- 
tains, a  little  farther  east,  is  almost  wholly  within  the  state  boundaries. 

West  of  the  Continental  divide,  in  the  northwestern  corner  of  Mon- 


tana,  is  the  Purcell  range  of  the  Kootenai  system.  Farther  east,  beyond 
the  Stillwater  River,  is  the  Whitefish  range,  a  southeastern  continuance 
of  which  brings  one  to  the  Flathead  range.  Parallel  to  the  latter  and 
west  of  it,  are  the  majestic  Mission  Mountains,  the  northern  portions  of 
which  are  massed  along  the  eastern  shores  of  Flathead  Lake.  The 
Bitter  Root  Mountains  stretch  as  a  majestic  barrier  to  form  the  western 
bounds  of  Montana,  from  48  degrees,  east  by  south  to  about  46°  30', 
where  they  meet  the  Continental  divide,  extending  toward  the  northeast. 
The  Bitter  Root  Mountains  form  by  far  the  larger  portion  of  the 
western  side  of  the  substantial  rectangle  formed  by  the  144,000  square 
miles  comprising  the  area  of  Montana.  It  is  a  grand  domain — nearly 
three  times  larger  than  the  state  of  New  York,  and  only  exceeded  by 
Texas  and  California  in  territorial  extent  of  the  commonwealths  in  the 
Union.  California  only  exceeds  it  by  12,000  square  miles. 


Although  virtually'  half  of  Montana  is  mountainous,  and  it  is 
classified  as  a  Rocky  Mountain  state,  its  general  elevation  is  compar- 
atively low.  Professor  Gannett  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey 
says:  "The  average  elevation  of  Montana  above  sea  level  is  3,900  feet. 
The  average  elevation  of  other  states  in  this  section  are  given  as 
follows  :  Nevada,  5,600  feet ;  Wyoming,  6,400 ;  Colorado,  7,000  feet.  Be- 
low an  elevation  of  4,000  feet  Utah  has  no  square  miles,  Colorado  has 
only  9,000,  while  Montana  has  51,600.  Below  3,000  feet  in  altitude  are 
40,000  square  miles  in  Montana." 

"Taking  the  area  of  the  state  (Montana)  as  a  whole,"  says  a  United 
States  Census  Bulletin,  "it  has  been  ascertained  that  49  per  cent,  is  under 
5,000  feet  above  sea  level;  21  per  cent,  from  5,000  to  6,000  feet;  14  per 
cent,  from  6,000  to  7,000 ;  9  per  cent,  from  7,000  to  8,000,  and  7  per  cent, 
over  8,000  feet." 

Helena,  at  the  base  of  the  northwest  and  southeast  Continental  divide 
in  Montana,  has  an  elevation  of  4,110  feet  above  sea  level ;  Salt  Lake  City, 
4,350;  Denver,  5,300,  and  Santa  Fe,  6,840  feet. 

The  fact  of  Montana's  comparatively  low  altitude,  with  mountain 
passes  of  low  and  easy  access,  has  had  a  beneficial  effect  upon  her 
climate  and  settlement.  A  very  high  altitude  in  a  country  or  state  limits 
permanent  settlement  to  the  small  class  of  people  whose  physical  tem- 
perament allows  them  to  reside  under  such  condition.  The  numerous 
low  passes  in  the  mountains  not  only  enabled  the  streams  of  emigrants 
to  pass  into  Montana's  domains  from  either  direction,  many  of  them 
becoming  her  substantial  settlers,  but  also  admits  the  mild  currents  from 
the  farther  west  and  southwest,  warming  the  valleys  and  modifying  the 
climate  generally. 


After  noting  the  Coeur  d'Alene,  Pointed  Heart,  or  Bitter  Root  moun- 
tains  as  "a  white  line  in  the  zigzag  of  the  mountains'  crest  in  the  regions 


of  perpetual  snow,  William  A.  Clark,  in  his  centennial  address,  adds, 
apropos  of  the  "valley"  feature  of  Montana:  "Farther  eastward  the 
main  range  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  rising  in  colossal  grandeur,  tends 
diagonally  to  the  northwest  across  the  territory,  while  between  these  two 
distinct  ranges  and  far  eastward  from  the  latter,  the  country  is  diversi- 
fied by  a  system  of  subordinate,  transverse  and  parallel  ranges,  enclosing 
the  most  beautiful  valleys. 

"These  valleys,  varying  from  one  to  fifteen  miles  in  width  and  from 
ten  to  two  hundred  miles  in  length,  are  level  or  gently  undulating,  re- 
sembling prairies  covered  with  grasses  and  meadows,  each  drained  by 
a  main  stream  running  through  the  center  which,  at  short  intervals,  re- 
ceives tributaries  from  the  enclosing  mountains.  These  form  lateral 


valleys  of  smaller  extent.  A  line  of  willow,  or  alder  bushes,  with  here 
and  there  a  clump  of  cottonwood  trees,  marks  the  course  of  every 
stream  and  beautifies  the  landscape.  Lying  between  the  large  valleys 
there  are,  in  many  places,  passes  in  the  mountains,  many  of  them  so 
low  and  easily  accessible  as  to  form  natural  highways  for  all  vehicles.  On 
some  of  these  dividing  elevations  are  presented  views  of  surpassing 
beauty  and  grandeur.  Below  you  behold  the  picturesque  valleys;  about 
you,  the  terraced,  or  corrugated  grassy  plains;  on  either  side,  the  ever- 
green woodlands  with  their  parks  and  rippling  brooklets,  stretching  down 
from  the  mountain  sides,  and  above  all  and  beyond  the  limit  of  vegetable 
growth,  the  towering  rock-ribbed  mountains.  There,  in  communication 
with  the  clouds,  are  the  great  fountains  which  form  the  sources  of  the 
Missouri  and  the  Columbia,  in  many  places  gathering  their  cold  and 
crystal  waters  from  the  same  snow  girdled  peaks." 


Montana  presents  a  problem  and  a  picture  of  deep  and  varied  interest 
when  viewed  from  a  geological  standpoint;  when  an  attempt  is  made 


to  analyze  the  vast  mountain  ranges  which  loom  and  stretch  through  her 
central  and  western  portions,  and  to  account  for  the  courses  and  grand 
vagrancies  of  her  mighty  rivers,  which  attempted  to  lose  themselves  in 
the  fastnesses  of  the  Rockies,  but  could  not  because  of  the  persistency 
and  bravery  of  men;  to  list  her  bewildering  variety  of  minerals  and 
account  for  their  composition  and  the  strange  forms  of  their  deposits,  and, 
in  general,  to  unseal  the  weird,  silent  lips  of  Nature  and  force  her  to 
explain  the  methods  by  which  she  created  a  little  section  of  what  is 
really  but  the  skin  of  the  earth. 

To  account  for  the  mountain  ranges  of  Montana  and  the  precious 
metals  cast  from  their  bowels,  one  must  go  back  to  the  primary  ages  of 
the  fire  rocks  (igneous  and  metamorphic),  and  to  explain  the  broken 
and  irregular  strata  of  the  vast  rocky  beds  laid  down  by  the  waters  of  the 
prehistoric  oceans  and  seas,  the  student  must  imagine  the  outbreak  of 
immeasurable  subterranean  forces  and  the  upheaval  of  the  very  founda- 
tions of  the  earth. 

Dr.  F.  V.  Hayden,  U.  S.  Geologist,  did  much  to  fix  and  record  the 
geology  of  Montana,  in  the  '/os,  and  in  1876  the  Historical  Society  of 
Montana  (Vol.  I,  p.  285)  published  an  instructive  and  well  written  paper 
entitled  "Geological  Notes  on  Northern  and  Central  Montana,"  by  O.  C. 
Mortson,  which  was  of  more  general  value  than  its  title  indicated.  The 
author  traces  the  eastern  boundary  line  of  the  great  area  of  igneous  rocks 
as  follows:  Commencing,  at  the  British  line,  following  southwardly 
along  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  Dearborn  River, 
following  that  stream  to  the  Missouri  River,  crossing  which  it  follows  the 
Great  Belt  Mountains  for  a  short  distance  and  then  strikes  off  to  the 
western  peaks  of  the  Little  Belt  Mountains,  and  from  there,  along  the 
eastern  side,  to  the  Judith  Gap;  it  then  strikes  southwardly  along  the 
eastern  base  of  the  Crazy  Mountains  across  the  Yellowstone  River  and 
by  the  eastern  base  of  the  Snow  Mountains.  The  Judith,  Snowy  and 
Highwood  mountains  are  surrounded  by  stratified  rocks,  though  connected 
with  the  same  upheaval  as  the  other  mountains.  All  rocks  east  of  the 
above-mentioned  line  are  pertaining  to  the  cretaceous  periods  (later  than 
the  igneous)  and  in  places,  tertiary  (still  later)  deposits. 

The  upheaval  of  all  the  mountains  in  Central  Montana  most  probably 
took  place  in  the  tertiary  period,  and  attained  a  still  higher  altitude  in 
the  post-tertiary ;  again  being  brought  to  nearly  their  present  level  in 
the  latter  part  of  this  period.  The  Bearpaw  Mountains  are  ascribed  to 
a  later  period,  their  upheaval  having  distorted  the  strata  in  their  vicinity, 
and  later  tertiary  rocks  being  found  among  and  in  them.  The  origin  of 
these  mountains  is  undoubtedly  volcanic,  the  center  of  action  being  the 
western  peaks.  One  peak,  which  is  the  highest  in  that  vicinity,  is  an 
extinct  crater,  lava,  tufa  and  volcanic  sand  being  plentiful.  The  Sandy 
creeks  rise  near  this  peak,  and  it  is  owing  to  the  volcanic  sand  in  their 
beds  that  they  derive  their  names.  The  upheaval  of  these  mountains  is 
ascribed  to  the  post-tertiary  period,  probably  the  same  disturbance  that 
occurred  in  the  early  part  of  the  glacial  period. 

All  the  other  ranges  of  mountains  in  central  and  northern  Montana 


are  thought  to  have  been  formed  about  the  same  time,  both  from  the 
similar  character  of  the  rocks  comprising  their  peaks  and  foothills  and 
from  the  number  of  dikes  connecting  them.  These  connecting  ridges 
are  sometimes  trap,  but  generally  of  granite.  The  elevated  and  distorted 
strata  which  thus  protrudes  have  been  variously  metamorphized  by  the 
action  of  the  igneous  rocks,  while  in  a  state  of  fusion  limestone  has  been 
turned  into  marble  and  laminated  clays  into  slate.  A  large  number  of 
these  dikes  branch  from  the  east  side  of  the  Great  Belt  range,  crossing 
diagonally  Deep  Creek  valley  and  connectiong  with  the  Little  Belt  range 
and  the  Highwood  Mountains.  The  dikes  mentioned  are  composed  of 
dark  granite.  Other  series  connect  the  different  peaks  of  the  district. 
From  the  igneous,  or  fire  rocks,  the  geologist  passes  upward  toward 
the  earth's  surface  through  the  stratified  rocks  of  five  distinct  periods. 
The  lowest  stratum  examined  by  Mr.  Mortson,  which  contained  fossils, 
was  the  Jurassic.  A  belt  of  the  latter  rocks  was  found  to  stretch  from 
the  neighborhood  of.  the  Black  Hills,  in  the  southeast,  across  the  Yellow- 
stone River,  striking  the  Musselshell  near  the  great  bend,  and  reaching  the 
Missouri  in  the  neighborhood  of  Little  Rocky  Mountain  Creek  and 
Carroll,  Deer  Lodge  County.  Remains  of  the  larger  fossils  are  found  in 
this  stratum  in  such  quantities  as  to  form  masess  of  rocks  in  themselves. 
In  a  later  epoch  of  the  same  period,  carrying  sandstones  and  layers  of 
clay  were  found  fresh  water  shells  and  abundant  remains  of  insects, 
fishes  and  reptiles. 

The  rocks  of  the  cretaceous,  or  chalky  period,  occupy  the  largest  area 
of  any  stratified  ones  in  Montana,  being  found  even  in  the  foothills  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains  and  occupying  a  large  area  north  of  the  Missouri 
River.  They  form  a  section  of  the  great  belt  which  stretches  across  the 
continent  from  Mackenzie's  River  in  the  north  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
in  the  south.  Most  of  the  rocks  are  of  marine  formation,  although  a  few 
are  the  results  of  fresh  water  deposits,  and  their  composition  is  sandstone, 
clay,  marl,  limestone  and  colored  sands.  The  latter  are  exceedingly 
friable,  and  the  green  variety  has  been  profitably  used  as  a  fertilizer. 

The  lower  beds  of  the  cretaceous  period  are  known  as  the  Dakota 
group,  as  they  have  been  most  extensively  developed  in  the  territory  of 
the  Dakotas.  In  Montana,  these  beds  may  be  found  near  the  headwaters 
of  Sun  River,  in  the  vicinity  of  St.  Peter  and  on  the  flanks  of  Highwood 
and  Little  Belt  mountains,  in  the  present  counties  of  Cascade  and  Teton. 
The  Dakota  series  is  remarkable  for  the  beds  of  lignite  and  numerous 
vegetable  remains  found  in  it.  The  leaves  of  numerous  genera  of  trees 
are  also  found,  some  of  which  are  allied  to  living  species.  Near  Fort 
Shaw  the  beds  have  yielded  a  fine  building  sandstone,  which,  though 
soft  when  quarried,  hardens  by  exposure  to  the  atmosphere. 

The  Benton  group  of  the  cretaceous  period  lies  over  the  Dakota  and 
is  distinguishable  by  the  character  of  the  fossils  found  in  the  strata,  being 
of  the  fresh-water  rather  than  the  marine  variety.  The  greatest  de- 
velopment of  the  beds  is  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Benton ;  hence  the  name, 
given  by  Meek  and  Hayden,  U.  S.  geologists.  From  that  place  to  the 
Great  Falls  the  banks  of  the  Missouri  furnish  splendid  specimens  of 


sections  of  the  beds.  They  are  also  found  on  Highwood  and  Belt  Moun- 
tain creeks  and  Arrow,  Teton  and  Maria's  rivers.  The  thickness  of  the 
Dakota  and  Benton  groups  may  be  roughly  estimated  at  1,200  feet. 

The  Pierre  group,  so  called  from  the  beds  found  at  old  Fort  Pierre, 
Dakota,  are  the  first  of  the  later  Cretaceous  beds.  Outcrops  of  these 
beds  are  found  in  the  hills  south  of  Square  Butte,  the  reservation  of  Fort 
Shaw  on  the  Yellowstone,  in  the  bad  lands  near  Pryor's  Creek  and  on 
Milk  River  near  the  Three  Buttes.  On  the  Yellowstone,  they  are  com- 
posed of  dark  laminated  clays,  and  are  remarkable  for  the  perfect  preser- 
vation of  the  fossils  peculiar  to  the  group.  Proceeding  northward,  it 
gradually  merges  into  the  Jurassic  rocks. 

"The  cretaceous  and  Jurassic  rocks  in  Montana,  by  their  conforma- 
tion and  dip  of  strata,  would  justify  the  assertion  that  during  these 
periods  a  large,  shallow  inland  sea  existed  in  this  part  of  Montana.  From 
the  nature  of  the  marine  fossil  shells  it  might  have  been  from  two  hun- 
dred to  four  hundred  feet  deep,  and  had  connection  with  the  inland  sea, 
which  then  covered  such  a  large  portion  of  the  North  American  con- 
tinent. The  Yellowstone  and  Missouri  rivers  were  not  yet  in  existence, 
as  there  were  not  yet  any  mountains  to  form  the  watershed."  The  rocks 
of  the  tertiary  period  are  found  on  the  flanks  of  the  Rocky,  Belt,  Bear- 
paw  and  Big  Snowy  mountains  and  on  Milk  River  near  the  British  line. 
"It  was  during  this  period  (continuing  to  quote  Mr.  Mortson)  that 
probably  the  two  great  rivers  of  Montana  began  their  mighty  courses. 
This  was  owing  to  the  elevation  at  that  time  of  the  neighboring  ranges 
of  mountains  (except  the  Bearpaw),  though  perhaps  their  height  was 
not  equal  to  that  of  the  present  day.  The  tertiary  deposits  on  their 
summits  would  ascribe  their  elevation  to  be  late  in  the  period. 


"To  the  traces  of  this  period  I  have  turned  my  principal  attention. 
Its  (in  my  opinion)  great  influence  on  the  deposition  of  placer  gold,  the 
great  denudations  of  the  surface  area,  and  the  large  deposits  elsewhere, 
render  it  an  exceedingly  interesting  geological  study.  *  *  *  The 
glacial  or  drift  period  takes  its  name  under  the  supposition  that  ice,  in 
the  form  of  icebergs  and  glaciers,  scraped  ravines  and  canons  on  the 
mountain  sides,  denuded  hills  and  plateaus;  in  some  places  making 
valleys  and  in  others  filling  them  up  and  altering  river  beds. 

"In  the  early  part  of  this  epoch,  Montana  must  have  presented  the 
appearance  of  a  series  of  large  fresh-water  lakes,  whose  shores  were 
the  summits  of  the  present  mountain  ranges.  These  mountains  had  their 
flanks  covered  by  huge  glaciers,  whose  descent  by  the  usual  river-like 
flow  o£  glaciers  would  bring  down  large  quantities  of  rocks,  pebbles  and 
mud.  Reaching  the  edge  of  the  lakes,  they  would,  when  advanced  far 
enough  by  the  superincumbent  weight,  break  off;  having  been  pushed 
by  the  pressure  of  the  ice  behind,  it  would  float  off  as  an  iceberg,  and 
would  elsewhere  deposit  its  hundred  of  tons  of  gravel,  mud  and  rocks, 
the  same  manner  as  the  glaciers  of  Greenland  are  at  the  present  day  send- 


Vol.  1—7 


ing  their  icebergs  down  the  eastern  coast  of  North  America.  What  was 
the  probable  cause  of  this  sub-arctic  climate  enveloping  the  land? 

"Later  back,  we  referred  to  the  upheaval  of  the  ranges  of  mountains 
in  the  tertiary  period.  Now,  another  upheaval  probably  took  place  of 
another  five  thousand  feet  or  therabouts,  and  it  would  bring  this  icy 
change  quickly,  and  transform  the  smiling  semi-tropical  verdure  of  the1 
tertiary  period  into  stern  winter  sterility.  It  was  probably  at  this  time 
that  the  Bearpaw  Mountains  were  thrown  up.  Now,  by  these  terres- 
trial changes,  which  were  not  confined  to  Montana  alone,  the  flow  of  the 
rivers  would  bo  stopped ;  the  lakes  would  rise  silently,  but  sure ;  and  the 
intense  cold  would  speedily  bring  this  arctic  climate  to  which  I  am  re- 

"The  intense  cold  would,  by  its  action,  rend  the  rocks  in  the  moun- 
tains, which  would  then  fall  in  avalanches  upon  the  glaciers,  to  be  by  them 
carried  elsewhere.  The  glaciers,  by  their  slow  but  constant  motion,  and 
their  stupendous  weight,  would,  by  erosion,  plow  for  themselves  a  bed 
through  the  hardest  rock. 


"At  the  headwaters  of  Maria's  river,  especially  at  the  head  of  Cut 
Bank  Creek,  a  fragment  of  one  of  these  glaciers  still  exists,  covering 
each  side  of  the  range  down  to  a  certain  height.  The  existence  of  this 
glacier  is  known,  and  probably  others  exist  in  the  Rocky  range,  which  will 
be  found  when  the  topography  of  the  country  is  better  known. 

"The  proof  of  the  other  glaciers  having  existed,  lies  in  the  drift 
groovings  or  scratches  which  occur  in  the  bed-rock  of  all  the  mountain 
gulches  that  I  have  seen  in  this  section ;  also  by  the  numerous  moraines 
and  erratic  bowlders  which  are  found  on  the  great  northern  plateau  and 
on  other  several  smaller  ones. 

"In  central  Montana,  there  were  two  great  centers  of  glacial  action — 
one  was  the  Rocky  mountains  and  its  connecting  ranges ;  the  other  was 
the  Belt  ranges. 

"In  the  Great  Belt  range  a  large  glacier  commenced  on  the  western 
side,  near  the  head  of  Trout  and  Cottonwood  creeks,  cutting  the  range 
diagonally,  crossing  Montana  and  Confederate  gulches  and  emerging  into 
the  Missouri  valley  a  little  south  of  the  Confederate  creek.  Its  course 
is  north-northeast  to  south-southwest  and  the  present  altitude  of  its  old 
bed  is  probably  over  five  thousand  feet.  In  the  vicinity  it  is  known  as 
the  Gravelly  range.  This  glacier  must  have  existed  prior  to  those  that 
cut  out  Bowlder,  Confederate,  Montana,  White's  and  other  gulches  in  the 
vicinity,  as  wherever  this  ancient  glacier  has  been  cut  by  later  ravines 
it  has  yielded  large  deposits  of  gold.  Its  ancient  bed  is  now  filled  up 
with  debris,  which  is  easily  accounted  for  by  the  deposits  of  neighboring 
denudations.  In  the  vicinity  it  is  called  an  old  river-bed,  but  its  declina- 
tion is  too  great  for  that,  consistent  with  the  gold  deposits ;  also,  the  debris 
is  identical  with  the  rocks  contained  between  its  two  extremities.  If  it  had 
been  a  river,  its  length  ought  to  have  been  greater;  there  ought  to  have 


been  a  larger  amount  of  foreign  debris  and  a  large  water-shed,  to  account 
for  its  present  breadth. 

"Now,  assuming  this  to  have  been  a  glacier,  we  should  find  the  ice, 
by  its  motion,  scraping  and  grooving  the  bed-rock  of  its  course,  con- 
tinually widening  its  bed  by  its  constant  pressure  and  friction,  and  thereby 
denuding  the  rocks  and  quartz  lodes  that  it  passed.  Naturally,  gold  would 
be  left  in  the  striae  of  the  bed-rock.  Its  carrying  large  amounts  of  debris 
on  its  surface  in  the  form  of  moraines,  wherever  the  contour  of  its  bed 
compelled  the  glacier  to  change  its  course,  it  would  naturally  deposit 
large  amounts  of  debris,  which  now  form  bars. 

"I  stated  that  this  glacier  existed  prior  to  the  formation  of  the 
neighboring  gulches.  An  intelligent  observation  of  these  gulches  will 
convince  anyone  that  there  must  have  been  similar  causes  to  produce 
these  effects.  Bowlder,  in  the  vicinity  of  Confederate,  has  innumerable 
proofs  of  glacial  drift.  There  are  erratic  bowlders  there,  which  could 
have  only  been  brought  to  their  present  position  by  ice.  Indian,  Beaver 
and  Last  Chance  gulches,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Missouri,-  have  simi- 
lar characteristics.  I  have  observed  personally,  in  these  localities,  the 
striae  on  bowlders,  and  the  parallel  moraines  of  ancient  glaciers.  A  per- 
fect chart  of  these  localities  could  be  made,  by  minute  observation,  as  they 
existed  in  the  glacial  period.  The  course  of  the  glacier  would  be  known 
by  the  direction  of  the  striae  on  the  bed-rock  and  bowlders;  the  angle  of 
declination  would  be  known  by  the  inclination  of  the  striae  on  the  bowlders 
on  the  mountain  sides ;  and  the  depth  would  be  the  height  between  the  bed- 
rock arid  the  line  of  bowlders  left  by  the  glaciers  on  the  hill  sides. 

"The  elevated  valleys  in  Upper  Deep  creek,  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Great  Belt  range,  have  over  their  whole  surface  the  marks  of  glacial 
action.  On  the  low  mountains  north  of  Camp  Baker  bowlders  are  on 
the  sides,  with  the  striae  cut  on  them  as  plain  as  if  done  by  a  workman, 
and  their  surfaces  finely  polished,  showing  the  friction  they  have  under- 
gone. Along  the  northern  side  of  the  valley  large  numbers  of  bowlders 
cover  one  side  of  the  hills,  the  bowlders  on  each  hill  being  on  the  same 
side.  This  shows  the  deposition  by  icebergs,  which,  broken  off  by  the 
parent  glacier  and  floating  on  the  inland  sea,  deposited  the  detritus  in  this 
manner.  All  the  mountains  in  the  central  and  northern  part  of  Montana 
that  I  have  seen  show  these  indubitable  signs. 

"The  large  plateau  in  the  north  has  large  erratic  bowlders  scattered 
here  and  there;  they  are  not  very  common,  but  their  size  is  exceedingly 
large.  The  most  interesting  one  I  have  seen  is  in  a  small  ravine  which 
runs  into  the  Dry  fork  of  Maria's  river  due  north  of  Fort  Shaw.  It  is 
about  nine  feet  long,  six  feet  high  and  probably  weighs  about  fifteen  tons. 
It  is  composed  of  red  granite,  with  a  smooth,  polished  surface,  and  has 
evidently  been  brought  a  long  distance,  as  no  rocks  of  that  kind  are,  to  my 
knowledge,  closer  than  about  ninety  miles.  Other  bowlders  exist,  but  this 
one  will  serve  as  an  example  of  the  rest. 

"How  long  this  epoch  lasted,  there  is  no  telling;  but,  by  the  great 
denudation  which  took  place,  it  must  have  been  of  considerable  length. 
It  was  during  this  epoch  that  the  numerous  buttes  lying  east  of  the 


Rocky  mountains  and  north  of  the  Belt  range  were  denuded  to  their 
present  shape.  Very  probably  Square  and  Crown  Buttes  formed  once 
a  continuous  range  of  high  bluffs ;  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  those  east 
of  the  Highwoods.  At  the  close  of  this  period,  a  gradual  subsidence 
of  level  raised  the  temperature  of  the  climate ;  the  inland  lakes  dis- 
appeared; the  glaciers  melted  away  and  we  arrive  at  what  is  called  the 
Champlain  epoch." 


"At  the  beginning  of  this  epoch,  most  probably  the  rush  of  the  re- 
tiring waters  cut  the  terraces  which  bound  so  many  of  our  Montana 
streams.  The  great  mammals  then  appeared,  and  the  huge  mastodon  cov- 
ered the  plateaus  and  valleys  in  numbers  almost  equaling  the  modern 
buffalo.  The  American  elephant  existed  in  this  locality.  A  portion 
of  a  tusk  pertaining  to  one  was  found  on  Badger  creek  and  is  now  in 
possession  of  Mr.  Drew,  at  Fort  Shaw.  It  is  possible  that  the  great 
pliocene  deposits  of  Wyoming  and  Colorado  extend  northward  into  Mon- 
tana, as  I  have  been  often  told  of  the  great  bone  deposits  which  exist 
in  several  parts  of  these  localities.  Several  deposits  of  so-called  buf- 
falo bones,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Sun  and  Maria's  rivers  and  Badger 
creek,  I  am  inclined  to  ascribe  to  other  animals;  and  it  may  be  that 
as  Colorado  and  Wyoming  have  within  the  two  years  yielded  such  palaeon- 
tological  treasures,  so  Montana,  by  proper  search  and  investigation,  will 
yield  equally  interesting  organic  remains." 


The  wonderful  diversity  of  Montana's  geological  formations  accounts 
for  the  variety  of  the  precious  deposits  found  within  the  state's  limits. 
The  upheaval  of  the  deep-seated  fire  rocks,  with  molten  formations  of 
ore  and  precious  stones;  the  deposits  and  immeasurable  pressure  of 
great  inland  seas,  and  the  resistless  passage  of  vast  glacial  fields  laden 
with  gold  scourings  and  gigantic  boulders,  all  made  Montana  a  rich  and 
varied  treasury  of  minerals. 

Along  this  line,  a  comparatively  recent  publication  has  this  to  say 
of  Montana  as  a  mining  state :  "Of  the  many  marvels  of  its  mineral 
wealth,  perhaps  the  greatest  is  the  wonderful  extent  of  the  deposits. 
After  this  comes  the  diversity  of  metals,  which  cover  a  large  portion 
of  the  known  catalogue,  and  lastly  comes  the  fabulous  richness  of  the 
deposits  of  quartz  and  placer  diggings.  The  ores  of  Montana  are  easily 
worked.  The  rocks  in  which  auriferous  and  argentiferous  veins  occur  is 
limestone  or  granite — often  granite  capped  with  slate.  The  presence  of 
lead  and  copper  simplifies  the  reduction  of  silver.  In  general  the  char- 
acter of  Montana  galena  ores  does  not  differ  from  those  of  Utah,  Colo- 
rado, Nevada  and  Idaho.  There  are  lead  mines  in  Montana  but  they 
have  not  been  extensively  worked.  The  lead  obtained  from  the  silver  ores 
however,  is  considerable.  Copper  lodes  are  abundant  and  large  and  are 


found  near  Butte,  at  White  Sulphur  Springs  and  in  the  Musselshell  coun- 
try. Iron  is  found  in  a  great  number  of  places.  Marble,  building  stone 
fire  clay,  zinc  and  all  of  the  minerals  of  which  men  build  the  substan- 
tial monuments  of  civilization  are  grouped  together  in  Montana  in  a  re- 
markable manner. 

"One  of  the  latest  developed  resources  of  the  state  is  coal.  The 
presence  of  this  product  was  known  from  the  early  days,  but  before  the 
country  had  been  pierced  by  railroads  it  could  not  be  profitably  mined 
and  consequently  there  was  no  development  of  the  coal  fields.  Now  coal 
mining  is  one  of  the  permanent  industries  of  the  state.  Along  the  east- 
ern bases  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  coal  is  found  in  almost  inexhaustible 
quantities.  Park,  Cascade,  Choteau,  Beaver  Head  and  Gallatin  counties 
all  have  mines  within  their  boundaries.* 


"In  addition  to  the  precious  metals  and  other  products  mentioned 
above,  there  have  been  found  in  Montana  from  time  to  time  a  great  many 
precious  stones  and  gems.  Sapphires  were  discovered  in  a  number  of 
localities  by  the  early  placer  miners.  They  were  collected  in  great  num- 
bers in  the  sluice  boxes  with  the  gold  and  black  sand.  They  were  found 
on  the  bars  of  the  Missouri  in  Lewis  and  Clark  county,  at  Montana  City 
and  Jefferson  City  on  the  Prickly  Pear,  and  in  other  localities.  These 
gems  were  sent  East  and  found  their  way  into  many  cabinets.  A  few 
were  cut  and  worn  by  Montana  miners.  After  many  years  they  attracted 
the  attention  of  English  experts  and  capitalists,  and  a  company  was 
formed  to  work  these  old  placers  for  the  sapphires  they  contained.  Some 
of  these  gems  are  of  the  largest  size  and  purest  water,  and  the  colors  are 
very  brilliant.  The  varieties  most  common  are  the  oriental  emerald,  the 
oriental  topaz,  the  oriental  amethyst  and  the  oriental  ruby.  No  gem  except 
the  diamond  excels  them  in  hardness  and  brilliancy.  Nearly  all  vari- 

*  And  now  more  than  all,  Carbon  county. 


eties  of  garnets  are  also  found  in  the  placers  and  the  rocks  of  the  moun- 
tains ;  many  very  fine  varieties  have  been  taken  from  the  places  in  various 
parts  of  the  state.  The  precious  garnet,  the  topazolite,  the  melanite, 
pyrenite,  and  others  of  yellow,  brown,,  green  and  red,  have  all  been  found 
in  the  placers  and  rocks.  Small  emeralds  of  medium  quality  have  been 
discovered  in  the  gravel  and  rocks  of  the  mountains.  Tourmalines  have 
also  appeared  in  the  sluice  boxes  of  the  placer  mines,  as  well  as  in  the 
metamorphic  rocks  of  the  Rockies." 


The  kings  of  the  fur  traders  and  the  traders  themselves  opened 
Montana  for  the  influx  of  the  miners.  Lewis  and  Clark,  and  lesser  explor- 
ers, revealed  the  riches  of  the  fur  trade  to  the  practical  Englishmen, 
Scotchmen,  Frenchmen,  Spaniards  and  Americans,  and  at  least  served  as 
advance  agents  in  the  introduction  of  the  business  to  its  original  and  main 
source  of  supply,  the  Indians.  Soon  after  the  red  and  white  trappers  and 
hunters  had  perceptibly  drained  the  land  of  its  beaver,  otter  and  bear,  and 
were  making  awful  inroads  into  the  buffalo  herds,  came  the  day  of  the 
miners,  whose  guides  were  usually  men  who  had  become  familiar  with  the 
land  of  the  mountains  in  the  prosecution  of  their  trapping  and  trading 
enterprises.  Although  they  had  laid  no  such  plans  for  the  future,  destiny 
made  the  trappers  the  pathfinders  of  the  miners,  and  in  this  connection 
their  leaders  who  built  the  posts  and  the  forts  and  sent  them  into  the 
wilds  shall  be  described,  their  main  enterprises  noted. 


The  initial  venture  of  that  nature  in  Montana  has  already  been  re- 
corded in  the  account  of  the  expedition  taken  from  St.  Louis  by  Manuel 
Lisa,  formerly  identified  with  the  Spanish  Fur  Company  who  had  cut 
adrift  from  that  organization  as  an  independent  trader.  His  fort,  built 
in  1807,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn,  represented  the  first  trading  post, 
the  first  commercial  venture  and  the  first  building  of  a  permanent  char- 
acter, to  be  planted  within  the  bounds  of  what  is  now  Montana. 


Not  long  after  Lisa's  return  to  St.  Louis,  in  the  summer  of  1808, 
and  after  a  very  successful  season  in  the  fur  trade,  was  formed  the 
Missouri  Fur  Company.  It  was  organized  with  a  capital  of  $40,000, 
headquarters  in  St.  Louis,  and  its  object  was  to  establish  a  string  of 
trading  posts  along  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri.  Among  its  twelve 
members  were  Capt.  William  Clark,  the  agent  and  head  of  the  organiza- 
tion; Manuel  Lisa,  in  some  respects  the  leading  spirit;  Reuben  Lewis, 
only  brother  of  Capt.  Meriwether  Lewis ;  the  Chouteau  brothers,  Andrew 
Henry  and  other  leaders  in  the  fur  trade,  who  were  uncontrolled  'by  the 
Hudson  Bay  and  North  West  companies,  of  Canada. 

Lewis  and  Clark  had  called  attention  to  the  locality  where  the  three 



forks  of  the  Missouri  converge  as  a  strong  trading  point — the  key  to 
the  Blackfoot  fur  trade ;  and  that  meant  much  in  those  days.  The  Mis- 
souri Fur  Company  were  of  the  same  opinion,  and  in  1809  Lisa,  with 
Henry  and  a  party  of  trappers  and  boatsmen,  ascended  the  Missouri  and 
the  Yellowstone,  and,  through  Bozeman  Pass  emerged  at  the  three  forks. 
There  they  established  a  post  as  the  headquarters  of  their  proposed  opera- 
tions to  develop  a  fur  trade  among  the  Indians  of  that  region.*  At  that 
time  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  had  in  its  employ  250  men — partly  Ameri- 
can hunters,  but  mainly  Creoles  and  Canadian  voyagers,  who  in  various 
flotillas,  conducted  by  some  of  the  partners,  were  put  in  motion,  and  be- 
fore the  close  of  the  year  1809  posts  had  been  established  among  the 
Sioux,  Arickarees  and  Mandans,  and  a  principal  one,  whose  garrison  com- 
prised the  larger  part  of  the  company's  employes,  "at  the  Three  Forks 
of  the  Missouri." 

This  post  was  in  the  heart  of  the  country  then  possessed  by  the 
Piegan  Tribe  of  the  Blackfeet  Indians  whose  hostility  it  was  hoped  might 
be  appeased,  both  for  the  sake  of  their  trade  and  because  the  hundreds 
of  small  streams  which  rise  in  the  adjacent  mountains  and  unite  to  form 
the  Missouri  abounded  with  beaver,  which  the  company's  servants  were 
to  be  employed  in  trapping.  But  the  Blackfeet  were  in  communication 
with  the  posts  of  the  British  traders  upon  the  Saskatchewan,  from  which 
they  obtained  arms,  ammunition,  and  all  the  commodities  of  civilization 
required  in  their  wild  life,  so  that  they  were  wholly  independent  of  this 
fort.  Besides,  in  consequence  of  the  killing  of  one  of  their  number  by 
Captain  Lewis  in  1806,  they  had  conceived  the  most  violent  hatred  of 
the  Americans,  a  feeling  carefully  fostered  by  the  British 'traders  to 
prevent  competition,  and  they  had  fiercely  declared  that  they  would 
rather  hang  the  scalp  of  an  American  to  their  girdle  than  kill  a  buffalo 
to  keep  from  starving.  Animated  by  such  implacable  and  vindictive  re- 
sentment, they  not  only  failed  to  become  the  customers  of  the  fort,  but  set 
themselves  at  work  to  effect  the  destruction  of  its  garrison.  .  They  lurked 
incessantly  in  the  vicinity  of  the  post,  sought  to  ambuscade  the  hunters, 
attacked  every  party  over  whom  they  could  gain  any  advantage,  and 
almost  entirely  frustrated  the  trapping  system  that  had  been  inaugurated. 
It  became  dangerous  to  go  any  distance  from  the  fort  except  in  large 
parties,  and  in  one  case  a  party  of  twenty  men  were  assailed  by  surprise 
and  nine  killed.  Not  less  than  twenty  of  the  garrison  lost  their  lives 
in  the  various  conflicts  that  took  place,  and  it  was  estimated  that  double 
that  number  of  Indians  were  killed. 

It  had  been  expected  that  three  hundred  packs  of  beaver  would  be 
secured  the  first  year,  and  but  for  the  hostility  of  the  Blackfeet  the 
expectation  would  probably  have  been  realized.  As  it  was,  there  were 
scarcely  twenty  packs.  With  this  meagre  return  the  greater  portion  of 
the  party  descended  the  river  the  next  spring  (1809),  while  the  re- 

*  Lieut.  Bradley's  "Journal,"  Contributions  Montana  Historical  Society,  Vol.  II. 


mainder  continued  to  be  cooped  up  in  the  fort  not  daring  to  hunt  and 
suffering  for  want  of  provisions.  At  last,  finding  the  situation  so  irk- 
some and  unprofitable  and  fearing  the  destruction  of  his  little  band,  Mr. 
Henry,*  the  partner  who  had  been  left  in  charge,  determined  in  the 
fall  to  move  over  into  the  country  of  the  more  pacific  Shoshonees  and 
winter  upon  one  of  the  head  branches  of  the  Columbia.  Crossing  the 
mountains  with  great  difficulty  and  suffering — for  winter  overtook  them 
and  game  was  scarce— he  found  a  pleasant  location,  where  timber  was 
plentiful,  upon  the  North  or  Henry's  Fork  of  Snake  River,  where  he 
established  himself  and  built  a  new  fort — the  first  American  establish- 
ment (except  the  wintering  house  of  Lewis  and  Clark)  west  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains. 

Meanwhile  no  tidings  of  Henry  were  received  at  St.  Louis,  and  the 
company,  ignorant  of  his  movements,  were  apprehensive  that  he  had  been 
massacred.  At  length,  no  longer  able  to  control  their  anxiety,  early 
in  1811  an  expedition  was  set  on  foot  to  go  in  quest  of  him.  It  started 
about  the  beginning  of  February,  under  the  command  of  Mr.  Lisa,  in  a 
swift  barge  propelled  by  twenty  oars  and  armed  with  a  swivel  mounted 
at  the  bow,  the  whole  number  of  persons  on  board  being  twenty-six. 
In  the  meantime  his  isolation  and  the  poverty  of  his  Snake  customers  in- 
duced Mr.  Henry  to  recross  the  mountains  and  return  to  the  East.  Ar- 
riving at  the  Missouri  he  built  boats,  upon  which  his  party  embarked; 
and  thus  it  happened  that  Lisa,  sweeping  in  his  light  barge  easily  and 
pleasantly  up  stream,  and  Henry  with  his  little  fleet  dropping  down  with 
the  current,  met  each  other  at  the  Arickaree  Village,  in  the  neighborhood 
of  the  present  City  of  Bismarck,  about  the  middle  of  June. 

Mr.  Henry's  stay  beyond  the  mountains  had  not  been  unprofitable, 
and  he  took  down  with  him  forty  packs  of  beaver — a  far  better  return 
than  could  reasonably  have  been  anticipated.  "To  render  this  account  of 
the  operations  of  the  company  complete  I  will  add,"  says  Lieutenant 
Bradley,  "that  the  hostility  of  the  Blackfeet  and  the  consequent  ruin 
of  their  prospects  in  this  quarter  were  not  the  only  misfortune  that  had 
been  sustained  by  the  company.  The  establishments  among  the  Mandans 
and  Arickarees  had  proved  unprofitable,  and  besides  the  Sioux  factory 
was  accidentally  burned,  occasioning  an  estimated  loss  of  fifteen  thou- 
sand dollars — almost  half  the  original  capital  of  the  company. 


"The  term  of  the  association  expired  in  1811,  but  notwithstanding  the 
unforeseen  difficulties  and  disasters  that  had  beset  its  first  efforts,  it 
was  found  on  balancing  accounts  that  the  company  had  its  capital  of  forty 
thousand  dollars  yet  intact,  and,  in  addition,  the  three  establishments 
below  the  Yellowstone.  A  reorganization  was  effected,  and  though  no 
further  attempt  was  made  to  trade  in  the  Blackfeet  country  the  busi- 
ness of  the  company  elsewhere  was  extensive  and  the  profits  large. 
It  enjoyed  a  deserved  prosperity  until  the  business  prostration  occasioned 

*  Henry's  Lake  and  Henry's  Fork  of  Snake  River  named  after  him. 



by  the  War  of  1812,  when  it  was  forced  to  suspend  operations  and  finally 

"The  fort  built  by  this  company  at  the  Three  Forks  of  the  Missouri 
is  the  establishment  whose  traces  still  remain  near  Gallatin  City*  and 
which  is  popularly  ascribed  to  Lewis  and  Clark.  In  1870,  the  outlines  of 
the  fort  were  still  intact,  from  which  it  appears  that  it  was  a  double  stock- 
ade of  logs  set  three  feet  deep,  enclosing  an  area  of  about  300  feet 
square,  situated  upon  the  tongue  of  land  (at  that  point  half  a  mile  wide) 
between  the  Jefferson  and  Madison  Rivers,  about  two  miles  above  their 





confluence,  upon  the  south  bank  of  a  channel  of  the  former  stream  now 
called  Jefferson  slough.  Since  then  the  stream  has  made  such  inroads 
upon  the  land  that  only  a  small  portion  of  the  fort — the  south-west  angle 
— remains.  It  is  probable  that  every  vestige  of  this  old  relic  will  soon  dis- 
appear, except  the  few  stumps  of  stockade  logs  that  have  been  removed 
by  two  or  three  gentlemen  of  antiquarian  tastes.  When  Henry  abandoned 
the  fort  a  blacksmith's  anvil  was  left  behind,  which  remained  there  for 
thirty  or  forty  years  undisturbed,  gazed  upon  only  by  the  Indians  who  re- 
garded it  with  superstition  and  awe.  At  last  it  disappeared  and  it  is  said 
to  have  been  found  and  removed  by  a  party  of  white  men." 

*  Written  in   1876. 



Not  long  after  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  had  been  formed  through 
the  energy  and  influence  of  Manuel  Lisa,  John  Jacob  Astor,  who,  for  a 
decade  was  to  be  his  great  rival  in  the  fur  trade,  formed  the  Pacific  Fur 
Company.  It  was  an  offshoot  of  the  North  West  Company  and  was  for- 
mally organized  in  June,  1810,  all  of  Mr.  Astor's  partners,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  Wilson  Price  Hunt,  of  New  Jersey,  being  ex-members  of  that 
organization.  The  great  organizer  of  the  Pacific  Fur  Company  sent  two 
expeditions  West— one  by  sea  and  one  by  land.  The  overland  expedition, 
under  Hunt,  is  the  only  one  which  concerns  this  history,  and  that  only  in- 
cidentally. Before  the  articles  of  agreement  forming  the  Pacific  Fur 
Company  were  signed,  the  expedition  by  land  was  well  on  its  way  toward 
the  western  sea.  Lisa  had  started  out  from  St.  Louis  to  seek  Henry  and, 
having  met  him  safe  and  sound,  hurried  up  the  Missouri  to  overtake  the 
Hunt  party,  tidings  of  whose  destination — the  headwaters  of  that  river 
and  the  coveted  fur  country  of  the  Blackfeet — had  reached  him.  Hunt's 
party  comprised,  among  others,  Donald  McKenzie,  Pierre  Dorion,  a  half- 
breed  interpreter  indebted  to  Lisa,  and  the  scientists,  Nuttall  and  Brad- 
bury. Lisa  did  not  propose  that  Hunt  should  occupy  "his"  fur  coun- 
try without  a  fight,  and  Hunt  was  afraid  that  the  able  and  wily  Spaniard 
would  set  the  Sioux  against  him,  the  agent  of  the  rival  company,  in  case 
he  (Lisa)  reached  the  land  of  the  dreaded  Indians  first.  The  race  for 
Sioux-land  was  therefore  exciting,  and  Lisa's  river  party  overtook  Hunt's 
land  expedition  in  what  is  now  southern  or  central  South  Dakota.  From 
this  meeting  until  the  Arikaree  villages  near  the  junction  of  the  Grand  and 
Missouri  rivers  were  reached  (near  the  boundary  line  of  the  Dakotas) 
the  two  rival  parties  traveled  together,  each  eyeing  the  other  suspiciously. 
In  one  particular,  Lisa  outmanoeuvered  Hunt.  It  had  been  the  intention 
of  the  leader  of  the  Astor  company  to  follow  the  route  of  Lewis  and 
Clark  to  the  sources  of  the  Missouri,  and  thence  over  the  divide  to  the 
Columbia;  but  Lisa  managed  that  most  deterrent  rumors  of  Blackfeet 
ferocities  and  attacks  should  be  carried  to  the  interlopers.  Result :  The 
Hunt  party  swerved  toward  the  Southwest,  crossed  the  southeastern  cor- 
ner of  Montana  into  Wyoming,  traveled  south  to  the  Wind  River,  across 
country  to  the  Snake  and  Columbia  and  down  the  great  western  river  to 
where  Astor's  sea  party  had  founded  Astoria.  This  trip  of  Hunt's  blazed 
the  famous  Oregon  Trail. 


The  failure  and  destruction  of  the  posts  which  the  Missouri  Fur 
Company  attempted  to  establish  from  the  headwaters  of  the  river  to  the 
Mandan  villages  in  Dakota,  with  the  disturbances  caused  by  the  War  of 
1812,  caused  the  final  dissolution  of  the  company.  Lisa  then  operated 
the  Missouri  fur  trade  under  the  name  of  Manuel  Lisa  &  Company  for 
about  six  years,  and  during  that  period  was  a  real  monopolist.  In  1819  he 
reorganized  the  Missouri  Fur  Company,  with  an  entirely  new  personnel 


except  he  himself.  He  died  in  St.  Louis,  which  had  been  his  home  since 
youth,  in  his  forty-eighth  year.  Lisa  was  born  in  New  Orleans  of  Span- 
ish parents,  and  his  commanding  intrepidity  in  all  his  ventures  gave  him 
the  name  of  the  Cortez  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Of  his  moral  character, 
the  least  said  the  better  for  his  memory. 


It  was  fully  a  decade  after  the  War  of  1812  before  the  fur  trade 
showed  decided  signs  of  improvement,  and,  as  in  the  old  times,  the  fur 
companies  doing  business  in  Montana  again  turned  their  attention  to  the 
opening  up  of  the  trade  among  the  enterprising  but  fierce  Blackfeet,  who 
still  controlled  the  fur  country  at  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri.  Not 
only  was  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  revived,  but  Gen.  William  Ashley, 
an  able,  forceful  Virginian  who  had  long  resided  in  St.  Louis,  as  a  mer- 
chant and  prominent  citizen,  organized  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Com- 
pany. Associated  with  him  were  Maj.  Andrew  Henry,  William  and  Mil- 
ton Sublette,  Jedediah  S.  Smith,  David  E.  Jackson,  Robert  Campbell, 
Etienne  Provost,  James  Bridger  and  others,  nearly  all  of  whom  will 
later  appear  as  leading  characters  in  the  progress  of  this  history. 

The  first  expedition  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  had  sev- 
eral experiences  not  unlike  those  of  the  initial  venture  of  the  Lisa's  Mis- 
souri Fur  Company.  In  both  cases  the  brunt  of  the  disasters  fell  upon 
Maj.  Andrew  Henry.  The  first  expedition  of  Ashley's  company  started 
from  St.  Louis  on  April  15,  1822,  for  that  portentous  locality,  the  Three 
Forks  of  the  Missouri.  On  the  way  up  the  river  one  of  the  keel- 
boats  sank  with  $10,000  worth  of  goods,  and  above  the  Mandan  vil- 
lages a  band  of  Assiniboines  stole  the  horses  of  the  party.  These  heavy 
losses  forced  the  expedition  to  establish  the  Ashley-Henry  Fort  near  the 
confluence  of  the  Yellowstone  and  Missouri,  where  winter  quarters  were 
fixed.  General  Ashley  then  returned  to  St.  Louis,  leaving  Henry  in 
charge  of  the  post.  In  the  spring  of  1823,  the  latter  continued  his 
journey  up  the  Missouri,  but  near  the  Great  Falls  the  Blackfeet  attacked 
his  party,  killed  four  of  them  and  drove  them  away  as  a  whole.  So  Henry 
was  again  obliged  to  return,  short  of  his  goal. 

In  1823,  Ashley  fitted  out  a  second  expedition  and  leading  it  him- 
self started  up  the  Missouri.  He  intended  to  purchase  horses  of  the 
Aricarees  and  dispatch  some  of  his  force  by  land  to  the  Yellowstone. 
These  Indians,  distinguished  for  their  fickleness,  at  first  seemed  friendly, 
but  before  dawn  on  June  2nd,  attacked  Ashley's  force.  They  killed 
twelve  of  his  men  and  wounded  fourteen,  the  survivors  escaping  to  some 
sheltering  timber.  In  this  desperate  strait,  Ashley  accepted  the  services 
of  Jedediah  Smith,  a  mere  youth,  to  carry  news  of  his  predicament  to 
Henry  and  requesting  immediate  re-enforcements.  After  numerous  es- 
capes from  capture  and  death,  the  boy  reached  Henry,  and  Ashley  and 
his  men  were  saved.  The  combined  parties  moved  to  the  mouth  of  White 
River,  where  they  built  a  fort  and  awaited  the  coming  of  troops  to  pro- 
tect them  on  their  journey.  They  also  established  a  trading  post  at  the 


mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  and  Yellowstone,  near  the  site  of  old  Fort 
Manuel,  and  Etienne  Provost,  with  a  few  men,  was  ordered  from  that 
point  southward  to  trap.  On  this  journey,  in  1823,  he  discovered  the 
South  Pass. 


As  remarked  by  a  writer  of  these  times,  commenting  on  the  remark- 
able outcome  of  this  unimportant  expedition,  measured  by  direct  results : 
"The  members  of  the  Ashley-Henry  party  proved  to  be  explorers  as  well 
as  trappers,  for  not  only  did  Provost  discover  the  South  Pass  and  thus 
open  up  the  trapping  districts  of  the  Green  river  country,  but  Jim  Bridger, 
in  his  quest  of  furs,  came  upon  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  This  is  the  first 
recorded  instance  of  a  white  man  having  beheld  that  body  of  water, 
though  it  had  been  visited  by  the  Piegans  and  many  other  tribes  years 
before.  Young  Jedediah  Smith,  possessed  of  the  spirit  of  adventure, 
pushed  on  to  the  Pacific,  and  was  the  first  white  man  to  cross  the  Sierra 
Nevada  mountains." 

As  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  seemed  at  last  to  have  obtained 
momentum  and  overcome  the  obstacles  of  its  young  life,  so  the  reorgan- 
ized Missouri  Fur  Company,  bereft  of  the  strong  sustaining  hands  of  Lisa, 
was  overtaken  with  dire  disaster,  could  not  rally  and  suffered  a  steady 
decline  until  its  death  in  1830.  Its  hardest  blow  which  brought  about 
its  eventual  demise  was  the  wiping  out  of  the  expedition  sent  out  by  the 
company  in  the  spring  of  1823  to  establish  "friendly  relations"  with  the 
Blackfeet  and  secure  their  trade  which  centered  at  the  Three  Forks. 
Under  Messrs.  Jones  and  Immell,  it  duly  arrived  at  the  site  of  Henry's 
post  and  remained  there  until  the  middle  of  May.  Meeting  with  no  In- 
dians friendly,  commercially-inclined,  or  otherwise,  they  decided  to  re- 
turn to  the  Yellowstone. 

On  the  i/th  of  May,  while  following  Jefferson  Fork,  the  Jones- 
Immell  party  fell  in  with  a  band  of  Blackfeet.  One  of  the  Indians 
showed  the  leaders  a  note  headed  "Mountain  Park,  1823,"  and  at  the  bot- 
tom it  bore  "1820."  The  paper  introduced  the  holder  as  a  friendly  head 
chief  of  the  tribe  and  the  owner  of  many  furs.  As  it  also  showed  the 
inscription,  "God  save  the  King!"  it  was  evidently  of  British  manufac- 
ture. Although  the  Blackfeet  seemed  .kindly  disposed  and  favorable  to 
the  establishment  of  a  post  at  Great  Falls,  Jones  and  Immell  feared  the 
outcome  of  such  friendly  manifestations,  and  on  the  following  day 
gathered  their  men  and  started  rapidly  for  the  Yellowstone.  Meanwhile 
the  Blackfeet,  re-enforced  to  about  four  hundred,  followed  closely  be- 

On  the  last  of  May,  1823,  the  doomed  party  of  twenty-nine,  pass- 
ing into  a  steep  and  narrow  defile,  were  ambushed  by  the  Indians  and 
furiously  attacked.  Seven  of  the  party  were  killed,  including  the  leaders. 

The  best  account  of  the  sad  and  unfortunate  affair  is  from  Ben- 


jamin  O'Fallon,  a  widely  known  Indian  agent  and  army  officer  and  a 
nephew  of  Gen.  William  Clark.  To  the  latter,  as  superintendent  of  Indian 
affairs  at  St.  Louis,  Major  O'Fallon  made  the  report  under  date  of  Fort 
Atkinson,  July  3,  1823.  The  part  relating  to  the  slaughter  of  the  Jones- 
Immell  party  and  the  capture  of  the  equipment  is  as  follows :  "The 
defeat  of  General  Ashley  by  the  A'Ricarees  and  departure  of  the  troops 
to  his  relief  had  scarcely  gone  to  you  when  an  express  arrived  announcing 
the  defeat  by  the  Blackfeet  Indians  near  the  Yellowstone  river,  of  the 
Missouri  Fur  Company's  Yellowstone  or  mountain  expedition,  com- 
manded by  Messrs.  Jones  and  Immell,  both  of  whom,  with  five  of  the  men, 
are  among  the  slain.  All  of  their  property,  to  the  amount  of  $15,000, 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  *  *  *  The  express  goes  on  to  state 
'that  many  circumstances  (of  which  I  will  be  apprised  in  a  few  days) 
have  transpired  to  induce  the  belief  that  the  British  traders  (Hudson's 
Bay  Company)  are  exciting  the  Indians  against  us,  either  to  drive  us  from 
that  quarter,  or  reap,  with  the  Indians,  the  fruits  of  our  labor.'  They 
furnish  them  with  the  instruments  of  hell  and  a  passport  to  heaven — 
the  instruments  of  death  and  a  passport  to  our  bosoms. 

"Immell  had  great  experience  of  the  Indian  character,  but,  poor 
fellow,  with  a  British  passport,  at  last  they  deceived  him,  and  he  fell  a 
victim  to  his  own  credulity,  and  his  scalp,  with  those  of  his  murdered 
comrades,  is  now  bleeding  on  its  way  to  some  of  the  Hudson  establish- 
ments. *  *  * 

"I  am  at  this  moment  interrupted  by  the  arrival  of  an  express  from 
the  military  expedition,  with  a  letter  from  Doctor  Pilcher,  whom  you 
know  is  at  the  head  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  on  this  river,  in  which 
he  says:  'I  have  but  a  moment  to  write.  I  met  an  express  from  the 
Mandans  bringing  me  the  very  unpleasant  news — the  flower  of  my  busi- 
ness is  gone.  My  mountaineers  have  been  defeated,  and  the  chiefs  of  the 
party  both  slain ;  the  party  were  attacked  by  three  or  four  hundred  Black- 
feet  Indians  in  a  position  on  the  Yellowstone  river  where  nothing  but  de- 
feat could  be  expected.  Jones  and  Immell  and  five  men  were  killed.  The 
former,  it  is  said,  fought  most  desperately.  Jones  killed  two  Indians,  and 
in  drawing  a  pistol  to  kill  a  third  he  received  two  spears  in  his  breast. 
Immell  was  in  front ;  he  killed  one  Indian  and  was  cut  to  pieces.  I  think 
we  lose  at  least  $15,000.  I  will  write  you  more  fully  between  this  and  the 

"Jones  was  a  gentleman  of  cleverness.  He  was  for  several  years  a 
resident  of  St.  Louis,  where  he  has  numerous  friends  to  deplore  his  loss. 
Immell  has  been  a  long  time  on  this  river,  first  an  officer  in  the  United 
States  army,  since  an  Indian  trader  of  some  distinction;  in  some  respects 
he  was  an  extraordinary  man;  he  was  brave,  uncommonly  large,  and  of 
great  muscular  strength ;  when  timely  apprised  of  his  danger,  a  host 
within  himself." 


The  brilliant  operations  of  General  Ashley  and  the  Rocky  Mountain 
Fur  Company,  both  in  the  fur  trade  and  the  field  of  western  explora- 
tions, encouraged  its  great  rival,  the  American  Fur  Company,  now  ab- 


sorbed,  with  several  independent  firms,  by  the  personality  of  John  Jacob 
Astor,  of  New  York,  to  establish  a  western  department  in  St.  Louis.  The 
strongest  of  the  independent  concerns  thus  absorbed  was  the  Columbia 
Fur  Company,  with  which  Kenneth  McKenzie  was  associated  as  president 
and  vitalizing  power.  With  the  consolidation,  or  absorption,  Mr.  Mc- 
Kenzie was  placed  in  charge  of  the  active  affairs  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  in  the  field.  As  Ashley  withdrew  from  the  trade  with  a  fortune, 
McKenzie  entered  the  field  as  its  dominant  figure. 

The  new  manager  assumed  charge  of  the  interests  of  the  American 
Fur  Company  at  the  height  of  Ashley's  great  success  as  the  head  of  the 
Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company,  as  within  the  four  years  previous  to 
1827  or  1828  he  had  brought  into  St.  Louis  over  $250,000  worth  of 
beaver  skins.  The  most  phenomenal  year  in  the  history  of  the  company 
was  after  General  Ashley  had  sold  his  interest  in  it  to  Jedediah  Smith, 
David  E.  Jackson  and  William  L.  Sublette. 


The  new  manager  assumed  charge  of  the  interests  of  the  American 
Fur  Company  at  the  height  of  the  trade  amassed  by  the  Rocky  Mountain 
Company,  as  within  the  four  years  previous  to  1828  it  had  sent  into  St. 
Louis  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars'  worth  of  beaver  skins. 
In  1826  General  Ashley  had  sold  his  interest  in  the  Rocky  Mountain 
concern  to  Jedediah  Smith,  David  E.  Jackson  and  William  L.  Sublette, 
and  that  year  and  the  following,  were  phenomenal  for  catches.  The  pros- 
pects were  so  alluring  that  McKenzie  would  have  made  the  same  mis- 
take which  had  previously  been  disastrous  to  the  fur  traders — rush  to  the 
headwaters  of  the  Missouri  after  the  cream  of  the  trade  without  a  sub- 
stantial base  of  supplies  and  chain  of  communications  behind.  Pierre 
Chouteau  induced  him  to  be  more  cautious,  his  long  experience  as  a  fur 
trader  and  member  of  the  firm  of  Bernard  Pratte  &  Company,  which 
had  been  likewise  absorbed  by  Mr.  Astor's  corporation,  having  taught 
him  the  fine  lesson  of  "safety  first." 


In  the  summer  of  1828,  McKenzie  and  his  first  constructive  party 
started  up  the  Missouri,  and  in  September  of  that  year  built  Fort  Floyd 
above  the  Mandan  villages  in  the  North  Dakota  of  today,  as  permanent 
headquarters  of  the  American  Fur  Company.  Exactly  when  Fort  Floyd 
received  the  name  of  Fort  Union  (the  first)  is  not  known.  At  all  events, 
not  long  after  the  headquarters  of  the  company  were  fixed  at  that  local- 
ity, McKenzie  effected  his  first  friendly  union  with  Blackfeet  trappers, 
hunters  and  warriors,  and  made  a  real  advance  in  pushing  the  interests  of 
his  company.  How  this  was  brought  about  is  a  story  in  itself. 


Soon  after  the  establishment  of  Fort  Floyd,  or  Union  (two  hundred 
miles  farther  up  the  river),  a  man  named  Burger,  who  spoke  Piegan, 
the  language  of  the  Blackfeet,  came  to  headquarters  and  McKenzie  in- 


duced  him  to  lead  a  party  up  the  Missouri  River,  in  quest  of  the  elusive 
Indians  and  the  trade  which  they  so  nearly  controlled.  They  set  out  from 
the  fort  in  dog  sleds,  reached  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River,  which  they 
followed  to  its  western  head  in  the  mountains,  Badger  Creek.  Up  to  that 
time  and  locality  no  trace  of  Blackfeet,  or  any  other  Indian,  had  been  dis- 
covered, and  one  night  the  discouraged  men  encamped  at  the  source  of 
that  creek  and  threw  the  Stars  and  Stripes  to  the  Rocky  Mountain 
breezes.  As  the  next  day  dawned,  a  party  of  Piegan  warriors  rode 
toward  them,  with  the  design  (as  was  afterward  learned)  of  attacking 
the  camp  at  once.  The  sight  of  the  streaming  flag  induced  one  of  the 
old  chiefs  to  plead  with  the  hot-headed  warriors  to  adopt  friendly  rela- 
tions with  the  whites,  and  the  result  was  that,  through  the  spokesmanship 
of  Burger,  a  former  employe  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  the  Mc- 
Kenzie  men  were  taken  to  the  Piegans'  village  and  afterward  to  the 
Indians'  winter  encampment  on  Sun  River.  There  the  white  party 
remained  until  spring,  when  Burger  returned  to  old  Fort  Union  with 
100  leading  Piegans.  The  ensuing  council  ended  in  a  friendly  under- 
standing between  McKenzie  and  his  Indian  visitors,  and  in  the  summer  of 
1831  McKenzie  made  a  formal  treaty  of  peace  with  the  Blackfeet  and  the 
Assiniboines,  "a  document,"  says  a  commentator,  "more  remarkable  for 
its  rhetoric  than  its  pacific  results." 

Old  Fort  Union  was  burned  sometime  in  1831  and  its  name  applied  to 
the  post  built  not  long  afterward  at  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone.  Dur- 
ing that  autumn,  McKenzie  sent  James  Kipp,  with  twenty-five  men  and 
a  boat  loaded  with  stores  and  Indian  trading  goods,  up  the  Missouri  to 
take  advantage  of  the  friendly  relations  established  with  the  Piegans. 
Kipp  then  built  Fort  Piegan  on  a  site  between  Maria's  and  Missouri 
rivers,  and  it  is  said  that  within  ten  days  from  its  completion  he  had 
received  the  unprecedented  stock  of  2,400  beaver  skins  from  the  Piegan 
trappers.  The  Bloods,  attached  to  the  British  interests,  soon  after- 
ward attacked  Fort  Piegan,  and  although  Kipp  and  his  men  drove  off 
the  besiegers,  the  post  was  abandoned,  in  the  spring  of  1832,  and  the 
stock  of  furs  taken  to  Fort  Union  at  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone.  Al- 
though Fort  Piegan  was  abandoned  in  March,  1832,  the  leader  of  the 
party  left  three  of  his  men  behind,  with  tobacco  and  ammunition,  that 
the  friendly  Indians  might  not  feel  that  they  had  been  deserted  by  the 


During  that  year,  McKenzie  sent  David  D.  Mitchell  to  the  Fort 
Piegan  country  to  attempt -a  re-establishment  of  trade  relations  with  the 
Piegans,  acknowledged  to  be  the  best  trappers  of  the  Blackfeet  nation. 
But  the  keel  boat  of  the  expedition  with  its  costly  cargo  of  supplies 
and  goods  was  wrecked,  two  men  drowned,  and  all  the  articles  destined 
for  the  Indian  trade  were  lost.  Upon  receipt  of  the  news  of  the  disaster, 
McKenzie  sent  a  second  boat  laden  as  the  first,  and  Mitchell  continued 
his  voyage  to  the  site  of  Fort  Piegan,  only  to  find  it  charred  ruins  and 


ashes.  But  Mitchell  was  a  brave,  determined  man  after  McKenzie's  own 
heart,  and  at  once  built  another  post  and  fort  a  few  miles  above  the 
mouth  of  Maria's  and  below  the  narrow  ridge  separating  the  Teton  and 
the  Missouri  Rivers.  The  structure,  appropriately  named  Fort  McKenzie, 
was  built  of  logs,  two  hundred  feet  square,  and  faced  Maria's  River. 
The  American  Fur  Company  was  now  firmly  established  in  the  upper 
Missouri  country,  with  three  principal  bases  of  operation — Fort  Union, 
near  the  junction  of  the  Yellowstone  and  the  Missouri;  Fort  McKenzie, 
near  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River,  and  Fort  Cass,  at  the  confluence  of  the 
Big  Horn  and  the  Yellowstone. 


If  Astor  represented  the  financial  power  of  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany, McKenzie  now  stood  for  its  practical  development  in  the  most  pro- 
ductive beaver  and  fur  regions  of  America.  With  the  swelling  of  that 
trade  to  mammoth  proportions,  the  slow  and  cumbersome  transportation 
of  the  thousands  of  bales  of  furs  from  the  trapping  regions  of  the  Upper 
Missouri,  along  the  vast  stretches  of  the  river  system  to  the  ultimate 
market,  St.  Louis,  was  a  problem  which  McKenzie  first  attempted  to 
solve  through  steamboat  navigation.  After  .laboring  with  his  superiors 
who  controlled  the  finances  of  the  company,  he  persuaded  them  to  try  the 
doubtful  experiment.  Accordingly  a  boat  was  constructed  for  the  pur- 
pose in  Louisville,  Kentucky,  and,  as  the  "Yellowstone,"  made  two  trips 
up  the  Missouri  in  1831-32.  Its  last  voyage  was  the  momentous  one,  as 
from  March  to  June,  1832,  it  continued  to  breast  the  Missouri  until  it 
reached  Fort  Union,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone.  That  trip,  which 
demonstrated  the  utility  of  the  river  steamboat  in  the  prosecution  of  the 
spreading  fur  trade,  caused  comment  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic. 
Pierre  Chouteau,  who  was  aboard  the  "Yellowstone"  upon  both  occa- 
sions to  personally  test  the  possibilities  of  steamboat  navigation  received 
the  following  from  John  Jacob  Astor,  then  in  France:  "Your  voy- 
age in  the  'Yellowstone'  attracted  much  attention  in  Europe,  and  has  been 
noted  in  all  the  papers  here."  A  personal  incident  of  this  memorable 
second  trip  of  the  "Yellowstone"  was  that  one  of  its  passengers  was 
George  Catlin,  the  celebrated  artist,  author  and  student  of  Indian  habits  as 
relates  to  North  America. 


While  McKenzie  was  opening  steamboat  navigation  on  the  Missouri, 
such  men  as  Capt.  B.  L.  E.  Bonneville  and  James  Bridger  were  penetrat- 
ing the  masses  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  ranging  over  large  stretches 
of  virgin  country  to  the  coast.  They  trapped,  scouted,  hunted  and  ex- 
plored, and  their  journeys  and  expeditions  were  too  extensive  in  their 
range  to  classify  the  principals  as  Montana  characters,  albeit  they  touch 
the  territory  and  the  state  at  many  points  The  captain's  greatest  travels 
as  an  explorer  of  the  West  beyond  the  mountains  were  pursued  in  the 


early  '305  and  are  thus  laid  down  by  the  principal  himself  to  the  Mon- 
tana Historical  Society,  writing  as  an  old  man,  long  retired  from  the 
strenuous  activities  of  life :  "One  of  my  parties,"  he  says,  "was  sent 
through  the  Crow  country  and  came  round  by  the  north  and  wintered 
with  me  on  Salmon  river;  another  party  was  sent  south  and  wintered 
on  the  shores  of  Salt  Lake;  another  journeyed  into  the  Utes  country, 
farther  south,  until  it  met  the  traders  and  trappers  from  New  Mexico; 
another  went  down  Salmon  river  to  Walla  Walla,  on  the  Columbia; 
another  to  coast  around  the  Salt  Lake ;  being  out  of  provisions,  it  turned 
north  upon  Maria's  (Humboldt)  river,  followed  this  river  down  west 
to  the  eastern  base  of  the  California  mountains,  where  it  empties  itself 
into  large  flat  lakes,  thence  westward,  clambering  for  twenty-three  days 
among  the  difficult  passes  of  this  elevated  range,  before  it  reached  its 
western  Pacific  slope ;  thence  to  Monterey  on  the  coast,  where  it  wintered. 
In  the  spring,  the  party  going  south  turned  the  southern  point  of  these 
mountains  on  its  way  to  the  Upper  Rocky  Mountains ;  another  party 
going  west  down  the  waters  of  Snake  river  to  the  base  of  the  California 
range,  turned  southeast  and  on  the  way  home  kept  the  divide,  as  near 
as  practicable,  between  Maria's  River  and  Snake ;  another  party  going 
north,  round  the  Wind  River  mountains,  followed  the  Po-po-az-ze-ah, 
the  Big  Horn,  and  the  Yellowstone  down  the  Missouri. 

"The  large  clear  stream  in  the  valley  immediately  west  of  the  South 
Pass  was. called  by  the  Indians  and  early  trappers  the  Sis-ke-de-az-ze-ah, 
afterward  Green  river.  I  was  the  first  to  take  wagons  through  the 
South  Pass  and  first  to  recognize  Green  river  as  the  Colorado  of  the 
West".  *  *  * 


During  these  eventful  years  in  the  life  of  Captain  Bonneville,  1832-34, 
he  spent  some  time  among  the  Nez  Perces  Indians  of  the  Far  West, 
and  all  but  dropped  out  of  the  United  States  Army  and  civilization. 
When  he  took  his  expedition  through  South  Pass,  in  1832,  perhaps  the 
first  to  accomplish  this  since  the  days  of  the  Ashley-Henry  explorations 
of  the  '205,  James  Bridger  was  his  scout,  and  thirty  years  afterward  he 
served  in  the  same  capacity  for  a  government  expedition  which  was  con- 
ducting two  Supreme  Court  judges  to  their  newly  appointed  posts  in  Utah. 
The  remarkable  fact,  also,  that  Jim  Bridger,  in  1862,  led  his  party  over 
the  same  route  pursued  by  him  in  1832  is  forcibly  stated  by  William 
S.  Brackett,  a  member  of  the  government  party,  who  afterward  became  a 
resident  of  Park  County,  Montana.*  His  words :  "Looking  back  nearly 
thirty-five  years  ago,  I  can  recall  the  beauty  and  romance  of  eventful 
days  when  I  camped  with  James  Bridger  on  the  Sweetwater  and  with 
him  marched  across  the  continent.  I  can  see  once  more  the  muddy  Platte, 
the  dark  fantastic  erosion  of  Scott's  Bluffs,  and  I  ride  again  with  the 
old  scout  through  the  broad  expanse  of  the  South  Pass  of  the  Rockies. 

"It  was  to  me  a  most  interesting  circumstance  on  our  march  to  Utah 
that  we  traveled  along  the  trail  where  Captain  Bonneville  marched  his 


famous  expedition  to  the  Rocky  mountains  in  1832.  Our  camp  fires  were 
>ften  ht  in  the  same  places  where  his  own  once  burned.  Certain  it  is 
that  at  Chimney  Rock  we  camped  on  the  very  ground  where  the  old  hero 
had  camped.  This  information  was  given  by  the  scout,  James  Bridger 
who  was  with  us.  He  had  been  with  Bonneville  in  1832-33." 

An  account  more  in  detail  of  this  famous  expedition  is  given  by  Brack- 
ett,  who  borrows  largely  from  outside  sources.  Bonneville  secured  the 
aid  in  New  York  of  men  of  wealth  interested  in  the  fur  trade  in  the  West, 
and  was  thus  able  to  fit  out  his  expedition,  which  started  for  the  Rocky 
Mountains  from  the  frontier  post  of  Fort  Osage,  on  the  Missouri  River 


May  i,  1832.  He  had  with  him  one  hundred  and  ten  men,  most  of  whom 
had  been  in  the  Indian  country,  and  some  of  whom  were  experienced 
hunters  and  trappers.  Up  to  that  time  all  western  expeditions  had  used 
mules  and  pack  horses  for  transportation.  Bonneville  was  the  first  man 
who  substituted  wagons  for  the  old  method,  and  is  said  to  be  the  first  man 
who  ever  crossed  the  backbone,  or  Great  Divide,  of  the  American  con- 
tinent with  wagons.  His  train  consisted  of  twenty  wagons,  some  drawn 
by  oxen,  and  some  by  mules  and  horses.  His  usual  formation  for  the 
march  was  to  dispose  his  wagons  in  two  columns,  with  a  strong  advance 
and  rear  guard  of  mounted  men  to  protect  them  in  case  of  attack  by  In- 
dians. If  subsequent  travelers  and  emigrants  had  crossed  the  plains  in 
this  formation  there  would  have  been  fewer  Indian  massacres  to  record. 
Bonneville's  customary  method  of  forming  camp  is  interesting.  His 


twenty  wagons  were  disposed  in  a  square  at  the  distance  of  thirty-three 
feet  from  each  other.  In  every  interval  a  mess  outfit  was  stationed; 
and  each  mess  had  its  own  fire  where  the  men  cooked,  ate,  gossiped  and 
slept.  The  horses  were  placed  at  night  in  the  center  of  the  square  and 
were  always  under  vigilant  guard. 

Washington  Irving,  in  speaking  of  the  start  of  Bonneville's  expedi- 
tion, beautifully  says:  "It  is  not  easy  to  do  justice  to  the  exulting  feel- 
ings of  the  worthy  captain  at  finding  himself  at  the  head  of  a  stout  band 
of  hunters,  trappers  and  woodmen,  fairly  launched  on  the  broad  prairies 
with  his  face  to  the  boundless  West.  The  tamest  inhabitant  of  cities, 
the  veriest  spoiled  child  of  civilization,  feels  his  heart  dilate  and  his 
pulse  beat  high  on  finding  himself  on  horseback  in  the  glorious  wilderness. 
What,  then,  must  be  the  excitement  of  one  whose  imagination  had  been 
stimulated  by  a  long  residence  on  the  frontier,  and  to  whom  the  wilder- 
ness was  a  region  of  romance-!  *  *  *  Their  very  appearance  and 
equipment  exhibited  a  piebald  mixture,  half  civilized  and  half  savage. 
Many  of  them  looked  more  like  Indians  than  white  men  in  their  garbs  and 
accouterments,  and  their,  very  horses  were  caparisoned  in  barbaric  style 
with  fantastic  trappings.  Their  march  was  animated  and  joyous.  The 
welkin  rang  with  th'eir  shouts  and  yelps  as  they  started  from  Fort  Osage, 
quite  after  the  manner  of  savages;  and  with  boisterous  jokes  and  light- 
hearted  laughter.  As  they  passed  the  straggling  hamlets  and  solitary 
cabins  that  fringed  the  skirts  of  the  frontier,  they  would  startle  their 
inmates  by  Indian  yells  and  war  whoops,  or  regale  them  with  grotesque 
feats  of  horsemanship  well  suited  to  their  half-savage  appearance." 

But  all  this  hilarity  disappeared  as  Bonneville's  men  entered  upon  the 
real  difficulties  of  their  journey  beyond  the  pale  of  civilization,  and  the 
wagons  were  placed  in  double  column  with  advance  and  rear  guards, 
as  already  mentioned. 

The  first  objective  point  of  Bonneville's  expedition  was  Pierre's  Hole, 
which  lies  just  west  of  the  Three  Tetons,  in  the  heart  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains, and  southwest  of  the  Yellowstone  National  Park.  It  was  in  this 
beautiful  valley  called  Pierre's  Hole  that  Bonne ville  proposed  to  pass 
some  weeks,  for  it  was  there  the  old  trappers  and  hunters  had  been  used 
to  assemble  for  many  years,  to  pas's  the  winter  months.  The  expedition 
reached  Pierre's  Hole  and  rested  there  for  some  time,  and  the  life  of  his 
men  in  that  sheltered  valley  is  well  described  in  Bonneville's  journal. 
Pierre's  Hole  lies  just  west  of  Jackson's  Hole.  This  old-time  rendezvous 
of  the  Rocky  Mountain  trappers  is  so  near  to  the  great  geysers  of  Yel- 
lowstone Park  that  it  seems  almost  certain  that  Bonneville  or  some  of  his 
men  must  have  visited  those  wonders  when  they  were  resting  there. 

General  Bonneville  himself  sets  this  question  at  rest  in  his  most  in- 
teresting letter  published  in  Volume  I  of  the  Contributions  to  the  His- 
torical Society  of  Montana.  He  says  in  that  letter,  written  from  Fort 
Smith,  Arkansas :  "You  ask  me  if  I  knew  of  the  thermal  springs  and 
geysers.  Not  personally,  but  my  men  knew  about  them  and  called  their 
location  "The  Fire  Hole."  I  recollect  the  name  of  Alvarez  as  a  trader. 




I  think  he  came  to  the  mountains  as  I  was  leaving  them.    Half  a  century 
is  a  long  time  to  look  back,  and  I  do  so  doubting  myself." 

In  an  old  Mormon  newspaper  "The  Wasp,"  published  at  Nauvoo, 
Illinois,  in  1842,  an  unknown  writer  gives  an  accurate  account  of  the 
geysers  of  Yellowstone  Park,  which  he  visited  with  one  Alvarez  in  1833. 
This  makes  the  testimony  of  Bonneville  of  great  value  as  tending  to  prove 
that  the  geysers  of  Firehole  River  (or  Upper  Geyser  Basin)  in  Yellow- 
stone Park  were  visited  by  white  men  as  early  as  the  year  1833. 


Commenting  on  Captain  Bonneville's  narrow  escape  from  absorption 
by  the  Nez  Perces,  Mr.  Brackett  writes :  "It  must  have  been  some  great 
fascination  for  life  in  those  wild  mountains  that  induced  Captain  Bonne- 
ville to  overstay  his  leave  of  absence  and  fail  to  return  to  civilization  until 
the  autumn  of  1835.  His  leave  of  absence  expired  in  October,  1833. 
His  name  was  stricken  from  the  rolls  of  the  army  as  dead  or  lost,  in 
1834,  and  his  return  was  not  until  the  following  year,  when  after  a  good 
deal  of  trouble  he  was  reinstated  in  the  army  with  his  former  rank. 

"I  cannot  but  think  he  became  so  enamored  of  the  joyous  and  free 
life  he  and  his  men  were  leading  among  the  friendly  Nez  Perces  and 
Flatheads,  west  of  the  mountains  and  on  Salmon  River,  that  he  forgot 
civilization  with  its  fretful  cares  and  silly  conventionalities,  and  lived 
only  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  present,  hurrying  back  to  the  crowded 
eastern  world  only  when  he  awoke  as  if  from  a  beautiful  dream.  He  was 
one  of  those  rare  men  who  thoroughly  understood  savage  races  and  could 
control  them.  All  who  know  anything  of  the  Nez  Perces  know  that  they 
are  a  noble  and  generous  race  of  Indians,  and  Bonneville  thoroughly  ap- 
preciated them  as  such.  *  *  *" 

There  should  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  captain's  sentiments  on  that  point, 
for  he  has  described  them  in  his  own  journal,  thus:  "Though  the  pros- 
pect of  once  more  tasting  the  blessings  of  peaceful  society  and  passing 
days  and  nights  under  the  calm  guardianship  of  the  laws  was  not  without 
its  attraction ;  yet  to  those  of  us  whose  whole  lives  had  been  spent  in  the 
stirring  excitement  and  perpetual  watchfulness  of  adventures  in  the 
wilderness,  the  change  was  far  from  promising  an  increase  of  that  con- 
tentment and  inward  satisfaction  most  conducive  to  happiness.  He  who, 
like  myself,  has  roved  almost  from  boyhood  among  the  children  of  the 
forest,  and  over  the  unfurrowed  plains  and  rugged  heights  of  the  western 
wastes,  will  not  be  startled  to  learn  that  notwithstanding  all  the  fascina- 
tions of  the  world  on  this  civilized  side  of  the  mountains,  I  would  fain 
make  my  bow  to  the  splendors  and  gayeties  of  the  metropolis  and  plunge 
again  amid  the  hardships  and  perils  of  the  wilderness." 

"It  is  not  to  be  inferred  for  an  instant,"  continues  Brackett,  "from 
what  is  here  narrated  of  Bonneville's  delightful  sojourn  among  the  Nez 
Perces  that  he  lived  a  life  of  inglorious  ease  in  the  Rocky  Mountains. 
On  the  contrary  later  he  passed  through  great  hardships  and  incurred 
great  dangers  in  exploring  regions  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  about 
which  he  brought  back  to  civilization  the  first  definite  accounts. 


"For  example,  he  visited  and  explored  the  Great  Salt  Lake  and  gave 
to  the  world  the  first  definite  account  of  that  inland  sea.  Scientists  at 
this  day  have  given  the  lake  and  its  ancient  water  lines  the  name  of  Lake 
Bonneville,  and  by  his  name  it  ought  to  be  known  and  called.  His 
various  parties  sent  out  in  different  directions  to  trap  and  trade  with  the 
Indians  opened  up  vast  fields  of  enterprise  to  various  American  fur  com- 
panies ;  and  he  did  more  than  any  other  man  to  retrieve  for  his  country 
some  of  the  lost  fur  trade  which  centered  at  Astoria  and  up  to  that  time 
had  been  controlled  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company. 


"It  was  at  the  house  of  John  Jacob  Astor,  in  New  York,  that  Wash- 
ington Irving  met  Captain  Bonneville  after  the  return  of  the  latter  from 
the  wilderness,  and  the  two  remarkable  men  became  fast  friends.  Bonne- 
ville gave  his  journals  to  Irving  to  be  revised  and  published.  Irving  gives 
us  an  .interesting  picture  of  the  great  explorer  as  he  then  appeared: 
'There  was  something  in  the  whole  appearance  of  the  captain,'  says  he, 
'that  prepossessed  me  in  his  favor.  He  was  of  the  middle  size,  well  made 
and  well  set ;  and  a  military  frock  of  foreign  cut,  that  had  seen  service, 
gave  him  a  look  of  compactness.  His  countenance  was  frank,  open  and 
engaging,  well  browned  by  the  sun,  and  had  something  of  a  French  ex- 
pression. He  had  a  pleasant  black  eye,  a  high  forehead,  and  while  he 
kept  his  hat  on,  the  look  of  a  man  in  the  jocund  prime  of  his  days ;  but  the 
moment  his  head  was  uncovered  a  bald  crown  gained  him  credit  for  a 
few  more  years  than  he  was  really  entitled  to.  His  manner  was  a  ming- 
ling of  modesty  and  frankness.  It  was  difficult  to  conceive  the  mild,  quiet- 
looking  personage  before  us  was  the  actual  hero  of  the  stirring  scenes 
he  had  passed  through.  He  was  a  man  of  great  bonhommie,  with  kind- 
liness of  spirit  and  susceptibility  for  the  grand  and  beautiful'." 


The  after  career  of  the  good  captain  and  general  includes  more  than 
a  quarter  of  a  century's  continuous  service  in  the  United  States  army.  He 
was  reinstated  in  1835  and,  by  successive  promotions,  became  colonel  of 
the  Third  United  States  Infantry  twenty  years  thereafter.  For  a  time, 
he  was  stationed  at  Santa  Fe,  New  Mexico,  in  command  of  the  district 
which  centered  there,  and  during  the  early  years  of  the  Civil  war  was 
stationed  at  Jefferson  Barracks,  Missouri.  Colonel  Bonneville  had  been 
retired  from  active  service  in  1861  and  in  1865  was  brevetted  brigadier- 
general,  United  States  army,  for  long  and  meritorious  services.  At  the 
time  of  his  death  in  1878,  while  engaged  in  farming  at  Fort  Smith,  Ar- 
kansas, he  was  eighty-three  years  old. 

A  good  portrait  of  him  was  presented  to  Mr.  Brackett  by  Hon. 
N.  P.  Langford,  of  St.  Paul,  for  whom  Captain  Bonneville  once  acted 
as  guide,  and  represents  him  when  he  was  seventy-eight  years  old,  in  the 
fatigue  uniform  of  a  brigadier-general  of  the  regular  army. 



James  Bridger,  Captain  Bonneville's  scout  of  1832,  all-around  western 
pioneer,  has  a  long  and  close  identification  with  Montana.  He  passed 
through  all  the  experiences  of  beaver  hunter,  pioneer  guide,  buffalo 
hunter,  Indian  trader,  emigrant  trader,  founder  of  the  first  post  and 
refuge  on  the  long  Oregon  trail  (Fort  Bridger),  blaze  of  great  trails  into 
Montana,  leader  of  government  expeditions  against  hostile  Indians  and, 
with  J.  M.  Bozeman,  a  kindred  spirit,  the  stamper  of  his  name  upon  the 
history  and  geography  of  Montana.  His  friend  and  associate,  William  S. 
Brackett,  from  whose  sketch  of  his  character  extracts  have  already  been 
taken,  has  written  this  paragraph:  "The  testimony  of  scores  of  prom- 
inent military  commanders  and  civilians  can  be  produced  showing  that 
James  Bridger  was  always  to  be  trusted  and  believed  in  as  a  guide,  scout, 
trader  arid  all-around  pioneer.  His  idle  tales  were  told  only  to  idle 
people  in  idle  hours.  At  heart,  he  was  as  truthful  as  he  was  skillful  and 
brave.  He  never  betrayed  any  man  and  was  never  untrue  to  any  trust, 
public  or  private.  I  am  always  glad  to  look  at  his  everlasting  monument 
in  Montana;  that  grand  mountain  peak  (Bridger  range)  near  the  city 
of  Bozeman,  overlooking  the  beautiful  Gallatin  valley  and  named  in  honor 
of  him." 


In  1832-33  occurred  the  disgraceful  exploitation  of  the  Indians  by 
rival  fur  companies  in  their  struggles  for  trade,  through  the  medium  of 
whiskey.  Narcisse  Leclerc,  formerly  with  the  American  Fur  Company; 
Pierre  Chouteau,  still  a  leading  member  of  the  company ;  Milton  Sub- 
lette  and  Robert  Campbell,  supported  by  General  Ashley  and  Nathaniel 
J.  Wyeth,  a  newly  arrived  Yankee,  were  all,  more  or  less,  implicated  in 
the  degredation  of  the  Indians  for  the  purpose  of  securing  their  trade. 
Even  Gen.  William  Clark,  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  became  in- 
volved, as  he  had  granted  to  several  agents  of  the  fur  companies  per- 
mission to  export  whiskey  from  St.  Louis  into  the  Indian  country  before 
he  had  been  officially  notified  of  the  passage  of  the  congressional  act 
(July  9,  1832)  forbidding  the  use  of  alcohol  as  a  medium  of  trade  with 
the  Indians. 


In  1833,  McKenzie  and  the  American  Fur  Company  were  called  upon 
to  meet  what  promised  to  become  a  serious  opposition  in  the  combination 
of  Messrs.  Sublette,  Campbell  and  Wyeth,  who  established  a  post  near 
Fort  Union  which  they  called  Fort  William  for  William  Sublette.  Their 
venture  early  met  will  ill  fortune  and  as  their  capital  was  limited  they 
were  not  able  to  compete  with  McKenzie,  with  ample  means  behind  the 
American  Fur  Company,  who  paid  exhorbitant  prices  for  his  furs  in  order 
to  stamp  out  the  trade  of  his  rival.  Whiskey,  also,  flowed  more  freely 
from  Fort  Union  than  from  Fort  William,  notwithstanding  attempted 


government  prohibition.  A  combined  policy  of  "freeze-out"  in  the  field 
and  absorption  by  the  management  at  St.  Louis  finally  crushed  the  oppo- 


Then  McKenzie  set  out  upon  a  policy  which  proved  his  undoing.  He 
claimed  he  could  no  longer  do  business  with  the  Indians  without  the  aid 
of  alcoholic  spirit,  and  brought  over  to  his  way  of  thinking  every  member 
of  the  American  Fur  Company  save  one.  He  went  east  in  his  endeavor 
to  obtain  from  the  government  authorities  concessions  by  which  he  could 
secure  the  "necessary"  stock  of  liquors.  As  his  errand  proved  futile, 
he  determined  to  make  them  on  the  ground.  McKenzie  purchased  a  still, 
took  it  up  the  Missouri  on  the  steamers  Yellowstone  and  Assiniboine, 
bought  a  quantity  of  corn  and  was  soon  turning  out  an  effective  brand 
of  "juice."  In  August,  1833,  Wyeth  and  a  friend  arrived  at  Fort  Union 
and  were  nicely  entertained  by  McKenzie,  before  he  was  aware  that  they 
came  as  his  commercial  opponents.  They  were  so  pleased  with  his  spirits 
that,  in  an  impulse  of  unwise  confidence,  he  showed  them  the  still  of 
which  even  his  superiors  in  the  company  were  ignorant.  Contrariwise, 
he  bled  his  guests  for  some  supplies  which  they  were  forced  to  buy,  and 
they  straightway  reported  his  secret  still  to  the  government  authorities  at 
Leavenworth.  The  latter  ordered  him  to  dispose  of  his  still  at  once  and 
the  management  of  the  American  Fur  Company  so  severely  censured 
him  that  he  left  Fort  Union  in  1834  and  soon  after  went  abroad. 

During  his  active  operations  as  the  manager  of  the  American  Fur 
Company,  Kenneth  McKenzie  was  a  power,  and  his  popular  title,  the 
King  of  the  Missouri,  he  impressively  upheld  in  his  bearing  and  manner- 
isms. His  style  of  dress,  his  aloofness,  was  quite  royal.  He  was  married 
to  an  Indian  woman  and  had  by  that  union  a  son,  Owen.  After  he  left 
the  fur  trade,  he  went  into  the  wholesale  liquor  business  in  St.  Louis, 
where  he  died  (having  again  married)  on  April  26,  1861. 


While  Mr.  McKenzie  was  bearing  his  ill-fated  still  to  Fort  Union,  in 
1833,  he  had  as  fellow  passengers  aboard  the  Assiniboine,  Prince  Maxi- 
milian and  Alexander  Culbertson— the  former  a  traveling  scientist  of 
wealth  and  eccentric  character,  and  the  latter  a  strong  man  who  was  to 
be  a  leader  in  the  activities  of  the  Upper  Missouri  country  for  thirty 
years.  Major  Culbertson  was  then  an  employe  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  who  had  been  assigned  to  duty  at  Fort  McKenzie,  whither  he 
repaired  with  David  D.  Mitchell,  a  clerk  of  the  company,  about  August 
10,  1833. 



From  Lieutenant  Bradley's  Journal,  covering  the  year  1833,  is  the 
following  account  of  the  enterprising  and  scientific  Prince:     "In  this 


year  an  interesting  character  in  the  person  of  Prince  Maximilian,  from 
Coblentz  on  the  Rhine,  made  his  first  appearance  in  the  upper  Missouri. 
The  Prince  was  at  that  time  nearly  seventy  years  of  age,  but  well  pre- 
served and  able  to  endure  considerable  fatigue.  He  was  a  man  of  medium 
height,  rather  slender,  sans  teeth,  passionately  fond  of  his  pipe,  unos- 
tentatious and  speaking  very  broken  English.  His  favorite  dress  was 
a  white  slouch  hat,  a  black  velvet  coat  rather  rusty  from  long  service, 
and  probably  the  greasiest  pair  of  trousers  that  ever  encased  princely 
legs.  The  Prince  was  a  bachelor  and  a  man  of  science,  and  it  was  in 
this  latter  capacity  that  he  had  roamed  so  far  from  his  ancestral  home 
on  the  Rhine.  He  was  accompanied  by  an  artist  named  Boardman  and 
a  servant  whose  name  was,  as  nearly  as  the  author  has  been  able  to 
ascertain  its  spelling  Tritripel,  both  of  whom  seemed  gifted  to  a  high 
degree  with  the  faculty  of  putting  their  princely  employer  into  a  frequent 
passion,  till  there  is  hardly  a  bluff  or  a  valley  on  the  whole  upper  Mis- 
souri that  has  not  repeated  in  an  angry  tone,  and  with  a  strong  Teutonic 
accent,  the  names  of  Boardman  and  Tritripel. 

"The  Prince  had  ascended  the  Missouri  from  St.  Louis  to  Fort  Union 
in  the  steamer  Assiniboine,  ranging  the  shore  at  every  opportunity  in 
quest  of  new  objects  to  add  to  his  collections  of  small  quadrupeds,  birds, 
botanical  specimens  and  fossils;  keeping  his  artist  as  busy  as  his  easy 
nature  allowed  in  making  sketches  of  the  scenery  on  the  route.  Arrived 
at  Fort  Union,  he  requested  permission  to  accompany  Mitchell's  keel- 
boat  to  Fort  McKenzie  (a  few  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River) 
and  was  allowed  to  do  so.  During  the  voyage  he  improved  the  oppor- 
tunities it  afforded  and  made  constant  additions  to  his  collections.  He 
remained  at  Fort  McKenzie  about  a  month,  when  he  was  furnished  with 
a  small  mackinac  boat,  in  which,  with  his  party  he  descended  to  the 
Mandan  village,  leaving  a  hearty  invitation  to  Mitchell  and  Culbertson  to 
visit  him  in  Europe  and  the  promise  to  send  the  former  the  present  of 
a  double  barreled  rifle  and  the  latter  a  fine  meerschaum.  He  remained  at 
the  Mandan  village  the  following  winter,  when  he  had  a  severe  attack 
of  the  scurvy,  but  aided  by  the  restorative  qualities  of  wild  onions  was 
enabled  to  recover  and  return  home  to  write  an  account  of  his  travels, 
which  was  published  in  German,  with  illustrations,  and  afterwards  trans- 
lated into  English. 

"McKenzie  subsequently  visited  him  in  his  palace  at  Coblentz,  where 
he  lived  in  a  style  befitting  a  prince,  and  was  received  with  great  cor- 
diality and  entertained  with  lavish  hospitality.  He  inquired  whether  the 
double  barreled  gun  and  the  meerschaum  had  reached  their  destination, 
as  he  had  remembered  his  promise  and  forwarded  them  soon  after  his 
return  to  Europe.  They  had  not,  and  never  were  received,  for  it  sub- 
sequently appeared  that  the  vessel  in  which  they  were  shipped  was  lost, 
so  that  they  are  probably  now  among  the  ill-gotten  hoards  of  the  Atlantic." 

While  Prince  Maximilian  was  scouring  the  Upper  Missouri  for 
botanic  specimens,  both  white  and  red  trappers  were  haunting  its  streams 
and  slowly  draining  them  of  the  beaver  kind  which  formerly  swarmed 
through  its  waters  and  over  its  dams.  The  white  men,  for  gain ;  the  red 


trappers  to  satisfy  the  thirst  for  whiskey  which  had  been  designedly 
planted  in  their  natures.  The  busy  little  fur-bearers  were  no  longer 
exempt  from  these  incessant  and  fierce  forays  even  during  the  breeding 
season;  so  that  millions  of  their  offspring  were  exterminated  before 


The  fur  trade  was  doomed  and  John  Jacob  Astor,  in  1834,  shrewdly 
retired  from  the  American  Fur  Company.  Its  western  branch  thereupon 
passed  to  Pratte,  Chouteau  &  Company,  and  among  their  most  trusted 
employes  and  trappers  were  Messrs.  Mitchell  and  Culbertson.  The 
former  left  for  the  States  in  1834,  but,  being  offered  a  partnership  in 
the  company  returned  to  Fort  McKenzie  in  1836.  He  remained  at  that 
post  until  spring,  and  then  was  sent  to  Fort  Union,  where  he  directed 
the  company's  affairs  until  1839.  Returning  to  St.  Louis,  he  distinguished 
himself  in  the  Mexican  War,  and  President  Taylor  afterward  appointed 
him  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  for  "the  whole  region  drained  by 
the  Missouri  and  its  tributaries."  Mitchell  was  a  Virginian  and  died 
at  St.  Louis  in  his  fifty-sixth  year.  He  was  married  to  an  Indian  woman, 
by  whom  he  had  several  children. 


When  Mitchell  departed  from  Fort  McKenzie,  in  April,  1834,  Maj. 
Alexander  Culbertson,  then  only  twenty-five  years  of  age,  was  left  in 
control  of  the  little  stronghold  with  its  force  of  twenty  men.  In  June, 
it  was  besieged  by  a  strong  force  of  Crows,  who,  after  ten  days,  had 
reduced  the  garrison  to  almost  starvation  rations,  but  were  decisively 
scattered  by  one  discharge  of  a  little  three-pound  cannon.  At  this  time, 
Fort  McKenzie  was  the  storm  center  of  inter-tribal  warfare.  Around 
it,  the  Crows  were  fighting  the  Gros  Ventres;  the  Gros  Ventres,  the 
Crees  and  the  Northern  Assiniboines ;  and  the  Crows  were  also  warring 
against  the  Piegans. 


In  the  spring  of  1839  Major  Culbertson  visited  St.  Louis  and  his 
services  had  been  such  that  the  company  received  him  as  a  partner.  In 
the  autumn  of  that  year,  he  returned  accompanied  by  Malcom  Clarke, 
a  Hoosier  twenty-two  years  of  age,  who  was  to  intermarry  with  the  royal 
stock  of  the  Piegans,  attain  a  remarkable  influence  among  them  and  with 
men  and  women  of  his  own  race,  and  finally  be  treacherously  murdered 
by  those  of  the  adopted  race. 

One  of  the  few  instances  of  bloodshed  in  the  history  of  the  American 
Fur  Company,  connected  with  any  of  its  agents  occurred  in  May,  1840. 
A  quarrel  between  Alexander  Harvey,  a  lawless  character,  and  Sandoval, 
an  employe  of  good  reputation,  resulted  in  the  shooting  and  killing  of 
the  latter.  Respected  descendants  of  the  unfortunate  man  afterwards 


resided  on  the   Blackfeet  reservation,  although   the   family   spelling  of 
the  name  was  changed  to  Sanderville. 


By  the  later  '305,  the  beaver  fur  trade  had  reached  a  low  ebb,  but  the 
trade  in  buffalo  skins  was  well  under  way.  In  1841,  Major  Culbertson 
took  to  Fort  Union  2,200  packs  of  buffalo  robes  and  only  four  packs  of 
beaver.  He  had  become  so  commanding  a  factor  in  the  affairs  of  the 
company  that,  under  protest,  he  was  transferred  to  Fort  Laramie,  which 
required  a  man  of  his  energy  and  ability  for  the  upbuilding  of  the  trade 
which  was  naturally  tributary  to  it. 


Ifi  1841,  not  long  before  he  left  Fort  McKenzie  for  Fort  Laramie,  the 
intelligent,  accommodating  and  forceful  major  was  sought  by  the  cel- 
ebrated naturalist,  John  J.  Audubon.  With  four  assistants,  the  noted 
scholar  was  engaged  in  making  a  collection  of  quadrupeds  and  gathering 
various  scientific  data  in  the  interesting  Missouri  country.  Because  of 
his  intimate  knowledge  of  the  region,  Culbertson's  cooperation  was  of 
great  service  to  Audubon.  When  the  latter  was  ready  to  return  in  the 
fall,  he  was  provided  with  a  mackinaw,  in  which  Major  Culbertson  ac- 
companied him  as  far  as  Fort  Pierre.  Major  Culbertson  subsequently 
spoke  of  Mr.  Audubon  as  a  man  devoted  to  scientific  studies,  "but  fond 
of  occasional  indulgence  in  the  stimulating  compound  of  the  cup.* 
Notwithstanding  his  age — then  about  sixty-one — he  could  range  the  wood 
and  prairies  all  day  in  the  pursuit  of  objects  for  his  collection,  and 
Major  Culbertson,  although  a  young  and  vigorous  man,  found  it  dif- 
ficult to  tire  him." 


Major  Culbertson's  place  at  Fort  McKenzie  was  taken  by  a  dis- 
reputable named  F.  A.  Chardon,  in  turn  under  control  of  the  murderer, 
Harvey.  The  result  of  this  unfortunate  appointment  is  thus  described 
in  Lieutenant  Bradley's  journal:  "In  January,  1842,  a  war  party  of 
twenty-odd  Blackfeet  passing  by  the  fort  requested  admittance,  but  the 
gates  were  closed  against  them.  Incensed  at  the  treatment,  as  they 
moved  off  they  killed  a  pig  belonging  to  the  fort.  Harvey  counseled 
retaliation  for  the  act,  and  Chardon  himself  with  half  a  dozen  men  set  out 
in  pursuit  of  the  Indians,  who,  discovering  that  they  were  followed, 
awaited  in  ambush  in  the  Teton  Valley.  As  the  party  approached,  Reese, 
a  negro,  who  was  in  advance,  crept  to  the  brow  of  the  bluffs  to  recon- 
noiter,  and  received  a  shot  in  the  forehead  which  was  instantly  fatal. 
The  remainder  of  the  party,  intimidated  by  this  event  from  further 

*  Bradley's  "Affairs  at  Fort  Benton,"  Contributions  of  the  Montana  Historical 
Society,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  234. 


pursuit,  returned  with  the  body  of  Reese  to  the  fort,  Chardon  and  Harvey 
vowing  a  bloody  revenge. 

"Major  Culbertson's  policy  of  good-will  toward  the  Indians  had  taken 
root  so  deeply  in  the  popular  sentiment  at  the  fort  that  Chardon  and 
Harvey  feared  to  make  their  murderous  designs  generally  known,  and 
therefore  admitted  only  some  half  dozen  to  a  participation  in  their  plans. 
The  cannon  commanding  the  approach  of  the  main  gate  was  secretly 
loaded,  being  charged  with  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  half-ounce  lead 
bullets,  while,  in  lieu  of  the  match  ordinarily  employed  and  which  might 
at  the  decisive  moment  attract  attention  and  overthrow  their  plans, 
Harvey's  pistol  was  to  be  charged  with  powder  and  fired  into  the  vent. 
Circumstances  were  to  determine  the  remaining  dispositions;  and  thus 
prepared,  Chardon  and  Harvey  awaited  the  arrival  of  some  unsuspecting 
trading  party  of  Blackfeet.  Such  arrivals  were  too  frequent,  thanks  to 
the  thriving  trade  to  permit  of  long  waiting  on  the  part  of  the  con- 

"A  numerous  band  of  Blackfeet  and  squaws  soon  arrived  at  the  fort 
with  a  quantity  of  robes  to  trade.  The  three  chiefs  were  admitted 
without  hesitation,  while  the  rest  were  directed  to  gather  at  the  gate, 
which  they  were  told  would  be  opened  as  soon  as  they  were  all  assembled. 
Without  a  suspicion  of  the  black  treachery  meditated  against  them,  a 
laughing  crowd  of  warriors  and  squaws  with  their  bundles  and  peltries 
were  soon  gathered  at  the  gate  awaiting  admittance.  Harvey,  from  his 
station  in  the  bastion  by  the  side  of  the  cannon,  pistol  in  hand,  watched 
through  the  port-hole  the  dense  crowd  assembled  below;  until,  satisfied 
with  the  number  of  his  contemplated  victims,  he  discharged  his  pistol 
in  the  vent.  A  sudden  roar  and  the  storm  of  bullets  is  hurled  into  the 
unsuspecting  throng.  With  a  wail  of  terror,  mingled  with  some  notes  of 
agony  from  the  wounded,  the  crowd  disperses  in  flight.  Twenty-one 
corpses  strew  the  ground,  while  some  dozen  or  more  are  staggering 
away  with  severe  wounds. 

"In  an  instant  the  gates  are  flung  open  and  several  of  the  garrison 
rush  forth  in  pursuit.  Several  of  the  wounded  are  overtaken  and  dis- 
patched, but  fleeing  with  the  wings  that  terror  gives  the  remainder  make 
good  their  escape.  Three  of  the  conspirators  had  been  selected  to 
dispatch  the  three  chiefs  at  the  discharge  of  the  cannon,  but  when  its 
thunder  startled  them,  followed  by  the  cries  outside,  they  comprehended 
the  villainy  that  was  being  perpetrated,  scaled  the  walls  and  leaped  the 
pickets  with  such  celerity  that  the  would-be  assassins  had  no  time  to 
perform  the  task  allotted  to  them.  Once  outside  they  mounted  their 
horses  and  escaped. 


"All  the  peltries  and  many  of  the  horses  of  the  Blackfeet  were  seized 
by  the  victors ;  but  the  most  damnable  part  of  the  whole  affair  remains 
yet  to  be  told.  Removing  the  scalps  of  their  thirty  victims,  they  made 
the  night  hideous  with  the  cries  and  howls  of  the  scalp  dances!  Can 


any  white  man  read  such  a  story  without  feeling  the  hot  blush  of  shame 
— that  there  can  be  assembled  a  score  of  his  race,  calling  themselves 
civilized  and  yet  capable  of  such  atrocity? 

"War  having  been  thus  opened,  Chardon  prepared  to  abandon  the 
post,  a  post  that  for  ten  years  had  been  one  of  the  most  profitable  main- 
tained by  the  American  Fur  Company.  A  detachment  was  sent  secretly 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith,  where  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri  a 
stockade  was  hurriedly  constructed,  the  utmost  care  being  taken  to  avoid 
discovery  by  the  Indians.  In  six  weeks  it  was  completed  and  named 
after  Chardon,  Fort  F..  A.  C.  As  soon  as  the  river  broke  up,  which  was 
early  after  the  completion  of  the  new  fort,  Chardon  and  Harvey  loaded 
all  the  effects  of  their  establishment  into  their  boats  and  dropped  down 
the  river,  leaving  Fort  McKenzie  wrapped  in  flames.  The  voyageurs 
were  afterward  accustomed  to  speak  of  the  place  as  Fort  Brule,  or 
Burnt  Fort,  and  it  is  by  this  term  still  generally  designated." 


In  order  to  save  the  trade  of  the  Blackfoot  country  from  utter  ruin 
which  these  dastardly  acts  threatened,  the  American  Fur  Company  in- 
duced Major  Culbertson  to  return  from  Fort  Laramie  and  rebuild  its 
interests  if  they  were  not  crushed  beyond  repair.  Malcom  Clarke  ac- 
companied the  major,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  that  he  was  restrained 
from  inflicting  physical  punishment  upon  Harvey  who  had  come  from 
Fort  F.  A.  C.  to  meet  the  new  manager  at  the  site  of  the  burned  and 
disgraced  post.  The  vindictive,  cold-blooded  and  fierce  murderer  fled 
overnight,  only  to  reappear  as  the  enemy  of  the  company  which  had  em- 
ployed him  and  which  he  had  already  foully  betrayed. 


Major  Culbertson  at  once  abandoned  Fort  F.  A.  C.  and  commenced 
the  secret  construction  of  Fort  Lewis,  at  the  head  of  the  first  rapids 
above  the  present  Fort  Benton  and  about  five  miles  below  Pablo's  Island. 
Soon  after  it  was  completed  and  occupied,  during  the  first  days  of  the 
year  1843,  ne  sen^  an  invitation  to  the  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  Black- 
foot  village  on  Belly  River  to  confer  with  him  in  council  at  the  fort.  His 
proffer  was  unhesitatingly  accepted.  Culbertson  deplored  the  cruel  and 
unauthorized  act  of  Harvey  and  Chardon,  explaining  that  the  criminal 
had  been  sent  out  of  the  country  in  disgrace,  while  the  Blackfeet,  through 
their  leaders,  that  "the  ground  had  been  made  good  again  by  Major 
Culbertson's  return  and  the  Blackfeet  must  not  be  the  first  to  stain  it 
with  blood."  Presents  were  exchanged  and  the  pipe  of  peace  went 
'round.  Trade  was  at  once  resumed ;  so  much  so  that  within  the  coming 
four  months  1,100  packs  of  buffalo  robes,  with  quantities  of  beaver,  fox 
and  wolf  pelts,  were  received  from  the  reconciled  Indians. 


Major  Culbertson  took  this  fine  treasure  with  him  to  Fort  Union, 
in  May,  1843,  and  on  his  way  burned  Fort  F.  A.  C.  and  thus  blotted  the 


evil  name  of  Chardon  from  the  geography  of  Montana.  His  handling 
of  the  difficult  situation  had  been  so  wise  and  masterly  that  the  company 
appointed  him  agent  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  at  what  was  then  considered 
the  munificent  salary  of  $5,000  a  year.  The  disgraced  Chardon  died 
of  scurvy  in  February,  1845,  and  Major  Culbertson  buried  him  at  Fort 
Pierre,  now  South  Dakota,  on  his  way  to  St.  Louis.  Harvey,  his  fellow 
criminal,  after  vainly  endeavoring  to  involve  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany—Pratte,  Chotiteau  &  Company— in  the  illegal  sale  of  whiskey  to 
the  Indians,  and  fearing  to  trade  among  the  outraged  Blackfeet,  died  in 
1853,  an  outcast  of  both  the  white  men  and  the  red. 


The   backbone   of   the    fur-trade   in   Montana  had   developed   along 
Maria's  River,  instead  of  at  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri,  as  the 
Piegans  and  Blackfeet  of  the  north  had  proven  more  placable  than  the 
southern  tribes  of  the  nation.     The  valley  of  the  Yellowstone  had  not 
proven  especially  productive,  and  the  American  Fur  Company  had  not 
considered  it  necessary  to  have  more  than  one  post  at  a  time  along  that 
river.     In  line  with  that  policy,  Fort  Cass,  on  the  Big  Horn,  was  built 
1832   and   abandoned   a   few  years   thereafter.     Fort  Van   Buren   was 
erected  on  the  Rosebud,  in  1838.     It  was  also  called  Fort  Tullock,  after 
A.  J.  Tullock.    Charles  Larpenteur  afterward  established  Fort  Alexander, 
named  after  Major  (Alexander)  Culbertson,  on  the  south  bank  of  the 
Yellowstone  below  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn.     It  was  abandoned  in 
1850  and  Fort  Sarpy — its  name  given  in  honor  of  one  of  the  company's 
prominent  partners — replaced  it,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Yellowstone 
below  the  mouth  of  the  Rosebud.     Fort  Sarpy  was  closed  in  1855,  and 
was  the  last  post  of  the  American  Fur  Company  on  the  Yellowstone. 
The  purpose  of  maintaining  a  post  on  the  Yellowstone  was  to  facil- 
itate trade  with  the  Crows,  but,  from  the  first,  the  Indians  preferred  to 
bring  their  peltry  to  Fort  Union,  where  they  could  obtain  better  sup- 
plies, more  abundant  ammunition  and  more  desirable  presents.     So  that 
the  final  abandonment  of  the  Yellowstone  posts  had  little  bearing  on  the 
development  of  the  fur  trade. 


It  was  the  country  northwest  of  the  Missouri  River  which  had  become 
vital  to  the  trade,  and  it  was  a  foregone  conclusion  by  the  late  '405  that 
the  main  central  entrepot  must  be  founded  not  far  from  the  region  of  the 
mouth  of  Maria's  River.  The  site  of  the  Fort  Lewis  built  by  Major 
Culbertson  in  1843  did  not  meet  the  requirements  of  the  trade.  The  drift 
ice  in  the  Missouri  River  during  the  spring  and  fall  made  it  difficult  for 
the  Indians  to  cross  with  their  furs,  and  they  requested  that  the  post 
be  moved  to  a  spot  nearer  the  Teton  where  there  was  plenty  of  timber. 
Accordingly,  after  careful  consideration,  Major  Culbertson  selected  a 
site  for  the  new  Fort  Lewis  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri,  seven 
miles  below  the  present  town  of  Fort  Benton.  The  selection  was  made 
in  the  spring  of  1846  and  the  first  log  fort  was  completed  by  fall. 


The  following  season  was  one  of  much  prosperity  in  the  fur  trade. 
Lieutenant  Bradley  states :  "Not  only  was  the  stock  of  goods  completely 
exhausted,  but  even  bedding,  wearing  apparel,  everything  that  could  be 
spared  from  the  fort,  was  bartered  for  the  incessant  flow  of  peltries." 
The  season  of  1847  realized  more  than  twenty  thousand  buffalo  robes, 
besides  many  other  furs.  In  the  following  year  three  outposts  on  Maria's 
and  Milk  rivers  were  established  to  facilitate  their  collection,  Malcom 
Clarke  being  in  charge  of  one  of  them  on  the  former  stream.  About  this 
time,  the  company  increased  both  the  duties  and  the  territory  of  Major 
Culbertson  and  gave  him  the  privilege  of  selecting  his  headquarters  at 
any  post  desired.  He  evidently  selected  Fort  Lewis,  or  as  it  afterward 
became  known,  Fort  Benton,  and  he  was  ambitious  that  the  company 
headquarters  should  do  credit  to  the  powerful  corporation  of  which  he 
was  the  active  head  in  such  a  grand  territory. 


Up  to  this  time,  all  the  posts  of  the  American  Fur  Company  upon  the 
Missouri  and  its  tributaries  had  been  built  entirely  of  timber,  rough  or 
hewn,  according  to  the  care  taken  in  their  construction.*  But  following 
the  style  of  architecture  prevalent  in  the  southern  territories,  after  Fort 
Laramie  had  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  American  Fur  Company 
the  buildings  of  that  post  were  reconstructed  of  adobe  at  an  expense  of 
some  $10,000.  The  result  was  the  finest  and  best  built  post  of  the  com- 
pany. During  his  stay  at  Fort  Laramie,  Major  Culbertson  had  become 
impressed  with  the  superiority  of  adobe  buildings  over  those  of  logs, 
and  upon  his  return  to  the  Missouri  resolved  ultimately  to  rebuild  his 
central  post  on  the  Laramie  plan.  The  first  adobe  building  of  Fort  Lewis 
was  completed  and  dedicated  on  Christmas  night  of  1850,  and  then  and 
there  rechristened  as  Fort  Benton,  in  honor  of  Thomas  A.  Benton,  the 
distinguished  Missouri  senator,  who,  for  years,  had  been  the  legal  ad- 
viser, steadfast  friend  and,  at  times,  savior  of  the  American  Fur  Company.' 

The  immediate  events  in  the  career  of  Major  Culbertson  leading  to 
the  founding  of  Fort  Benton  are  well  arrayed  in  Lieutenant  Bradley's 
journal  comprising  "Affairs  at  Fort  Benton,"  as  follows:  "In  March, 
1850,  Major  Culbertson,  with  thirty  horses,  proceeded  by  steamer  from 
St.  Louis  to  St.  Joseph,  then  the  highest  village  on  the  river,  and  thence 
by  land,  accompanied  by  his  brother  and  three  men,  to  Fort  Pierre.  Here 
he  awaited  the  arrival  of  the  company's  steamboat,  El  Paso,  by  which  he 
continued  to  Fort  Union.  Remaining  there  until  the  boats  were  gone  and 
the  summer's  business  dispatched,  he  ascended  the  Yellowstone  with  a 
mackinaw  laden  with  goods  and  eighteen  men,  including  Meldrum,  to 
establish  a  new  post  on  the  river  in  lieu  of  Fort  Alexander,  that  year 
abandoned.  He  left  Fort  Union  about  the  first  of  July  and  about  the 
fifteenth  of  the  same  month  arrived  at  his  destination,  a  point  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Yellowstone  about  five  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Rosebud  River.  Here  the  new  post  was  built  and  called  Fort  Sarpy.  It 

*  Bradley's  Journal,  Montana  Historical  Society's  Collections,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  256. 


was  constructed  of  logs,  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  square,  with 
two  bastions  and  the  interior  buildings  in  the  stockade  facing  a  square  as 
usual,  standing  some  fifty  yards  from  the  river  bank.  Fort  Alexander 
had  been  abandoned  and  the  new  post  built  mainly  to  save  a  part  of  the 
difficult  river  transportation.  It  continued  in  existence  until  1855,  when 
it  was  abandoned  and  was  the  last  post  of  the  American  Fur  Company 
on  the  Yellowstone.  The  Blackfeet  were  engaged  in  constant  warlike 
incursions  into  the  Crow  territory  and,  holding  as  enemies  all  whom  they 
encountered  there,  a  number  of  the  white  employes  of  the  Yellowstone 
post  had  fallen  at  their  hands.  It  became  difficult  finally  to  induce  men 
to  go  to  such  a  dangerous  locality,  and  this  was  one  of  the  principal 
causes  of  the  withdrawal  from  the  country.  *  *  * 

"The  American  Fur  Company  did  not  lose  the  trade  of  the  Crows  by 
discontinuing  posts  in  this  country,  for,  having  no  other  market  for  their 
peltries,  they  then  brought  them  to  Fort  Union.  In  those  days  the  Crows 
made  about  five  hundred  packs  of  robes  for  trade  yearly,  never  equalling 
the  Blackfeet,  however.  They  were  prudent  purchasers,  generally  re- 
ceiving nothing  in  return  that  did  not  serve  them  a  useful  purpose,  as 
arms,  ammunition,  blankets  and  beads.  They  would  not  drink  whiskey 
and  it  was  therefore  not  carried  among  them. 

"The  Crow  nation,  probably  owing  to  the  extreme  fascination  of  their 
women,  was  the  favorite  resort  of  white  renegades,  and  in  early  times 
they  were  always  to  be  found  among  the  Crows,  when  there  was  not  one 
in  the  surrounding  tribes.  The  Crows  seemed  pleased  with  the  presence 
of  the  white  men  among  them  and,  if  they  were  at  all  deserving,  treated 
them  with  consideration.  The  white  employes  of  the  Yellowstone  post 
always  took  naturally  to  the  customs  of  the  Crows  and  after  a  short 
residence  among  them  were  scarcely  to  be  distinguished  in  their  long 
hair,  breech  clouts  and  other  articles  of  Indian  attire,  from  the  savages 
themselves.  It  is  perhaps  to  this  fact  that  the  frequent  deaths  at  the 
hands  of  the  Blackfeet  are  partly  attributable — the  inability  to  distinguish 
between  a  Crow  warrior  and  a  white  man. 

"Remaining  on  the  Yellowstone  only  long  enough  to  see  the  pickets 
up  and  one  warehouse  completed,  Major  Culbertson  left  Meldrum  with 
his  party  to  complete  the  fort,  returning  with  one  man,  both  mounted  on 
good  horses,  to  Fort  Union,  arriving  about  the  middle  of  August  and 
thence,  after  a  brief  delay  to  Fort  Lewis.  The  fall  was  an  unusually  open 
one,  warm  weather  continuing  until  late  in  December,  and  Major  Cul- 
bertson resolved  to  improve  it  by  the  inauguration  of  his  long  contem- 
plated plan  of  rebuilding  his  post  in  adobe.  The  soil  of  the  bottom  was 
found  excellently  adapted  to  the  manufacture  of  the  brick,  and  the  work 
was  pushed  with  vigor ;  and  day  by  day  the  walls  of  his  two-story  dwelling 
rose  higher  and  higher,  on  the  site  of  a  former  log  building  taken  down 
to  make  room  for  it.  Toward  the  last,  the  nights  began  to  be  cold  and 
the  adobes  froze;  but  as  the  best  that  could  be  done  they  were  laid  in 
the  walls  yet  unhardened,  where  fortunately  they  dried  without  any 
cracking  or  weakening  of  the  walls;  and  just  before  Christmas  the 
building  was  completed.  On  Christmas  night  it  was  dedicated  by  a  big 

Vol.  1-9 


ball ;  and  until  a  late  hour  the  light-headed  voyageurs  and  their  squaw 
wives,  sweethearts  and  friends,  danced  and  whirled  to  the  music  of  several 
fiddles.  In  the  midst  of  the  festivities,  Major  Culbertson  proposed  that 
in  consideration  of  the  warm  friendship  of  Thomas  H.  Benton  for  the 
partners  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  and  his  services  in  saving  the 
company  from  ruin  in  1844  by  effecting  a  compromise  of  the  suit  brought 
against  it,  that  the  post  should  be  renamed  in  his  honor. 

"The  proposition  was  received  with  acclamation  by  the  joyous  as- 
sembly, and  thus  upon  Christmas  night,  1850,  the  post  was  first  called  by 
the  name  it  still  bears  and  that  will  probably  ever  distinguish  the  locality 
—Fort  Benton." 


Robert  Meldrum,  noted  as  the  companion  of  Major  Culbertson  on  the 
mission  to  establish  Fort  Sarpy,  near  the  junction  of  the  Yellowstone 


and  the  Rosebud  rivers,  had  been  in  command  of  its  predecessor,  Fort 
Alexander.  As  he  was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  men  in  the  employ 
of  the  American  Fur  Company,  his  biography  has  been  several  times 
written,  but  his  personal  characteristics  have  been  vividly  sketched  by 
Lieutenant  Bradley,  his  friend  and  the  historian  of  Fort  Benton.  "He 
was  born  in  Scotland  about  the  year  1802,"  says  Bradley,  "but  moved 
with  his  parents  to  Kentucky  at  an  early  age.  There  he  learned  black- 
smithing,  but  found  his  way  into  Bonneville's  service  and  accompanied 
him  into  the  wilderness  in  his  fur  trading  expedition  in  1832.  Upon 
quitting  his  service,  enamored  of  the  savage  life  he  had  tasted  for  three 
years,  he  remained  upon  the  plains,  making  his  home  among  the  Crow 
Indians.  Adopting  their  dress,  glueing  long  hair  to  his  own  to  make  it 
conform  to  the  savage  fashion,  having  his  squaw  and  lodge  and  living  in 
all  respects  the  life  of  an  Indian,  he  was  quickly  enabled  by  his  superior 
intelligence  and  courage  to  acquire  great  influence  with  his  savage  asso- 
ciates and  soon  became  regarded  as  a  chief.  He  was  a  man  of  many 


adventures  and  was  accustomed  to  complain  bitterly  that  Beckwourth,  in 
the  autobiography  published  by  Harper  Brothers,  had  arrogated  to  him- 
self many  of  his  own  experiences.  A  representative  of  this  firm  en- 
deavored subsequently  to  win  from  Meldrum  a  narrative  of  his  life, 
promising  ample  reparation  for  any  misappropriation  of  his  experiences 
in  Beckwourth's  autobiography,  but  he  proudly  rejected  all  overtures,  and 
a  fascinating  record  of  strange  experiences  and  hair-breadth  adventures 
is  lost  to  the  world.  In  person  he  was  of  medium  height,  strongly  built, 
weighed  usually  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  pounds,  had  dark  sandy 
hair  and  keen  grey  eyes,  and  altogether  an  attractive  countenance.  He 
possessed  a  mild  disposition,  shunned  quarrels  and  contentions,  but  no 
one  ever  ventured  to  call  his  courage  into  question.  He  subsequently 
entered  the  service  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  in  which  he  continued 
till  his  death  at  Fort  Union  in  1865. 

"Upon  entering  the  service  of  the  company,  he  left  off  the  customs 
and  habits  of  Indian  life  and  in  his  civilized  dress  was  a  man  to  attract 
attention,  from  his  evident  superiority  to  the  class  of  men  generally  en- 
countered amid  such  surroundings.  And  upon  engaging  him  in  conver- 
sation, the  favorable  impression  was  only  deepened.  He  had  never  fallen 
into  the  use  of  the  slang  and  profanity  of  the  border,  but  employed  good 
language  and  riveted  the  attention  of  his  listener  by  the  intelligent  play 
of  his  features  and  the  fascination  of  his  diction.  In  his  later  years  he 
was  troubled  with  an  affection  of  the  kidneys,  and  was  also  subject  to 
goitre  or  swelled  neck,  a  disease  very  prevalent  upon  the  Yellowstone, 
not  only  among  the  white  men  and  Indians,  but  even  among  the  dogs. 
But  up  to  the  time  of  his  death,  he  continued  an  active  man,  ready  for 
any  exposure  or  hardship.  He  left  no  children,  but  has  a  married  sister 
living  in  Illinois,  for  whose  benefit  he  was  accustomed  to  devote  a  large 
portion  of  the  proceeds  of  his  toil." 

Major  Culbertson  was  succeeded  in  command  of  Fort  Benton  by  Maj. 
Andrew  Dawson,  also  a  Scotchman,  in  1854.  He  had  been  a  resident  of 
the  United  States  for  about  ten  years  and  had  spent  most  of  that  period 
at  Fort  Clark,  in  the  Mandan  country  of  Dakota.  He  completed  Cul- 
bertson's  plans  of  replacing  the  log  buildings  of  Fort  Benton  with  adobe 
structures,  the  entire  reformation  being  finished  in  1860.  In  1864,  when 
the  fort  was  sold  to  Carroll  and  Steele,  he  returned  to  Scotland. 


In  the  meantime  Major  Culbertson  had  continued  to  operate  as  a 
partner  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  and  to  such  advantage  that  in 
1861  he  resigned  and  retired  from  business,  a  wealthy  man  for  those 
days,  having  amassed  a  fortune  of  $300,000.  Culbertson  was  of  Scotch- 
Irish  parentage  and  a  Pennsylvanian,  and  had  entered  the  service  of  the 
company  in  1829,  when  he  was  twenty  years  of  age.  He  was  able,  genial, 
popular,  of  large,  handsome  physique,  and,  after  the  retirement  of 
Kenneth  McKenzie,  was  preeminent  in  the  affairs  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  on  the  Upper  Missouri  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century. 


Major  Culbertson  married  an  Indian  woman  of  the  Blackfoot  nation, 
by  whom  he  had  several  children.  He  remained  true  to  her  and  pro- 
vided lavishly  for  her  and  their  family.  His  death  occurred  August  27, 
1879,  at  Orleans,  Missouri. 


While  Forts  Lewis  and  Benton  were  developing  in  the  late  '403  and 
the  early  '505,  there  were  two  fortified  posts  west  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains which  had  survived  the  competition  of  the  American  Fur  Company. 
One  had  been  established  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  in  1847,  Just  west 
of  the  southern  extremity  of  Mission  Range  near  St.  Ignatius  Mission 
of  the  present,  and  was  in  charge  of  Angus  McDonald,  a  leading  em- 
ploye of  the  company.  He  afterward  became  a  noted  character  of  the 
country  and  his  descendants  have  done  him  credit. 


Fort  Owen,  in  the  center  of  the  rich  and  beautiful  Bitter  Roof 
Valley,  was  founded  in  1850,  upon  the  improvements  of  old  St.  Mary's 
Mission.  In  that  year,  Maj.  John  Owen,  a  sutler  in  the  United  States 
Army,  while  en  route  with  the  "Mounted  Rifles"  for  Oregon,  decided  to 
remain  in  the  northwest.  In  the  summer  of  that  year  he  traded  with  the 
wagon  trains  on  their  way  to  the  Pacific  Coast,  and  in  the  autumn  ar- 
rived in  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  which  he  selected  as  his  future  home. 
Finding  an  opportunity  to  establish  a  trading  post  at  the  deserted  mission 
of  St.  Mary's,  he  purchased  the  property,  with  buildings,  and  trans- 
formed it  into  Fort  Owen.  ''After  Major  Owen  purchased  the  property 
since  known  as  Fort  Owen,"  says  Frank  H.  Woody,  the  Montana  pioneer, 
in  his  contribution  to  the  Montana  Historical  Society  on  "The  Early 
History  of  Western  Montana,"  "he  made  many  improvements.  He  en- 
closed the  land  and  commenced  farming — rebuilt  the  grist  and  saw  mills, 
and  in  after  years  tore  down  the  old  stockade  of  logs,  and  built  a  large 
and  substantial  fort  of  adobes,  or  sun-dried  bricks.  He  opened  and  kept 
a  regular  trading  establishment,  supplying  the  wants  of  both  whites  and 
Indians.  The  stock  of  goods  and  supplies  was  kept  up  by  making  a  trip 
each  summer  to  The  Dalles  in  Oregon  with  pack  horses,  usually  going 
down  in  the  spring  to  Clark's  Fork  and  the  Perfd  d'Oreille  lake,  and 
returning  the  latter  part  of  the  summer  by  an  Indian  trail  over  the 
Coeur  d'Alene  Mountains. 

"Fort  Owen  was  the  nucleus  around  which  the  early  settlers  gathered, 
obtained  supplies  and  sought  protection  in  the  hour  of  danger.  It  was 
known  far  and  wide  for  the  hospitality  that  its  generous  proprietor  ex- 
tended to  the  early  settlers  and  adventurers  in  this  distant — and  at  that 
time — almost  unknown  wilderness." 

The  Selish  (Flatheads)  who  inhabited  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  were 
always  friendly  to  the  whites,  but  the  Blackfeet  made  war  upon  both 
Flatheads  and  whites.  Fort  Owen  was  threatened  more  than  once,  and 


55)  ' 









these  raids  into  the  valley  did  not  cease  until  1855.  So  that  Fort  Owen 
was  not  only  a  trading  and  social  center,  but  a  place  of  refuge,  and  in 
the  '503  and  '6os  its  able  and  genial  proprietor  was  one  of  the  popular 
and  widely  known  characters  in  Montana. 

Messrs.  McDonald  and  Owen  had  an  especially  close  connection  be- 
tween the  later  days  of  the  fur  and  emigrant  trade  and  the  opening 
period  of  the  mining  era,  which  is  not  yet  closed;  for  Finley,  the  itin- 
erant trader,  brought  the  first  gold  dust  known  to  have  been  mined  in 
Montana  to  McDonald,  in  1852,  and  tidings  of  these  pioneer  "finds"  were 
also  brought  to  Owen.  Such  discoveries,  however,  led  to  nothing  prac- 
tical, as  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  discouraged  mining,  as  threatening  to 
detract  from  the  interests  of  fur  gathering  and  trading,  and  Major  Owen 
did  not  believe  in  the  genuineness  of  the  "colors"  purported  to  have  been 
discovered.  A  decade  was  to  pass  before  gold  was  to  be  mined  from  the 
soil  of  Montana  in  commercial  quantities." 

"Major  Owen  on  his  annual  visits  to  Oregon,  and  from  other  sources," 
continues  Mr.  Woody,  "had  accumulated  an  excellent  library  of  sev- 
eral hundred  volumes,  which  he  kept  open  for  the  use  of  his  friends, 
and  being  one  of  the  most  genial  and  companionable  of  men,  it  is  not 
surprising  that  Fort  Owen  was  a  favorite  resort  for  the  early  settlers 
and  hardy  mountaineers,  or  that  the  Major  is  oft  and  kindly  remem- 
bered by  those  who  have  reason  to  remember  his  kindness.  Times 
have  wonderfully  changed  since  the  days  of  which  we  write.  Maj. 
John  Owen  has  left  Montana  to  spend  his  remaining  days  amidst  the 
scenes  of  his  boyhood  and  Fort  Owen,  that  contains  a  history  within 
itself,  has  passed  into  the  hands  of  strangers  and  is  fast  falling  into  decay 
and  in  a  few  more  years  will  be  numbered  among  the  things  of  the  past." 


Twenty-five  or  thirty  years  of  incessant  trapping  about  eradicated 
the  beavers  from  the  fur  trade  of  Montana— at  least,  made  such  terrible 
inroads  into  the  living  supply  that  Astor  could  see  no  object  in  con- 
tinuing with  the  American  Fur  Company.  Then  the  beaver  gave  way 
to  the  buffalo,  and  his  reign  as  a  fur-supplier  extended  almost  to  the  time 
of  the  railroads,  the  coming  of  which  spelled  its  extinction  also. 

James  Stuart,  one  of  the  great  pioneers  of  the  trade  and  the  western 
country,  prepared  an  article  in  the  early  '705  which  is  a  pithy  represen- 
tation of  the  fur  trade  era.  Having  then  been  a  western  scout,  trader 
and  miner  for  twenty  years,  half  of  that  period  as  a  leading  citizen  of 
Montana,  Stuart,  then  in  the  very  prime  of  life,  had  a  wide  acquaintance 
with  guides,  interpreters,  traders  and  Indians  themselves,  and  ample  op- 
portunity to  collect  the  facts  bearing  on  the  subject  so  near  to  him,  and 
thoroughly  verifying  them.  The  facts,  as  he  states  them,  and  which  are 
also  verified  by  other  sources  of  information,  are  given  below. 


Fort  Union  was  the  first  fort  built  on  the  Missouri  River,  above  the 
mouth  of  the  Yellowstone.  In  the  summer  of  1829,  Kenneth  McKenzie, 
a  trader  from  the  Upper  Mississippi,  near  where  St.  Paul,  Minnesota,  is 
now  located,  with  a  party  of  fifty  men,  came  across  to  the  Upper  Missouri 
River  looking  for  a  good  place  to  establish  a  trading-post  for  the  Amer- 
ican Fur  Company,  (McKenzie  was  a  member  of  said  company.)  They 
selected  a  site  a  short  distance  above  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  River, 
on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri,  and  built  a  stockade,  two  hundred 
feet  square,  of  logs  about  twelve  inches  in  diameter  and  twelve  feet 
long,  set  perpendicularly,  putting  the  lower  end  two  feet  in  the  "ground, 
with  two  block-house  bastions  on  diagonal  corners  of  the  stockade, 
twelve 'feet  square  and  twenty  high,  pierced  with  loop-holes.  The  dwell- 
ing-houses, warehouses,  and  store  were  built  inside,  but  not  joining  the 
stockade,  leaving  a  space  of  about  four  feet  between  the  walls  of  the 
buildings  and  the  stockade.  All  the  buildings  were  covered  with  earth, 
as  a  protection  against  fire  by  incendiary  Indians.  There  was  only  one 
entrance  to  the  stockade — a  large  double-leaved  gate,  about  twelve  feet 
from  post  to  post ;  with  a  small  gate^-  three  and  a  half  by  five  feet,  in  one 
of  the  leaves  of  the  main  gate,  which  was  the  one  mostly  used,  the  large 
gate  being  only  opened  occasionally  when  there  were  no  Indians  in  the 




vicinity  of  the  fort.  The  houses,  warehouses,  and  store  were  all  built 
about  the  same  height  as  the  stockade.  The  above  description,  with  the 
exception  of  the  area  inclosed  by  the  stockade,  will  describe  nearly  all  the 
forts  built  by  traders  on  the  Missouri  River  from  St.  Louis  to  the  head- 
waters. They  are  easily  built,  convenient,  and  good  for  defense. 

The  fort  was  built  to  trade  with  the  Assiniboines,  who  were  a  large 
tribe  of  Indians  ranging  from  White  Earth  River,  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Missouri  to  the  mouth  of  the  Milk  River,  and  north  into  the  British 


possessions.  They  were  a  peaceable,  inoffensive  people,  armed  with  bows 
and  arrows,  living  in  lodges  made  of  buffalo  skins,  and  roving  from  place 
to  place,  according  to  the  seasons  of  the  year,  occupying  certain  portions 
of  their  country  in  the  summer,  and  during  the  winter  remaining  where 
they  could  be  protected  from  the  cold  with  plenty  of  wood.  For  fear 
of  trouble  with  them  the  traders  did  not  sell  them  guns;  but  when  an 
Indian  proved  to  be  a  good  hunter  and  a  good  friend  to  the  traders  by  his 
actions  and  talk,  he  could  occasionally  borrow  a  gun  and  a  few  loads  of 
ammunition  to  make  a  hunt. 

The   principal   articles   of    trade    were   alcohol,   blankets,   blue   and 
scarlet  cloth,  sheeting   (domestics),  ticking,  tobacco,  knives,  fire-steels, 


arrow-points,  files,  brass  wire  (different  sizes),  beads,  brass  tacks,  leather 
belts  (from  four  to  ten  inches  wide),  silver  ornaments  for  hair,  shells, 
axes,  hatchets,  etc.— alcohol  being  the  principal  article  of  trade,  until 
after  the  passing  of  an  act  of  Congress  (June  30,  1834)  prohibiting  it 
under  severe  penalties.  Prior  to  that  time,  there  were  no  restrictions  on 
the  traffic.  But,  notwithstanding  the  traders  were  often  made  to  suffer 
the  penalty  of  the  law,  they  continued  to  smuggle  large  quantities  of 
spirits  into  the  Indian  country,  until  within  the  last  few  years  (i.e.,  1873). 


St.  Louis  was  the  point  from  which  the  traders  brought  their  goods. 
They  would  start  from  there  with  Mackinaw  boats,  fifty  feet  long,  ten 
feet  wide  on  the  bottom  and  twelve  feet  on  top,  and  four  feet  high,  loaded 
with  about  fourteen  tons  of  merchandise  to  each  boat,  and  a  crew  of  about 
twelve  men,  as  soon  as  the  ice  went  out  of  the  river,  usually  about  the 
first  of  March,  and  would  be  six  months  in  getting  to  Fort  Union,  the 
boat  having  to  be  towed  the  greater  part  of  the  way  by  putting  a  line 
ashore,  and  the  men  walking  along  the  bank  pulling  the  boat.  Every 
spring,  as  soon  as  the  ice  went  out  of  the  river,  boats  would  start  from 
the  fort  for  St.  Louis,  each  boat  loaded  with  three  thousand  robes,  or 
its  equivalent  in  other  peltries,  with  a  crew  of  five  men  to  each  boat, 
arriving  at  St.  Louis  in  about  thirty  days.  All  the  employes  in  the 
Indian  country  lived  entirely  on  meat — the  outfit  of  provisions  for  from 
fifty  to  seventy-five  men  being  two  barrels  flour,  one  sack  coffee,  one 
barrel  sugar,  one  barrel  salt,  and  a  little  soda  and  pepper.  After  the  fort 
was  established,  and  proved  to  be  a  permanent  trading  point,  large  quan- 
tities of  potatoes,  beets,  onions,  turnips,  squashes,  corn,  etc.,  were  raised, 
sufficient  for  each  year's  consumption. 

The  wages  for  common  laborers  were  two  hundred  and  twenty  dollars 
for  the  round  trip  from  St.  Louis  to  Ft.  Union,  and  back  again  to  St. 
Louis,  taking  from  fifteen  to  sixteen  months'  time  to  make  it.  Carpen- 
ters and  blacksmiths  were  paid  three  hundred  dollars  per  annum.  The 
traders  (being  their  own  interpreters)  were  paid  five  hundred  dollars 
per  annum. 


The  store  and  warehouse,  or  two  stores,  were  built  on  each  side  of 
the  gate,  and  on  the  side  next  to  the  interior  of  the  fort  the  two  buildings 
were  connected  by  a  gate  similar  to  the  main  gate,  the  space  between 
the  buildings  and  stockade  filled  in  with  pickets,  making  a  large,  strong 
room,  without  any  roof,  or  covering  overhead.  In  each  store,  or  stores, 
about  five  feet  from  the  ground,  was  a  hole  eighteen  inches  square,  with 
a  strong  shutter-fastening  inside  of  the  store,  opening  into  the  space  or 
room  between  the  gates.  When  the  Indians  wanted  to  trade,  the  inner 
gate  was  closed ;  a  man  would  stand  at  the  outer  gate  until  all  the  Indians 
that  wanted  to  trade,  or  as  many  as  the  space  between  the  gate  would 
contain,  had  passed  in;  then  he  would  lock  the  outer  gate,  and  go 


through  the  trading  hole  into  the  store.  The  Indians  would  then  pass 
whatever  articles  each  one  had  to  trade  through  the  hole  for  whatever 
the  Indian  wanted,  to  the  value  in  trade  of  the  article  received.  When 
the  party  were  done  trading,  they  were  turned  out  and  another  party 
admitted.  In  that  way  of  trading,  the  Indians  were  entirely  at  the  mercy 
of  the  traders,  for  they  were  penned  up  in  a  room,  and  could  all  be 
killed  through  loop-holes  in  the  store  without  any  danger  to  the  traders. 
The  articles  brought  by  the  Indians  for  trade  were  buffalo-robes,  elk, 
deer,  antelope,  bear,  wolf,  beaver,  otter,  fox,  mink,  martin,  wild-cat, 
skunk,  and  badger  skins. 


The  country  was  literally  covered  with  buffalo,  and  the  Indians 
killed  them  by  making  "surrounds."  The  Indians  moved  and  camped 
with  from  one  to  four  hundred  lodges  together — averaging  about  seven 
souls  to  the  lodge;  and  when  they  needed  meat,  the  chief  gave  orders  to 
make  a  "surround,"  when  the  whole  camp,  men,  women,  and  the  largest  of 
the  children,  on  foot  and  on  horseback,  would  go  under  the  direction  of 
the  soldiers,  and  form  a  circle  around  as  many  buffalo  as  they  wanted  to 
kill — from  300  to  1,000  buffalo.  They  would  then  all  start  slowly  for 
a  common  point,  and  as  soon  as  the  circle  commenced  to  grow  smaller, 
the  slaughter  would'begin,  and  in  a  short  time  all  inside  of  the  circle  would 
be  killed.  The  buffalo  do  not,  as  a  general  rule,  undertake  to  break 
through  unless  the  circle  is  very  small,  but  run  round  and  round  the  cir- 
cumference next  to  the  Indians  until  they  are  all  killed. 


Fort  Union  burned  down  in  1831,  and  was  rebuilt  by  McKenzie  in  the 
same  year.  The  new  fort  was  250  feet  square,  with  stone  foundation, 
with  similar  buildings,  but  put  up  in  a  more  workmanlike  manner,  inside 
of  the  stockade.  The  fort  stood  until  1868,  when  it  was  pulled  down 
by  order  of  the  commanding  officer  at  Fort  Buford  (five  miles  below 

Robert  Campbell  and  Sublette  built  a  trading-post  where  Fort  Buford 
now  stands,  in  1833.  They  also,  the  same  year,  built  a  trading-post  at 
Frenchman's  Point,  sixty  miles  above  Union,  the  next  year  (1834). 
They  sold  out  to  the  American  Fur  Company,  who  destroyed  both  posts 
the  same  year.  Campbell  went  to  St.  Louis  and  entered  business  on 
Main  Street.  Sublette  went  to  the  Green  River  country  in  command 
of  a  party  of  trappers. 

In  1832,  the  first  steamboat,  named  the  Yellowstone,  arrived  at  Fort 
Union.  From  that  time,  every  spring,  the  goods  were  brought  up  by 
steamboats,  but  the  robes,  peltries,  etc.,  were  shipped  from  the  fort  every 
spring  by  mackinaws  to  St.  Louis. 


In  the  winter  of  1830,  McKenzie,  desirous  of  establishing  a  trade 
with  the  Blackfeet  and  Ventres,  sent  a  party  of  four  men — Berger,  Daco- 


teau,  Morceau,  and  one  other  man— in  search  of  the  Indians,  and  to  see 
if  there  was  sufficient  inducement  to  establish  a  trading-post.  The  party 
started  up  the  Missouri  River  with  dog-sleds,  to  haul  a  few  presents  for 
the  Indians— bedding,  ammunition,  moccasins,  etc.  They  followed  the 
Missouri  to  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River,  thence  up  the  Maria's  to  the 
mouth  of  Badger  Creek,  without  seeing  an  Indian;  finding  plenty  of 
game  of  all  kinds,  and  plenty  of  beaver  in  all  the  streams  running  into 
the  Missouri.  Every  night  when  they  camped  they  hoisted  the  American 
flag,  so  that  if  they  were  seen  by  any  Indians  during  the  night  they  would 
know  it  was  a  white  man's  camp;  and  it  was  very  fortunate  for  them 
that  they  had  a  flag  to  use  in  that  manner,  for  the  night  they  camped 
at  the  mouth  of  Badger  Creek  they  were  discovered  by  a  war-party  of 
Blackfeet,  who  surrounded  them  during  the  night,  and  as  they  were  about 
firing  on  the  camp,  they  saw  the  flag  and  did  not  fire,  but  took  the 
party  prisoners. 

A  part  of  the  Indians  wanted  to  kill  the  whites  and  take  what  they 
had,  but  through  the  exertions  and  influence  of  a  chief  named  "Good- 
woman,"  they  were  not  molested  in  person  or  property,  but  went  in  safety 
to  the  Blackfoot  camp  on  Belly  River,  and  stayed  with  the  camp  until 
spring.  During  the  winter  they  explained  their  business,  and  prevailed 
upon  about  100  Blackfeet  to  go  with  them  to  Union  to  see  McKenzie. 
They  arrived  at  Union  about  the  ist  of  April,  1831,  and  McKenzie  got 
their  consent  to  build  a  trading-post  at  the  mouth  of  Maria's.  The 
Indians  stayed  about  one  month,  then  started  home  to  tell  the  news  to 
their  people. 

McKenzie  then  started  Kipp,  with  seventy-five  men  and  an  outfit  of 
Indian  goods,  to  build  a  fort  at  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River,  and  he  had 
the  fort  completed  before  the  winter  of  1831.  It  was  only  a  temporary 
arrangement  to  winter  in,  in  order  to  find  out  whether  it  would  pay  to 
establish  a  permanent  post.  Next  spring  Colonel  Mitchell  (afterward 
colonel  in  Doniphan's  expedition  to  Mexico)  built  some  cabins  on  Brule 
bottom,  to  live  in  until  a  good  fort  could  be  built.  The  houses  at  the 
mouth  of  Maria's  were  burned  after  the  company  moved  to  Brule  bottom. 
Alexander  Culbertson  was  sent  by  McKenzie  to  relieve  Mitchell,  and  to 
build  a  picket-stockade  fort  200  feet  square  on  the  north  bank  of  the 
Missouri  River,  which  he  completed  during  the  summer  and  fall  of  1832. 


This  fort  was  occupied  (for  eleven  years,  until  Fort  Lewis  was  built 
by  Culbertson  on  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri  River,  near  Pablois' 
Island,  in  the  summer  of  1844.  Fort  Brule  was  then  abandoned  and 

In  1846,  Fort  Lewis  was  abandoned,  and  Fort  Benton  was  built  by 
Culbertson,  about  seven  miles  below  Fort  Lewis,  and  on  the  north  bank  of 
the  Missouri  River.  It  was  250  feet  square,  built  of  adobes  laid  upon  the 
ground  without  any  foundation  of  stone,  and  is  now  standing  (1875), 
and  occupied  as  a  military  post.  The  dwellings,  warehouses,  stores,  etc., 
were  all  built  of  adobes. 



The  Piegans,  Blackfeet,  and  Blood  Indians,  all  talking  the  same 
language,  claimed  and  occupied  the  country  from  the  Missouri  River 
to  the  Saskatchewan  River.  Prior  to  the  building  of  the  winter-quarters 
at  the  mouth  of  Maria's,  they  had  always  traded  with  the  Hudson  Bay 
Company  at  the  Prairie  Fort  or  Somerset  House,  both  on  the  Saskatch- 
ewan. There  was  a  bitter  rivalry  between  the  Hudson  Bay  Company 
and  the  American  Fur  Company.  The  Hudson  Bay  Company  often 
sent  men  to  induce  the  confederated  Blackfeet  to  go  north  and  trade,  and 
the  Indians  said  they  were  offered  large  rewards  to  kill  all  the  traders 
on  the  Missouri  River,  and  destroy  the  trading-posts.  McKenzie  wrote 
to  Governor  Bird,  the  head  man  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  in  the 
north,  in  regard  to  the  matter,  and  Bird  wrote  back  to  McKenzie,  saying: 
"When  you  know  the  Blackfeet  as  well  as  I  do,  you  will  know  that  they 
do  not  need  any  inducements  to  commit  depredations." 

At  the  time  the  Blackfeet  commenced  to  trade  on  the  Missouri,  they 
did  not  have  any  robes  to  trade;  they  only  saved  what  they  wanted  for 
their  own  use.  The  Hudson  Bay  Company  only  wanted  furs  of  different 
kinds.  The  first  season  the  Americans  did  not  get  any  robes,  but  traded 
for  a  large  quantity  of  beaver,  otter,  martin,  etc.  They  told  the  Indians 
they  wanted  robes,  and  from  that  time  the  Indians  made  them  their  prin- 
cipal articles  of  trade.  The  company  did  not  trade  provisions  of  any 
kind  to  the  Indians,  but  when  an  Indian  made  a  good  trade,  he  would  get 
a  spoonful  of  sugar,  which  he  would  put  in  his  medicine-bag  to  use  in 
sickness,  when  all  other  remedies  failed. 

In  1842,  F.  A.  Chardon,  who  was  in  charge  of  Ft.  Brule,  massacred 
about  thirty  Blackfeet  Indians.  The  Indians  had  stolen  a  few  horses 
and  some  little  things  out  of  the  fort  from  time  to  time,  and  Chardon 
concluded  to  punish  them  for  it.  He  waited  until  a  trading  party  came 
in,  and  when  they  were  assembled  in  front  of  the  gate,  he  opened  the 
gate  and  fired  upon  them  with  a  small  cannon  loaded  with  trade  balls. 
After  firing  the  cannon,  the  men  went  out  and  killed  all  the  wounded  with 
knives.  The  Blackfeet  stopped  trading,  and  moved  into  the  British  pos- 
sessions, and  made  war  on  the  post,  and  were  so  troublesome  that 
Chardon  abandoned  Brule  in  the  spring,  went  to  the  mouth  of  the  Judith 
and  built  Fort  F.  A.  Chardon  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri  River, 
a  short  distance  above  the  mouth  of  Judith  River,  which  was  burnt  up 
when  Culbertson  built  Fort  Lewis  and  made  peace  with  the  Blackfeet. 


In  1832,  McKenzie  sent  Tullock,  with  forty  men,  to  build  a  fort  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  River.  Tullock  built  the  fort  named  Van 
Buren,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Yellowstone,  about  three  miles  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  River.  It  was  150  feet  square,  picket  stockade, 
with  two  bastions  on  diagonal  corners.  In  1863,  I  saw  the  location.  The 
pickets  showed  plainly ;  they  had  been  burned  to  the  ground,  and  several 
of  the  chimneys  were  not  entirely  fallen  down.  The  fort  was  built  to 


trade  with  the  Mountain  Crows,  an  insolent,  treacherous  tribe  of  Indians. 
They  wanted  the  location  of  their  trading-post  changed  nearly  every 
year,  consequently  they  had  four  trading-posts  built  from  1832  to  1850, 
viz :  Fort  Cass,  built  by  Tullock,  on  the  Yellowstone,  below  Van  Buren, 
in  1836;  Fort  Alexander,  built  by  Lawender,  still  lower  down  on  the 
Yellowstone  River,  in  1848,  and  Fort  Sarpy,  built  by  Alexander  Cul- 
bertson,  in  1850,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rose  Bud.  Fort  Sarpy  was  aban- 
doned in  1853,  and  there  has  not  been  any  trading  forts  built  on  the 
Yellowstone  since,  up  to  the  present  time  (1875). 


Kenneth  McKenzie,  after  Lewis  and  Clark,  was  the  pioneer  of  the 
Upper  Missouri.  He  was  a  native  of  the  highlands  of  Scotland.  When 
young  he  came,  in  the  service  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  to  Hudson's 
Bay.  In  1820,  he  quit  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  and  started  to  explore 
the  country  from  Hudson's  Bay  to  Red  River  and  Lake  Winnipeg;  thence 
to  the  Lake  Superior  country;  finally  concluded  to  locate  on  the  Upper 
Mississippi.  In  1822,  he  went  to  New  York,  and  got  an  outfit  of  Indian 
trade  goods  on  credit,  and  established  a  trading-post  on  the  Upper 
Mississippi,  and  remained  in  that  part  of  the  country  until  1829,  when 
he  came  to  the  Missouri  and  established  Fort  Union.  He  was  in  charge 
of  all  the  northwestern  fur  trade  until  1839,  when  he  resigned — Alex- 
ander Culbertson  taking  his  place — and  went  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  went 
into  the  wholesale  liquor  trade,  and  lived  there  until  he  died,  in  1856 
or  1857.  He  was  a  man  of  great  courage,  energy,  good  judgment,  and 
much  executive  ability. 


From  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  of  Western  Montana  have  issued  not  a 
few  influences  which  have  tended  to  establish  permanent  or  settled  con- 
ditions in  the  territory  and  state.  Fortunately  this  sheltered  garden- 
valley  was  the  old-time  home  of  the  friendly  and  intelligent  Salish  tribe 
of  Indians,  who  have  always  protested  against  the  imposition  of  the 
name  "Flatheads"  upon  them.  Why  they  should  be  thus  designated, 
neither  ethnologists  nor  historians  have  ever  been  able  to  discover,  for 
their  heads  are  as  rounded  and  shapely  as  those  of  any  red  men ;  and 
there  is  no  tradition  that  they  have  ever  resorted  to  the  barbarous  custom 
of  flattening  their  heads,  which  is  common  to  several  of  the  tribes  of  the 
Pacific  Coast. 


The  ancient  home  of  the  Salish,  which  they  still  occupied  when  Lewis 
and  Clark  passed  through  their  country,  was  along  the  western  slopes 
of  the  main  Rocky  Mountain  range,  to  the  east  of  the  Bitter  Root  Moun- 
tains. The  opposite  slope  of  the  Bitter  Root  range  was  held  by  the 
Nez  Perces,  an  equally  superior  tribe,  with  whom  the  Salish  are  often 
confounded.  The  latter  call  their  country  Spe'tlemen,  which  means  the 
Place  of  the  Bitter  Root.  The  Indians  lived  principally  on  game,  fish, 
wild  roots  and  berries — all  very  plentiful  in  their  streams  and  land. 
The  principal  roots  were  the  bitter  variety,  which  was  like  chicory  in 
shape,  color  and  taste,  and  the  camas,  which  resembles  a  small  onion  and 
tastes  like  a  smoked  chestnut.* 

The  scourge  of  the  Salish,  as  well  as  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  and  other 
sections  of  the  Land  of  the  Mountains,  were  the  Blackfeet,  whose  fierce 
and  continuous  warfare  against  them  is  largely  responsible  for  their  de- 
crease in  numbers,  almost  to  the  point  of  extermination. 


Although  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  came  into  contact  with  the 
Flathead  in  passing  through  the  Bitter  Root  Valley,  it  is  strange  that  the 
record  of  the  expedition  speaks  of  them  as  Hootlashoots,  and  ignores 

*  Flathead  number  of  the  Indian  Sentinel,  October,   1919. 



the  tribal  name  Salish.  It  is  important  to  mention  it,  because  it  has  a 
bearing  on  the  first  expedition  senl  by  the  Flathead  to  St.  Louis  Lil3i 
for  the  Blackgowns,  or  Jesuit  missionaries.  Patrick  Gass,  of  the  Lewis 
and  Clark  expedition,  particularly  notes  the  chastity  among  the  Flathead 
and  the  absence  of  polygamy  in  their  marital  relations.  Travelers  and 
>rs  of  a  later  period  give  them  the  same  credit.  They  were  also  noted 


as  being  a  remarkably  hardy  tribe,  with  a  power  of  endurance  that  could 
scarcely  be  credited  at  the  present  day.  In  fact,  it  was  remarked  in  the 
journal  published  from  the  pens  of  Lewis  and  Clark  that  childbirth 
hardly  entailed  on  Salish  mothers  an  hour's  delay.  Often  at  the  ex- 
piration of  that  time,  an  Indian  squaw  who  had  disappeared  on  a  journey 
to  become  a  mother  would  remount  her  pony  with  her  new  offspring  and 
resume  travel  with  the  rest  of  the  company. 




It  was  in  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  of  this  hardy,  cleanly  and  intel- 
ligent tribe  that  the  Catholic  missions  had  their  birth,  and  introduced 
not. only  religion  but  the  white  man's  industry  and  settled  life  in  the 
wilds  of  this  Rocky  Mountain  region.  Sometime  in  the  early  portion 
of  the  nineteenth  century  a  band  of  twenty-four  Iroquois  left  a  Catholic 
mission  near  Sault  St.  Louis,  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  Canada,  crossed  the 
Mississippi  Valley,  and  wandered  into  the  friendly  protection  of  the 
Bitter  Root  Valley  where  they  decided  to  settle  and  spread  their  newly- 
acquired  gospel  of  peace.  The  leader  of  the  Iroquois  band  was  Ignace 
La  Mousse;  Big  Ignace,  to  distinguish  his  large  stature,  or  Old  Ignace, 
to  distinguish  him  from  Young  Ignace,  a  son  who  was  also  prominent  in 
the  struggles  and  misfortunes  of  a  decade  to  obtain  a  Catholic  mission 
in  the  Flathead  country. 


Ignace,  the  Big  and  Old,  long  labored  among  the  peaceable  and  re- 
ceptive Salish  before  they  were  converted  to  the  necessity  of  having  the 
Blackrobes  among  them.  Four  of  the  converted  Indian  braves — two 
adopted  Nez  Perces  and  two  native  Flathead — finally  agreed  to  go  to  St. 
Louis  and  bring  back  the  missionaries;  to  brave  unknown  mountains, 
plains,  deserts  and  fierce  enemies  of  the  human  kind,  such  as  the  deadly 
Blackfeet  and  savage  Sioux.  Starting  from  the  mountains,  in  the  spring 
of  1831,  they  overcame  all  difficulties  and  after  a  fearful  journey  of  six 
months  reached  St.  Louis  in  the  early  part  of  October.  Soon  after 
meeting  Gen.  William  Clark,  the  Indian  agent,  and  explaining  to  him,  in 
some  undetermined  way,  the  object  of  their  arduous  trip,  the  four 
messengers,  truly  "braves,"  were  taken  ill.  Two  of  them,  Narciss  and 
Paul,  died  after  being  baptized,  and  were  solemnly  interred  in  the  Catholic 
cemetery  in  St.  Louis.  General  Clark  was  much  pleased  to  explain  the 
object  of  their  long  journey  to  Bishop  Rosati,  as  the  famous  expedition 
of  which  he  was  one  of  the  leaders,  a  quarter  of  a  century  previous,  had 
been  materially  aided  by  the  Nez  Perces  and  Salish  tribes. 

The  two  survivors  of  the  journey  from  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  left 
St.  Louis  for  their  home  in  the  spring  of  1832.  General  Clark  secured 
passage  for  them  on  the  steamer  "Yellowstone,"  which  was  about  to 
make  her  historic  trip  up  the  Missouri  to  Fort  Union.  As  has  been 
noted,  George  Catlin,  the  author  and  artist  of  Indian  life,  was  aboard, 
and  induced  the  two  Indians  to  sit  for  their  portraits,  which  still  hang 
on  the  walls  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  In  a  report  made  to  the 
institution  more  than  half  a  century  afterward,  Catlin  writes  of  having 
met  the  two  Indians  and  traveling  2,000  miles  with  them.  He 
adds  that  he  "became  much  pleased  with  their  manners  and  dispositions," 
and  that  when  he  first  heard  the  report  of  the  object  of  their  mission  he 
could  scarcely  believe  it.  but  upon  conversing  with  General  Clark  on  a 
future  occasion  was  fully  convinced  of  the  fact. 


It  is  not  known  that  either  of  the  two  Indians  who  started  on  their 
return  to  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  reached  their  destination,  but  it  is 
certain  that  no  Catholic  missionary  was  sent  as  a  result  of  the  sacrifices 
of  the  brave  four.  Their  visit  to  St.  Louis  had  its  ultimate  effect,  how- 
ever, as  all  disinterested  sacrifices  do.  The  Methodist  and  Presbyterian 
missionaries  became  interested  in  the  Western  Indians,  and  the  Massachu- 
setts Lees  traveled  into  Oregon  and  laid  the  foundation  of  Willamette  and 
The  Dallas  missions  and  Indian  school,  while  Dr.  Samuel  Parker  and 
Marcus  Whitman,  of  New  York,  brought  Protestantism  to  the  Indians 
of  Washington  and  Idaho,  as  we  know  them  now. 


But  it  was  Catholicism  which  most  appealed  to  the  Salish  of  the 
Bitter  Root  Valley,  and  in  the  summer  of  1835  Old  Ignace,  with  his  two 
young  sons,  started  again  on  the  perilous  journey  to  St.  Louis,  in 
quest  of  the  priests  and  missionaries  of  their  faith.  After  terrible 
sufferings  from  cold  and  hunger,  they  reached  St.  Louis  and  returned  with 
promises  of  spiritual  assistance.  For  eighteen  months  the  patient  and 
faithful  Indians  awaited  their  priests  in  vain,  and  in  the  summer  of  1837 
Ignace,  the  elder,  once  more  led  the  quest  toward  St.  Louis,  his  com- 
panions being  three  Salish  and  one  Nez  Perce.  Near  Fort  Laramie  they 
joined  a  little  party  of  whites,  among  whom  was  W.  H.  Gray  who  had 
come  West  with  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman.  Thence  they  took  up  the  march 
together,  but  while  passing  through  the  country  of  the  hostile  Sioux,  at 
Ash  Hollow  on  the  South  Platte,  they  encountered  a  large  body  of 
enemy  warriors. 


The  Sioux,  who  wished  only  the  scalps  of  the  Indians,  ordered  the 
whites  to  stand  aside  before  the  attack  commenced,  and  Old  Ignace,  who 
was  clad  in  white  man's  garments,  was  told  to  join  them.  He  bravely 
and  loyally  refused  and  in  the  desperate  fight  which  ensued — four  against 
three  hundred — the  five  emissaries  from  the  Salish,  including  their  heroic 
leader,  were  left  dead  upon  the  field.  A  Catholic  writer  justly  observes : 
"Thus  perished  he  who  justly  could  be  called  the  apostle  of  the  Flat- 
head  and  neighboring  tribes." 

In  1839,  the  fourth  and  successful  pilgrimage  to  St.  Louis  was  ac- 
complished by  Young  Ignace  and  Peter  Gaucher,  both  Christian  Iroquois, 
who  joined  a  party  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  and  made  the  trip  in 
canoes.  They  made  the  journey  in  three  months,  and  Bishop  Rosati  "gave 
them  the  hope  to  soon  have  a  priest."  "One  of  them,"  he  continues, 
"wifl  carry  the  good  news  promptly  to  the  Flathead,  the  other  will  spend 
the  winter  at  the  mouth  of  the  Bear  River  and,  in  the  spring,  continue 
the  journey  with  the  missionary  whom  we  will  send  them."  It  was  de- 
cided that  Pierre  (Peter)  Gaucher  was  to  bring  the  news  to  the  Indians, 
and  Young  Ignace  was  to  accompany  the  missionary. 

Vol.  I— 10 



That  missionary  was  the  renouned  Father  Peter  J.  De  Smet,  S.  J., 
who,  on  March  27,  1840,  set  out  from  St.  Louis  under  the  guidance  of 
Young  Ignace.  Going  by  boat  to  Westport  (now  Kansas  City),  they  joined 
the  annual  expedition  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  and  started  with  a 
party  of  some  thirty  people  for  Green  River,  which  was  then  the  rendez- 
vous for  all  western  travel.  The  romantic  series  of  events  which  led  to 
the  establishment  of  St.  Mary's  mission,  in  the  Bitter  Root  Valley,  have 
been  mostly  gleaned  from  the  "Letters  and  Sketches,"  fortunately  written 
by  Father  De  Smet  and  largely  preserved  through  the  industry  and  fore- 
thought of  the  late  Dr.  Reuben  G.  Thwaites,  secretary  of  the  Wisconsin 
Historical  Society. 


About  the  time  that  Father  De  Smet  and  Young  Ignace  left  St.  Louis, 
Gaucher,  who  had  bravely  plunged  through  the  wilds  of  the  western 
wilderness  during  the  awful  months  of  winter,  arrived,  all  but  dead  with 
cold,  starvation  and  sheer  exhaustion,  at  the  Flathead  camp  on  Eight  Mile 
Creek,  in  the  Bitter  Root  Valley.  At  the  joyful  reception  of  his  news, 
the  chief  detailed  ten  of  his  warriors  to  Green  River  to  meet  the  mis- 
sionary, in  advance  of  the  main  body  of  the  tribe.  The  meeting  occurred 
on  June  30,  1840,  the  Flathead  reception  committee  having  reached 
the  rendezvous  before  the  missionary.  "The  following  Sunday,  July  5th, 
Father  De  Smet  celebrated  Mass  before  a  motley  but  respectful  crowd 
of  Indians,  white  fur  traders,  trappers  and  hunters.  The  altar  was 
erected  on  a  little  elevation  and  decorated  with  boughs  and  garlands  of 
wild  flowers.  The  vault  of  the  temple  was  God's  azure  sky  and  the  floor, 
the  boundless  expanse  of  the  wilderness.  The  spot  became  known  to  In- 
dian and  white  as  The  Prairie  of  the  Mass." 

Bidding  farewell  to  his  traveling  companions  the  missionary  and  his 
Indian  escort  proceeded  toward  the  headwaters  of  the  Snake  River,  and 
some  eight  days  journey  through  mountain  defiles  brought  them  to  the 
main  body  of  the  Flathead.  The  latter  were  encamped  in  Pierre  Hole 
Valley,  on  the  line  that  divides  Idaho  from  Wyoming,  south  of  Pleasant 
Valley,  and  had  made  the  journey  of  about  eight  hundred  miles  from  their 
home  to  meet  the  Blackrobe.  They  had  been  joined  by  detached  bands 
of  Nez  Perces,  Pend  d'Oreilles,  and  Kalispel,  and  numbered  in  all  about 
i, 600  souls.  In  their  encampment  a  good  lodge  or  tepee  had  been  erected 
for  the  missionary.  A  lively  demonstration  of  joy,  in  which  all,  men, 
women  and  children  took  part,  made  Father  De  Smet  most  heartily 

With  marvelous  eagerness  the  whole  tribe  set  about  learning  their 
religious  duties.  "The  great  chief,"  writes  the  missionary,  "was  the  first 
up  at  dawn  of  day,  and  mounted  on  his  horse,  he  rode  through  the 
camp  to  arouse  his  people  crying  out  to  them:  'Courage,  my  children; 
open  your  eyes.  Address  your  first  thoughts  and  words  to  the  Great 
Spirit.  Tell  him  that  you  love  him  and  ask  him  to  have  pity  on  you. 


Courage,  for  the  sun  is  about  to  appear.  It  is  time  that  you  go  to  the  river 
to  wash  yourselves.  Be  prompt  at  your  Father's  lodge  at  the  first  sound 
of  the  little  bell.  Be  quiet  when  you  are  there.  Open  your  ears  to  hear 
and  your  hearts  to  hold  fast  all  the.  words  that  he  says  to  you.' "  A 
few  days  afterward  the  whole  camp  moved  up  Henry's  Fork  on  the  Snake 
River  to  Henry's  Lake  whence  the  river  starts.  Father  De  Smet  ascended 
one  of  the  peaks  rising  from  the  summit  of  the  main  range,  and,  with  a 
pocket  knife,  engraved  on  the  soft  stone  the  following  inscription: 
Santus  Ignatius  Patronus  Montium,  die  23  Julii,  1840. 


Father  De  Smet's  missionary  labor  began  with  his  arrival  and  con- 
tinued till  he  parted  from  these  good  Indians  to  return  to  St.  Louis. 
"The  few  weeks  I  had  the  happiness  to  pass  among  them,"  he  wrote 
to  Very  Rev.  F.  N.  Blanchet,  "have  been  the  happiest  of  my  life  and  give 
me  firm  hope  with  the  grace  of  God  to  see  soon,  in  this  country  so  long 
forsaken,  the  fervor  of  the  first  Christians.  Since  I  am  among  them  I 
have  given  three,  four  and  five  instructions  daily.  They  are  anxious  to 
lose  none  of  my  words  relating  to  these  instructions,  and  if  I  had  the 
strength  to  speak  to  them,  they  would  listen  to  me  whole  days  and  nights. 
I  have  baptized  about  200  of  their  children,  and  I  expect  in  a  short  time  to 
baptize  150  adults." 

"At  the  rendezvous  at  Green  River,  Father  De  Smet  had  picked 
up  a  good  Fleming,  John  Baptist  de  Velder,  an  old  grenadier  of  Napoleon, 
who  had  left  his  native  country  at  the  age  of  thirty  and  had  passed  as  a 
beaver  hunter  the  last  fourteen  years  in  the  wilds  of  the  Rockies.  He  had 
almost  forgotten  the  Flemish  tongue,  declares  Father  De  Smet,  except 
his  prayers  and  a  song  that  he  had  learnt  on  his  mother's  knee  and  re- 
peated every  day.  This  good  man  followed  the  missionary  to  the  Flat- 
head  and  accompanied  him  to  St.  Louis,  where  they  arrived  the  last 
day  of  the  year,  1840. 

"On  leaving  the  tribe  the  missionary  told  the  Indians  that  he  would 
return  to  them  the  following  spring  with  other  Blackrobes  and  establish 
a  permanent  mission  among  them.  His  first  visit  had  convinced  him  that 
the  Flathead  presented  a  field  of  great  promise.  But, 'on  his  arrival  at  St. 
Louis,  Father  De  Smet  ascertained  to  his  great  sorrow  that  financial 
straits  rendered  it  impossible  to  provide  the  funds  for  a  second  and 
larger  expedition.  The  thought  that  the  undertaking  would  have  to  be 
given  up,  that  I  would  not  be  able  to  redeem  my  promise  to  the  good 
Indians,  pierced  my  very  heart  and  filled  me  with  the  deepest  sorrow,' 
wrote  Father  De  Smet,  May  I,  1841.'  However,  Providence  came  to 
his  help,  and  he  was  able  to  set  out  for  the  Rocky  mountains  accompanied 
by  two  priests,  Father  Gregory  Mengarini,  a  Roman,  and  Father  Nicholas 
Point,  a  Vendean,  with  three  lay-Brothers,  Joseph  Specht,  an  Alsatian, 
William  Classens  and  Charles  Hue"t,  Belgians,  all  of  whom  were  members 
of  the  Society  of  Jesus.  An  Irishman,  Fitzgerald  by  name,  and  two 
Canadians,  were  in  the  party  as  drivers.  John  Gray,  a  noted  moun- 
taineer, accompanied  them  in  the  capacity  of  guide  and  hunter.  Besides 


the  horses  and  pack  animals,  their  traveling  outfit  consisted  of  three  carts 
and  one  wagon  harnessed  to  a  yoke  of  oxen.  These  were  the  first  oxen 
and  the  first  means  of  locomotion  on  wheels  brought  into  Montana. 

"The  Flathead  had  promised  Father  De  Smet  that  some  of  their 
people  would  meet  him  at  a  given  spot  near  the  foot  of  the  Wind  River 
mountains  by  the  first  of  the  following  July.  Faithful  to  their  promise 
ten  Flathead  lodges  were  on  the  spot  at  the  stated  time.  But  the  mis- 
sionaries could  not  reach  the  place  till  the  middle  of  the  month.  The 
Indians  waited  some  twelve  days,  as  long  as  they  had  anything  to  eat. 
But,  having  fallen  short  of  provisions,  they  had  to  go  to  the  mountains 
some  distance  off  to  hunt  for  their  subsistence.  This  news  reached  the 


missionaries  near  Fort  Bridger,  and  they  sent  John  Gray  to  notify  the 
hunters,  who  were  not  slow  to  answer  the  call. 

"In  this  vanguard  were  the  following:  Gabriel  Prudhome,  a  half- 
breed  member  of  the  tribe,  and  the  interpreter  of  Father  De  Smet  the 
year  before ;  the  two  sons  of  Old  Ignace,  Charles  and  Francis,  baptized  in 
St.  Louis  in  1835 ;  and  young  Ignace,  the  guide  and  companion  of  Father 
De  Smet  in  the  first  trip.  Brave  Pilchimo,  whose  brother  was  one  of 
the  five  slain  by  the  Sioux  at  Ash  Hollow,  and  old  Simon,  baptized  the 
previous  year,  and  the  oldest  man  of  the  tribe,  were  also  of  the  number. 
All  these  ran  ahead  of  the  rest  to  forestall  everybody  else  In  greeting  the 
missionaries.  Old  Simon  ran  and  raced  as  fast  as  any,  looking,  speaking 
and  acting  as  if  the  vivacity  of  youth  had  come  back  to  him ;  whilst  young 
Ignace  traveled  four  whole  days  and  nights  without  a  bite  to  eat,  that  he 
might  be  among  the  first  to  welcome  the  missionary  band. 


"After  greeting  the  missionaries  with  exuberant  joy  they  conducted 
them  in  safety  to  the  Bitter  Root  Valley,  where  the  mission  was  to  be 


located,  and  where  the  Indians  were  to  gather,  according  to  their  promise, 
before  the  coming  winter.  The  site  selected  was  near  the  middle  of  the 
valley,  and  the  spot  was  reached  by  the  missionary  band  September  24, 
the  Feast  of  Our  Lady  of  Mercy,  a  most  auspicious  coincidence  in  the 
mind  of  the  Fathers.  The  Brothers  felled  some  trees  and  constructed  a 
large  cross  which  was  erected  on  the  spot  to  the  chant  of  the  Vexilla 

"Father  De  Smet  named  the  mission  St.  Mary's,  after  Our  Lady. 
The  beautiful  and  crystal-like  stream  flowing  close  by,  the  imposing  moun- 
tain just  opposite  and  towering  to  the  sky  and  the  whole  valley  partici- 
pated in  the  appellation  and  became  St.  Mary's  River,  St.  Mary's  Peak, 
St.  Mary's  Valley,  and  have  maintained  these  sweet  names  to  the  pres- 
ent day.  The  formal  inauguration  of  the  mission  took  place  on  the  first 
Sunday  of  October/ the  feast  of  the  Holy  Rosary." 

The  news  that  the  Blackrobe  had  come  to  the  land  of  the  Flathead 
soon  spread  among  the  neighboring  tribes,  and  one  day  in  October,  as 
noted  by  Father  De  Smet,  came  representatives  of  twenty-four  different 
nations  to  the  missionaries  at  St.  Mary's.  In  November,  at  their  return 
from  their  hunting  expedition,  fully  one-third  of  the  Flathead  were  bap- 
tized. Others  were  baptized  on  Christmas  day,  among  whom  were  115 
Flathead,  thirty  Nez  Perces  with  their  chief,  and  one  Blackfoot  chief 
with  his  entire  family.  "That  first  Christmas,"  says  Father  De  Smet, 
"was  celebrated  with  all  the  solemnity  that  was  possible  in  the  wilder- 


The  mission  completed,  Father  De  Smet  traveled  to  Fort  Colville  in 
Washington,  a  distance  of  more  than  three  hundred  miles,  to  procure 
seeds  and  roots,  and  on  his  way  he  stopped  among  the  Kalispehlms  (Kalis- 
pels)  the  Pend  d'Oreilles  and  the  Couer  d'Alenes.  He  took  back  to  his 
Salish  charges  at  St.  Mary's  "  a  few  bushels  of  oats,  wheat  and  potatoes," 
which  he  and  his  brethren  sowed.  "The  Indians,  like  children,  watched 
with  wonder,  the  planting,  sprouting,  ripening  and  reaping  of  the  crop, 
a  thing  hitherto  unknown  to  them,  though  husbandry  on  a  small  scale 
had  been  practiced  at  an  earlier  date  by  some  of  the  eastern  tribes." 

The  missionaries  did  not  restrict  their  activity  to  religious  instruction, 
but  zealously  endeavored  to  inculcate  the  necessity  and  advantages  of 
work,  a  pursuit  that  was  utterly  foreign  to  the  customs  and  traditions 
of  their  converts.  After  the  first  lessons  in  manual  labor,  brought  home 
to  the  neophytes  by  building  a  chapel  and  the  necessary  winter  quarters 
for  the  community,  they  were  taught  to  cut  and  split  rails,  to  fence  in  a 
plot  of  ground  for  cultivation  in  the  coming  spring.  However,  this  kind 
of  missionary  labor  was  a  great  surprise  to  the  Indians,  who  did  not 
have  the  faintest  notion  of  agriculture.  They  neither  understood  nor 
would  they  believe  Brother  Claessens,  who  told  them  that  the  soil  had 
to  be  tilled  and  seeded  to  produce  a  rich  harvest  of  grain.  The  good 
Brother  used  to  chuckle  with  pleasure  when  he  saw  the  Indians  perched 


for  hours  on  the  fence  day  after  day  to  see  whether  the  grain  would 
come  up  or  not.  Their  incredulity  began  to  weaken  and  finally  gave  way 
when  they  saw  the  green  blades  and  tender  stalks  crop  out  of  the  soil. 
They  took  great  pleasure  in  the  growing  wheat,  and  their  expectancy  grew 
even  feverish  when  it  began  to  ripen.  Happilly  the  yield  was  even  larger 
than  the  Brother  had  expected,  and  many  of  the  Indians  were  privileged 
to  share  in  its  abundance.  This  was  the  first  farming  and  gardening  done 
in  Montana. 

Immediately  after  their  arrival,  the  missionaries  set  about  con- 
structing the  buildings  of  St.  Mary's.  Unfortunately,  a  description  of  the 
mission  as  first  constructed  is  not  available,  but  in  1846  it  consisted 
of  twelve  houses  built  of  logs,  a  church,  a  saw-mill,  a  grist-mill  and 
buildings  for  farm  use.  Abundant  crops  of  wheat,  potatoes  and  various 
vegetables  were  produced ;  several  head  of  cattle  were  raised  and  the 
establishment  had  all  the  horses  necessary  for  its  use.  These  represented 
the  first  agricultural  operations  in  Montana.  The  burrs  for  the  mill 
were  brought  from  Belgium,  Father  De  Smet's  home-land,  to  the  Oregon 
settlements,  and  thence  to  St.  Mary's. 

In  1843  the  Jesuit  College  sent  out  it  wo  priests  to  assist  Fathers 
Point  and  Mengarini,  while  De  Smet  was  dispatched  on  a  mission  to 
Europe.  These  priests  were  Peter  De  Voss  and  Adrian  Hoeken,  and  they 
arrjped  in  September  at  St.  Mary's  with  three  lay  brethren. 


Father  De  Smet's  attempts  to  convert  the  Blackfeet  were  continuous 
and  persistent,  but,  on  the  whole,  unsuccessful  as  compared  with  the 
work  of  himself  and  his  fellow  missionaries  among  the  Salish.  The 
Blackfoot  chief  who  had  been  baptized  on  Christmas  day  of  1841  added 
his  endeavors  to  those  of  the  Blackrobes,  to  bring  his  warlike  people  over 
to  the  Gospel  of  Peace,  but  in  the  midst  of  his  difficult  labors  met  an 
accidental  death  by  falling  from  his  horse.  Father  De  Smet  met  with 
some  success  in  bringing  the  Flathead  and  Blackfeet  into  more  friendly 
relations ;  that  is,  certain  members  of  the  tribes,  with  representatives  of 
the  Nez  Perces,  Piegans,  Bloods  and  Gros  Ventres,  joined  the  Catholic 
Church  and  worshipped  in  common.  Upon  one  occasion,  in  1846,  the 
good  Father  made  note  of  "a  solemn  mass,  sung  in  the  open  plain  under 
the  canopy  of  green  boughs,  to  beg  for  the  blessings  of  God  upon  this 
wilderness  and  its  wandering  tribes  and  unite  them  in  the  bond  of  peace," 
at  which  participated  about  2,000  members  of  the  tribes  mentioned. 
"It  is  a  thing  unheard  of,"  concludes  the  missionary,  "that  among  so.  many 
different  savage  nations,  hitherto  so  inimical  to  one  another,  unanimity 
and  joy,  such  as  we  now  witness,  should  exist — it  appears  as  if  their 
ancient  deadly  feuds  had  been  long  since  buried  in  oblivion,  and  this  is 
all  the  more  remarkable  in  an  Indian  who,  it  is  well  known,  cherishes 
feelings  of  revenge  for  many  years.  How  long  will  this  last?" 

Father  De  Smet  plainly  saw  that  the  greatest  obstacles  to  the  prog- 
ress of  the  Catholic  missions  were  personified  in  the  Blackfeet,  the 


most  savage  tribes  of  the  region  and  the  traditionary  enemies  of  the 
Salish  tribe.  For  several  years,  therefore,  before  St.  Mary's  mission 
was  abandoned  he  bent  his  energies  toward  the  establishment  of  a  per- 
manent mission  among  the  Blackfeet. 


The  old  mission  of  St.  Ignatius  had  been  founded  by  Father  Point, 
on  the  banks  of  the  Pend  d'Oreille  River  among  the  Kalispehlms,  in  1844. 
It  was  placed  in  charge  of  Father  Point,  who  acquitted  himself  so  well 
in  this  and  other  western  missions  that  he  was  delegated  by  Father  De 
Smet  to  especially  labor  among  the  Blackfeet.  He  lived  at  Fort  Lewis, 
where,  it  would  seem,  there  was  work  to  be  done  among  the  whites  as  well 
as  the  reds.  Lieut.  James  H.  Bradley,  in  his  journal  covering  the  year 
1845  at  tne  f°rt>  has  the  following  regarding  the  influence  and  discipline 
of  Fathers  De  Smet  and  Point  upon  the  morals  of  the  whites  and  In- 
dians : 

"Father  Point,  whom  we  have  seen  was  left  by  Father  De  Smet  at  the 
Fort,  was  furnished  quarters  and  a  room  for  a  chapel  and  school.     He 
was  a  man  of  great  austerity  and  severe  in  the  practice  of  his  religion. 
He  had  daily  service  in  his  chapel,  and  the  mass  upon  Sundays,  attended 
by  all  the  squaws  and  most  of  the  white  employes  of  the  fort,  Major  Cul- 
bertson    himself    setting   them   the   example.      The    Father   was    filled 
with  zeal  for  their  conversion  to  the  holy  faith,  sternly  reproved  every 
exhibition  of  profanity  and  rebuked  every  immorality,  and  gradually 
made  himself  feared  but  respected  by  every  inmate  of  the  fort;  over 
the  squaws  in  particular  gaining  a  complete  ascendency.     Even  Major 
Culbertson  was  not  exempt  from  his  denunciation  when  occasion  arose. 
"At  one  time  when  some  packs  of  robes  were  lying  on  the  landing 
under  cover,  a  storm  and  rain  came  up  on  Sunday,  and  the  cover  being 
blown  from  the  pile,  Major  Culbertson  set  to  work  with  some  of  his  men 
to  protect  them  from  the  shower.    Learning  what  was  going  on,  Father 
De  Smet  ran  out  to  expostulate.     'Major  Culberston,'*  said  he,  'I  am 
amazed.    I  thought  you  were  a  Christian,  a  reverencer  of  religion  and  an 
observer  of  the  holy  Sabbath;  but  now  I  find  you,  not  only  violating 
God's  holy  day,  but  exacting  it  of  your  men.     How  can  my  teachings 
bear  fruit,  when  you  trample  them  thus  ruthlessly  in  the  dust?'    Never- 
theless, Major  Culbertson  continued  his  labor  and  the  priest  continued 
his  expostulations, -till  the  former  losing  patience,  and  believing  it  to  be  a 
Christian  duty  to  protect  his  property  from  destruction  told  the  priest 
abruptly  to  go  to  his  room  and  read  his  bible,  when  he  wouldn't  see  what 
was  going  on. 

"At  another  time,  when  Major  Culbertson's  child  was  sick  with 
croup,  and  all  efforts  to  afford  it  relief  had  failed,  its  Indian  mother 
requested  to  have  an  old  Blood  squaw,  famous  in  the  tribe  for  her  success- 
ful treatment  of  the  diseases  of  children,  summoned  to  try  her  art  upon 

*  See  Father  Point's  letter,  page  253,  DeSmet's  "Western  Missions  and  Mis- 


the  child.  Knowing  it  to  be  the  last  hope  and  willing  to  satisfy  his  wife. 
Major  Culbertson  consented  and  the  squaw  doctress  came.  Heating 
stones  and  throwing  water  upon  them  she  began  to  give  the  child  a 
steam  bath,  accompanying  this  treatment  with  the  monotonous  song 
always  employed  on  such  occasions.  Father  Point  was  just  sitting  down 
to  breakfast  with  Major  Culbertson  in  the  room  below,  when  the  sounds 
of  the  old  woman's  incantations  reached  his  ears.  Inquiring  the  cause 
and  being  informed,  without  ceremony  he  rushed  up  to  the  room,  seized 
the  old  woman  by  the  neck,  pushed  her  precipitately  down  the  stairs, 
and  then  returning  to  the  breakfast  table  reproached  Major  Culbertson 
in  strong  language  for  thus  lending  his  influence  to  perpetuate  super- 
stitions which  he,  the  priest,  was  struggling  with  all  the  power  of  religion 
to  eradicate. 


"Father  Point  remained  at  Fort  Lewis  until  the  following  May  (1846), 
when  he  returned  to  St.  Louis.  His  influence  a"t  the  fort  had  been  de- 
cidedly for  good ;  among  the  reforms  that  he  accomplished  was  a  change 
of  relations  between  the  white  employes  of  the  fort  and  the  squaws  living 
there.  When  the  former  were  willing  to  become  the  lawful  husbands  of 
their  squaws,  he  solemnized  marriage  between  them;  and  when  they 
would  not  consent  to  do  this,  he  induced  the  squaws  to  leave  them  and  re- 
turn to  their  respective  tribes. 

"Major  Culbertson  states,  in  connection  with  this  subject  of  Indian 
wives,  that  even  when  marriage  in  the  usual  form  had  not  taken  place, 
the  head  of  the  family  felt  himself  bound  to  perform  faithfully  all  the 
duties  of  a  husband  and  a  father.  He  does  not  believe  that  there  oc- 
curred an  instance  of  an  employe  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  who 
taking  an  Indian  wife,  failed  in  the  parental  obligations.  Separated  some- 
times for  life  from  civilized  society.,  deprived  of  the  opportunity  to  get 
wives  of  their  own  color,  it  was  natural  that  they  should  seek  them 
from  the  women  of  the  people  among  whom  they  dwelt.  When  mar- 
riage after  the  custom  of  their  own  race  was  practicable,  they  employed 
its  rites,  but  when  this  was  impossible  it  satisfied  them  to  observe  the 
Indian  custom  of  purchase  and  public  acknowledgement  of  their  intended 
relations.  Some  of  the  resident  partners  of  the  company  and  many  of  the 
clerks,  educated  and  intelligent  men,  took  Indian  wives,  and  carried 
their  families  with  them  when  removing  from  the  country. 

"McKenzie  took  his  Cree  wife  and  four  children  to  Red  river  and 
educated  the  latter  in  the  missionary  schools.  Culbertson  removed  with 
his  Blood  wife  and  six  children  to  Illinois,  educating  his  children,  three 
of  his  daughters  being  now  well  married  and  residing  in  the  East.  Denig 
took  his  family  of  an  Assiniboine  squaw  and  three  children  to  Red  river 
where  he  still  resides.  Morgan,  with  an  Assiniboine  wife  and  two  chil- 
dren removed  to  the  same  place.  Mitchell  sent  his  three  children  by  his 
Cree  wife  to  the  schools  of  Red  River.  .Dawson  took  his  only  child 
by  a  Cree  Ventre  wife  to  Scotland,  his  wife  being  dead.  And  Harvey 


provided  for  his  two  children  by  a  Piegan  woman,  somewhere  in  the 
hese  were  all  prominent  men  of  the  fur  trade  and  similar  exam- 
ples could  be  greatly  multiplied.     The  poorer  class  of  the  employes   the 


artisans  and  laborers,  following  their  example,  did  the  best  the  circum- 
stances permitted.  In  some  instances  the  father  died,  or  was  killed,  leav- 
ing infant  children  whose  lot  in  early  life  was  a  hard  one  and  whose 
subsequent  career  was  not  admirable  consequent  upon  this  early  orphange, 
just  as  is  the  case  with  thousands  of  white  children  who  grow  up  in  the 


heart  of  civilized  communities  in  the  shadow  of  schools  and  churches. 
But  where  children  were  left  thus  uncared  for,  the  rough  frontiersman 
was  often  ready  to  assume  the  position  of  protector  and  provider." 


Father  De  Smet  had  so  pushed  and  expanded  the  activities  of  St. 
Mary's  Mission  that  he  had  sent  Father  Point  and  others  to  establish  the 
Sacred  Heart  Mission  among  the  Coeur  d'Alenes  and  St.  Ignatius  among 
Kalispehlms,  but  was  obliged  to  journey  to  Europe  in  order  to  secure 
other  recruits  to  assist  him  in  his  religious  work.  His  trip  was  most 
successful  and  he  returned  with  a  strong  band  of  priests  and  sisters  to 
develop  the  missions  in  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  and  elsewhere.  The  most 
noted  and  helpful  and  who  came  to  share  with  Father  De  Smet  himself 
the  crown  of  unselfish  Christian  labors  was  Father  Anthony  Ravalli,  also 
a  member  of  the  Society  of  Jesus.  He  was  the  direct  successor  at  St. 
Mary's  of  Father  Peter  Zebinatti,  who  died  suddenly  in  September,  1844. 

Father  Ravalli  was  an  Italian,  and  not  only  learned  in  literature, 
philosophy,  the  natural  sciences  and  theology,  but  thoroughly  versed  in 
medicine  and  in  mechanics.  In  the  forty  years  of  his  service  as  a  mis- 
sionary, he  therefore  was  not  only  beloved  as  a  religious  teacher,  but  as  a 
physical  healer  and  as  a  real  helper  in  the  practical  affairs  of  pioneer 
life.  It  was  he  who  devised  the  first  crude  mill,  by  which  the  people, 
white  and  red  alike,  obtained  nourishing  flour  and  bread.  By  many  other 
ingenious  devices  did  Father  Ravalli  lighten  the  toil  of  those  around 
and  add  to  their  comforts.  Although  he  traveled  from  the  valley  of  the 
Missouri  to  the  Pacific  Coast  as  a  welcome  visitor  to  the  various  Catholic 
missions,  he  was  most  sacredly  enshrined  in  the  hearts  of  the  western 
people  of  his  times  as  the  Apostle  of  the  Salish. 


Father  Ravalli  was  in  charge  of  St.  Mary's  Mission  for  about  five 
years  previous  to  its  abandonment  in  1850.  Little  progress  was  made  in 
placating  the  Blackfeet.  Numerous  war  parties  of  the  nation  continued  to 
visit  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  in  their  marauding  expeditions  against  the 
Flathead  and  whites,  and  seldom  failed  to  make  a  demonstration  against 
the  mission.  In  1849,  upon  an  occasion  when  Father  Ravalli  had  with  him 
only  one  lay  brother  and  a  few  Christian  Indians,  the  mission  was  attacked 
by  a  war  party  of  about  fifty  Blackfeet.  During  the  assault,  two  bands 
of  horses  belonging  to  the  mission  and  Flathead  Indians  made  their  ap- 
pearance, and  the  Blackfoot  warriors  preferring  horses  to  scalps,  with- 
drew from  the  attack,  drove  off  the  horses  and  left  the  occupants  of  the 
mission  to  meditate  on  their  narrow  escape.  For  the  time  being,  the 
Blackfeet  made  St.  Mary's  untenable,  and  in  the  fall  of  1850  it  was  de- 
cided to  withdraw  from  St.  Mary's,  after  the  mission  had  been  in  opera- 
tion for  about  a  decade.  Father  Gregory  Mengarini,  who  during  all  this 
period  had  been  a  co-worker  with  Father  De  Smet,  was  in  charge  at  the 



time  of  its  temporary  closing.  Father  Mengarini  was  the  author  of  a 
Salish  grammar,  published  in  1861,  and  was  the  most  thorough  linguist 
of  the  Flathead  tongue  among  the  missionaries.  He  subsequently  went  to 
Santa  Clara,  California,  where  he  died  in  the  late  '8os. 

St.  Mary's  Mission  was  closed  in  October,  1850,  and  Major  Owen 
bought  its  improvements  and  established  the  fort  which  bore  his  name  in 
the  following  month.  The  mission  had  long  been  not  only  the  center  of 
proselytism  for  the  Catholic  Church,  but  a  refuge  for  travelers  of  what- 
ever faith,  or  none  at  all.  That  fact,  with  the  conviction  of  its  insecurity 
from  Blackfeet  attacks,  seems  to  have  been  the  t  eventual  cause  of  its 
undoing  in  the  fall  of  1850.  This  phase  of  the  situation  is  thus  de- 
scribed by  a  writer  of  the  period :  "In  those  early  days  the  missions  being 
the  only  habitations  within  many  hundred  miles  became  the  refuge  and 
abiding  place  during  bitter  weather  of  French-Canadians  and  mixed- 
breed  trappers,  who  in  milder  seasons  ranged  over  the  mountains  and 
plains  in  pursuit  of  furs.  These  half-savage  men  were  undoubtedly  a 
picturesque  part  of  the  old  woodland  life  and  their  uncouth  figures 
lent  animation  and  color  to  the  quiet  monotone  of  the  religious  com- 
munities. In  the  first  quarter  of  the  last  century  we  find  mention  of 
French-Canadians  employed  by  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  appearing  on 
New  Year's  Eve  clad  in  bison  robes,  painted  like  Indians,  dancing  La 
Gignolee  to  the  music  of  tinkling  bells  fastened  to  their  dress,  for  gifts 
of  meat  and  drink.  The  trappers  were,  in  the  days  of  St.  Mary's  Mission, 
a  licentious,  roistering  band  with  easy  morals,  consciences  long  since 
gone  to  sleep,  who  did  not  hesitate  to  debauch  the  Indians,  and  who 
feared  neither  man  nor  devil.  They  went  to  St.  Mary's,  as  to  other 
shrines,  and  under  the  pretext  of  practicing  their  religion,  lived  on  the 
missionaries'  scanty  stores  and  filled  the  idle  hours  with  illicit  pastimes. 
It  is  said  that  they  became  revengeful  because  of  the  coolness  of  their 
reception  by  the  priests,  and  malevolently  set  about  to  poison  the  Salish 
against  the  beloved  robes  noires." 

Another  account  gives  a  more  specific  instance  of  the  way  that  un- 
principled whites  undermined  the  good  work  of  St.  Mary's.  It  is  to  the 
effect  that  in  the  winter  of  1849-50  eight  white  emigrants  on  their  way 
to  Oregon  stopped  among  the  Flathead  "and  sought  like  drones  to  live  off 
the  scanty  subsistence  of  the  Indians.  Their  ways  were  neither  com- 
mendable nor  edifying.  They  were  men  of  no  religion,  and  resented  the  re- 
monstrances of  the  Fathers  for  the  scandal  given  to  the  Indians  by  their 
licentiousness.  They  deemed  themselves  insulted  by  admonition  and  coun- 
sel, and  intepreted  the  refusal  of  the  missionaries  to  grant  their  exorbitant 
demands  as  an  interference  with  their  rights  and  freedom.  Their  grum- 
bling soon  developed  into  active  hostility,  especially  against  Father  Man- 
garini,  who  was  in  charge  of  the  mission,  and  they  made  use  of  some 
half-breeds  whose  conduct  was  little  better  than  their  own  to  destroy  the 
confidence  and  alienate  the  hearts  of  the  Indians." 

Whatever  the  cause,  or  causes,  the  Flathead  became  luke-warm  in 
their  devotions,  many  of  them  refusing  to  sacrifice  the  buffalo  hunt  for 
priestly  offices,  and  the  Blackfeet  became  more  and  more  dangerous.  So 


Mary's  Mission  was  dismantled  and  leased  to  Major  Owen,  the  trader, 
and  the  missionaries  went  forth  to  other  fields  of  religious  labor.  At 
Hell  Gate,  the  inferno  of  the  Blackfeet,  they  parted,  Father  Ravalli 
starting  for  the  Sacred  Heart  Mission  among  the  Coeur  d'Alenes,  and  the 
others  headed  for  the  Mission  of  St.  Ignatius,  on  the  banks  of  the  Pend 
d'Oreille  River. 


The  missionaries  from  St.  Mary's  abandoned  mission  were  escorted 
to  St.  Ignatius  by  Victor,  the  good  and  able  chief  of  the  Salish  Tribe. 
He  was  also  called  Mitt'to',  the  Lodge  Pole,  and  was  the  successor  of 
Chief  Paul,  or  Long  Face,  who,  as  the  first  of  the  Flathead  to  be  bap- 
tized by  Father  De  Smet,  was  then  eighty  years  of  age.  The  missionary 
named  him  Paul,  after  the  great  Apostle  of  the  Gentiles.  Victor,  who 
was  the  chief  and  great  man  of  his  people,  and  the  unwavering  support 
of  the  whites  for  nearly  fifty  years,  led  the  missionaries  to  the  old  St. 
Ignatius  Mission  in  the  autumn  of  1850.  There,  for  four  or  five  years 
it  endured,  when,  location  not  being  considered  desirable,  preparations 
were  made  to  move  it  to  a  site  selected  by  Alexander,  chief  of  the  Kali- 
spehlms,  in  the  fruitful,  flowery  valley  of  Sin-Yal-min.  From  the  great 
range  by  that  name  which  formed  its  eastern  boundary  "burst  a  water- 
fall plunging  from  mighty  altitudes  into  the  emerald  bowl  of  the  valley, 
and  there  was  the  favorite  gathering  place  of  the  Kalispehlms,  Upper 
Kootenais,  Pend  d'Oreilles  and  Salish.  Many  of  these  Indians  had 
already  commenced  to  till  little  tracts  of  land,  and  evinced  a  desire  for  a 
settled  and  domestic  life. 


The  new  St.  Ignatius  Mission  seemed  favored  from  its  birth.  During 
the  year  following  its  establishment  in  the  valley  of  Sin-Yal-Min,  or 
Mission  Valley,  the  Hell  Gate's  treaty  was  signed  by  which  Victor,  in 
behalf  of  the  Salish,  the  Pend  d'Oreilles  and  other  allied  tribes  of  his 
nation,  was  to  retain  possession  of  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  above  the 
Lolo  Fork,  unless  after  a  fair  survey  by  the  United  States  the  president 
should  deem  it  best  to  move  the  tribe  to  Jocko,  farther  north  and  beyond 
the  valley.  In  either  case,  with  St.  Mary's  abandoned,  the  new  mission 
of  St.  Ignatius  was  favored.  Entire  families  of  Salish  soon  commenced 
to  abandon  the  Bitter  Root  Valley  in  order  to  be  near  the  Blackrobes  of 
St.  Ignatius.  The  establishment  of  schools  for  both  Indian  boys  and 
girls  added  to  the  northern  attraction.  The  girls'  school,  the  pioneer  of 
its  kind  among  the  Indians  of  the  territory,  was  first  established  by  four 
Sisters  from  Montreal.  In  the  boys'  school,  which  followed,  were  taught 
not  only  French  and  English  and  the  primary  studies  but  such  handicrafts 
as  leather  work,  especially  saddle-making.  "Thus,  largely  through  its 
practical  industry,  St.  Ignatius  grew  into  a  powerful  institution.  Build- 
ing after  building  was  added  to  the  group  until  a  beautiful  village  sprang 


up,  half  hidden  among  clumps  of  trees  and  generous  vines.  On  the  out- 
skirts of  this  community  rows  of  tiny,  low,  thatch-roofed  log  cabins  were 
built  by  the  Indians  to  shelter  them  when  they  assembled  to  celebrate 
such  feasts  as  Christmas,  Good  Friday  and  that  of  St.  Ignatius,  their 
patron  saint." 

While  St.  Mary's  was  inactive  and  St.  Ignatius  was  new,  a  spasmodic 
effort  was  made  by  the  Presbyterians,  in  1857,  to  found  a  mission  among 
the  Indians,  with  headquarters  at  Fort  Benton.  It  is  said  that  the  In- 
dians did  not  take  kindly  to  the  new  Protestant  pastor,  because  he  had 
a  wife  unlike  the  Blackrobes  who  were  the  only  religious  teachers  with 
whom  they  had  come  in  contact. 

While  the  Catholic  missionaries  were  doing  pioneer  work  in  the 
introduction  of  Christianity  and  settled  conditions  among  the  Indians  of 
Montana,  the  government  was  also  endeavoring,  with  various  degrees  of 
success,  to  arrange  with  the  fiercer  and  more  warlike  tribes,  such  as 
the  Blackfeet  and  Crows,  for  the  peaceful  sessions  of  their  lands  and 
permission  to  allow  the  railroad  surveys  to  proceed  unmolested.  The 
Oregon  and  the  Salt  Lake  trails  had  been  traced  through  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains and  over  the  plains,  enabling  the  pioneer  missionaries  and  emigrants 
to  enter  and,  of  times,  to  locate  in  the  the  Montana  country. 


In  September,  1851,  a  part  of  the  Yellowstone  Valley  was  set  aside 
as  a  reservation  for  the  Crow  Indians.  The  boundary  line  of  this 
reservation  commenced  at  the  mouth  of  the  Powder  River  and  followed 
that  river  to  its  source;  thence  along  the  main  range  of  the  Black  Hill 
and  Wind  River  Mountains  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Yellowstone  River, 
thence  down  the  Yellowstone  River  to  the  .mouth  of  Twenty-five  Yard 
Creek,  or  Shields  River,  and  across  it  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Mussel- 
shell,  thence  down  the  Musselshell,  to  its  mouth,  thence  to  the  headwaters 
of  Dry  Creek  and  down  that  creek  to  its  mouth. 


In  1853-54,  Col.  Isaac  I.  Stevens,  governor  of  the  newly  created 
territory  of  Washington,  proved  to  be  a  strong  and  useful  agent  of  the 
United  States  in  the  assurance  of  more  settled  conditions  within  the 
domain  now  known  as  Montana.  He  had  been  placed  in  charge  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  Railroad  surveys,  an  important  section  of  which  was  to 
pass  through  that  portion  of  old  Louisiana.  In  February,  1853,  Governor 
Stevens  had  reached  St.  Louis  with  the  government  surveying  party  from 
St.  Paul,  and  there  met  Major  Culbertson,  the  commandant  at  Fort  Ben- 
ton.  An  arrangement  was  thereupon  made  by  which  the  latter  was  to 
accompany  the  government  expedition  to  Fort  Benton. 

Upon  Governor  Steven's  arrival  at  Fort  Union,  where  his  party 
was  joined  by  Lieutenant  Mullan  and  others,  the  party  proceeded  to- 
gether toward  Fort  Benton.  At  the  Big  Muddy  (present  Roosevelt 


County),  a  war  party  of  Blackfeet  came  upon  them  while  in  camp,  whom 
Governor  Stevens  received  kindly,  dismissing  them  with  presents.  The 
Gros  Ventres,  too,  were  encountered  at  the  Milk  River  and  similarly 
treated.  At  that  stream  Lieutenant  Lander  was  detached  to  proceed  by 
a  more  northern  route  and  rejoin  the  main  body  at  Fort  Benton,  where 
Governor  Stevens  soon  arrived  without  incident.  Here  he  was  joined 
by  Lieutenant  Saxton  with  forty  men,  who  had  been  sent  by  sea  to  Fort 
Vancouver,  Oregon,  with  supplies,  which  he  had  conducted  thence  to 
Fort  Owen,  where  he  had  left  them  and  continued  on  to  meet  the  gov- 
ernor. As  this  party  was  to  return  to  the  East,  Governor  Stevens  pur- 
chased a  keel  boat  from  Major  Culbertson  for  their  transportation  and 
employed  them  to  pilot  them  down  the  river  to  Fort  Leaven  worth ;  while 
the  governor  himself  continued  his  journey  to  Puget  Sound,  having  first 
appointed  Major  Culbertson  special  Indian  agent,  and  secured  f»om  him  a 
promise  to  pass  the  ensuing  winter  in  Washington  to  assist  in  obtaining 
an  appropriation  for  making  a  treaty  with  the  Blackfeet  and  Gros  Ventres, 
which  the  governor  had  been  induced,  by  his  encounter  with  these  tribes, 
to  earnestly  recommend.* 

Leaving  Fort  Benton  about  the  ist  of  October,  1853,  with  the  keel- 
boat  bearing  Lieutenant  Saxton's  command,  Major  Culbertson  was  so 
fortunate  as  to  get  through  to  Fort  Leavenworth  (Kansas)  without  ice. 
Proceeding  thence  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  remained  two  weeks,  he  con- 
tinued his  journey  to  Washington  in  accordance  with  his  promise  to 
Governor  Stevens.  There  he  passed  the  entire  winter  lobbying  for  the  pro- 
posed appropriation  for  the  treaty,  which  he  declared  to  have  been  the 
most  distasteful  proceeding  of  his  life.  But  he  was  untiring  in  his  efforts; 
not  discouraged  even  when  the  bill  failed  in  the  House  on  its  first  pres- 
entation ;  and  by  his  industry  and  straight-forward  representations  was 
greatly  instrumental  in  securing  the  final  passage  of  the  bill  which  re- 
sulted in  an  understanding  with  the  Blackfeet  which  temporarily  modi- 
fied their  hostile  attitude  toward  both  the  Salish  and  the  white  settlers. 


In  the  meantime,  John  Owen,  who  had  taken  over  St.  Mary's  improve- 
ments and  established  his  post  and  fort,  was  having  the  usual  experience 
with  the  Blackfeet ;  so  harassing  and  unfortunate  had  it  been  that  he  had 
started  with  his  herds  for  Oregon,  when  he  fell  in  with  a  detachment  of 
Governor  Stevens'  soldiers  under  Lieutenant  Mullan,  who  were  then  win- 
tering in  the  Bitter  Root  Valley,  and  decided  to  turn  back  and  re-establish 
his  interests  under  the  protection  of  the  soldiers.  The  missionaries  also 
adopted  this  policy  of  co-operation  with  Uncle  Sam's  Army,  as  is  noted 
in  Hubert  Howe  Bancroft's  "History  of  Washington,  Idaho  and  Mon- 
tana," as  follows :  "In  1854,  after  the  Stevens  exploring  expedition  had 
made  the  country  more  habitable  by  treaty  talks  with  the  Blackfeet  and 
other  tribes,  Hoeken,  who  seems  nearly  as  indefatigable  as  De  Smet, 

*  Lieutenant  Bradley's  Journal,  Historical  Society's  Contributions,  Vol.  Ill,  pp. 
269,  270. 



selected  a  site  for  a  new  mission  'not  far  from  Flathead  lake  and  about 
fifty  miles  from  the  old  Mission  of  St.  Mary's.'  Here  he  erected, 
during  the  summer,  several  frame  buildings,  a  chapel,  shops  and  dwell- 
ings, and  gathered  about  him  a  camp  of  Kootenais,  Flatbows,  Pend 
d'Oreilles,  Flatheads  and  Kalispels.  Rails  and  fencing  were  cut  to  the  num- 
ber of  18,000,  a  large  field  put  under  cultivation  and  the  mission  of  St. 
Ignatius  in  the  Flathead  country  became  the  successor  of  St.  Mary's. 


In  the  new  'reduction'  the  Fathers  were  assisted  by  the  officers  of  the 
exploring  expedition  and  especially  by  Lieutenant  Mullan,  who  wintered 
in  the  Bitter  Root  valley  in  1854-55.  In  return,  the  Fathers  assisted 
Governor  Stevens  at  the  treaty  grounds  and  endeavored  to  control  the 
Coeur  d'Alenes  and  Spokanes  in  the  troubles  that  immediately  followed 
the  treaties  of  1855. 

"Subsequently  the   mission   in  the   Bitter   Root  valley  was   revived 
(1866),  and  the  Flatheads  were  taught  there  until  the  removal  to  the 


reservation  at  Flathead  lake,  which  reserve  included  St.  Ignatius  mission, 
where  a  school  was  first  opened  in  1863,  by  Father  Urbanus  Grassi.  In 
1858  the  missionaries  at  the  Flathead  mission  had  300  more  barrels  of 
flour  than  they  could  consume,  which  they  sold  to  the  posts  of  the  Ameri- 
can Fur  Company  on  the  Missouri,  and  the  Indians  cultivated  fifty  farms 
averaging  five  acres  each.  In  their  neighborhood  were  two  sawmills." 

Thus  the  missionaries,  the  United  States  Government  and  the  fur 
traders  were  co-operating,  without  any  settled  plan,  to  bring  about  more 
settled  conditions  in  the  Land  of  the  Mountains.  Fort  Benton  and  the 
settlements  founded  by  the  missionaries  at  St.  Mary's  and  St.  Ignatius 
were  for  years  the  only  real  evidences  of  permanent  conditions  in  the 
region.  During  the  late  '505,  that  part  of  Montana  lying  west  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains  received  a  few  more  settlers,  and  these  scattered  evi- 
dences of  permanency  are  noted  by  Judge  Frank  H.  Woody,  who  was  one 
of  the  newcomers  himself. 

It  may  be  added  that  the  Deer  Lodge  Valley  had  also  commenced 
to  show  signs  of  occupancy  by  white  settlers  by  the  late  ?5os.  In  1856, 
John  F.  Grant  built  a  home  at  the  confluence  of  the  Little  Blackfoot 
with  the  Deer  Lodge  River,  the  first  building  erected  in  that  part  of 
the  country.  Two  years  later  the  first  houses  were  built  marking  the  site 
of  the  present  town  of  Deer  Lodge,  among  the  early  settlers  of  which 
were  James  and  Granville  Stuart. 


The  Blackfeet  were  still  the  great  menace  standing  in  the  way  of  the 
settlement  of  the  fertile  valleys  of  Western  Montana,  as  well  as  the 
extension  of  the  Catholic  faith  among  the  Indians  and  the  realization  of 
its  concomitant,  the  establishment  of  peaceful  relations  with  the  whites. 
The  old  aim  of  the  church,  temporarily  abandoned,  to  establish  a  perma- 
nent mission  among  the  Blackfeet,  was  revived  in  1858,  eleven  years  after 
Father  Point  had  been  recalled  to  Canada  and  taken  from  his  labors  along 
that  line  of  work.  In  that  year  Father  Hoecken  was  chosen  for  the  mis- 
sion. He  came  West  in  the  spring  of  1859,  and  spent  that  summer  travel- 
ing over  the  country  with  a  friendly  band  of  the  tribe  in  search  of  a  suit- 
able site  for  the  proposed  mission.  The  first  location  selected  was  on  the 
Teton  River  near  the  modern  town  of  Chouteau.  Various  priests  were 
sent  into  the  Blackfeet  country  to  further  the  work,  but  four  other  at- 
tempts were  made  before  the  site  of  the  present  St.  Peter's  Mission  was 
fixed  upon.  Locations  on  both  the  Sun  and  Maria's  rivers  were  aban- 
doned within  the  following  four  or  five  years. 

In  1864,  Father  Ravalli  joined  the  little  missionary  band  at  St.  Peter's. 
It  was  then  established  just  above  the  mouth  of  Sun  River,  where  Fort 
Shaw  now  stands.  The  winter  of  1865  was  one  of  intense  cold  and  raging 
blizzards,  and  crowds  of  gold  hunters  and  would-be  settlers  were  strug- 
gling toward  the  Sun  River  country  and  other  promising  sections  of  West- 
ern Montana.  Father  Ravalli  arrived  at  a  most  opportune  period,  for 
St.  Peter's  was  thrown  open  to  all  sufferers  who  applied  for  shelter  there 


and  the  beloved  apostle  of  the  Salish,  with  his  medical  education  and 
training,  was  able  to  skillfully  care  for  those  suffering  in  body,  as  well 
as  for  those  who  sought  spiritual  consolation. 

The  appalling  winter  was  followed  by  a  summer  of  drought  and  such 
a  withering  of  all  the  crops  usually  cultivated  at  and  near  the  mission 
that  Indians  and  whites  alike  became  discouraged.  By  common  consent 
St.  Peter's  was  then  moved  to  its  present  location  on  the  east  side  and  at 
the  foot  of  the  Bird  Tail  Divide,  in  the  western  part  of  Cascade  County. 
Although  the  mission  was  established,  it  accomplished  little  in  the  way 
of  converting  the  Blackfeet  to  the  ways  of  peace,  and  was  many  times 
in  danger  of  its  very  existence.  It  was  virtually  abandoned  in  1866  and 
became  a  dependency  of  the  newly  established  mission  at  Helena,  Father 
C.  Imoda,  who  had  been  connected  with  the  work  among  the  Blackfeet 
from  the  first,  being  assigned  to  the  duty  of  visiting  St.  Peter's  at  in- 


In  1874,  St.  Peter's  Mission  was  reopened,  and  afterward  gave  birth 
to  Holy  Family  Mission  near  the  Blackfeet  reservation  of  Northwestern 
Montana  and  St.  Paul's  Mission,  on  People's  Creek,  a  tributary  of  Milk 
River  and  among  the  Little  Creek  or  Little  Rocky  Mountains.  St.  Paul's 
was  a  mission  founded  among  the  Assiniboines  and  the  Gros  Ventres  of 
the  Plains. 

Missions  were  established  among  the  Cheyennes  and  Crows  of  South- 
eastern Montana  in  the  '8os — St.  Labre  on  the  Tongue  River  and  St. 
Xavier,  with  their  schools  for  boys  and  girls.  But  the  story  of  their 
establishment  and  progress  takes  one  through  the  period  covering  the 
final  struggles  of  the  hostile  Indians  to  retain  their  foothold  upon  Mon- 
tana soil  and  the  peaceful  times  of  the  past  thirty  years;  and  there 
are  many  epochs,  episodes  and  developments  to  be  depicted  in  the  mean- 

The  fur  traders  and  missionaries  were  all  laying  the  groundwork  for 
a  stable  civilization  and  a  progressive  commonwealth,  and,  both  in  co- 
operation with  them  and  as  independent  agents,  the  national  government 
and  private  individuals  explored  Montana  for  convenient  gateways 
through  its  mountain  barriers  and  natural  highways  of  travel  between  the 
Missouri  valleys  and  transmontane  America. 


The  early  period  of  the  decade  prior  to  the  discovery  of  Montana 
gold  in  commercial  quantities  is  dominated  by  the  expeditions  and  explora- 
tions and  Indian  negotiations  conducted  by  Governor  I.  I.  Stevens,  of 
Washington  territory.  He  was  also  to  cut  a  large  figure  in  the  southern 
campaigns  jof  the  Civil  War.  In  the  later  '505,  while  the  border  states  along 
the  Lower  Missouri  were  in  the  throes  of  a  sectional  War  of  the  Rebel- 
lion, Business,  Pleasure  and  Government  were  exploring  and  traveling  the 
regions  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  developing  their  actual  and  potential  riches 
and  endeavoring  to  make  the  land  habitable  for  the  strong  and  pro- 
gressive men  and  women  of  the  white  race. 


The  first  of  these  expeditions  which  has  cut  a  swarth  in  the  historic 
field  of  Montana  was  that  conducted  by  the  English  pleasure  hunter, 
Sir  St.  George  Gore.  In  1854,  according  to  Lieutenant  Bradley's  Jour- 
nal, this  wealthy  English  bachelor,  equipped  with  a  passport  from  the 
Indian  Bureau,  ascended  the  Missouri  River  from  St.  Louis  for  a  pro- 
tracted hunt  in  the  wilds  of  the  West.  He  was  accompanied  by  a  party 
of  twenty-three  men,  with  a  long  wagon-train  loaded  with  provisions, 
and  had  secured  the  services  of  the  famous  Jim  Bridger  as  his  guide.  It 
was  probably  the  largest  and  best  equipped  pleasure  outfit  that  ever 
penetrated  the  western  wilderness.  Following  up  the  valleys  of  the  main 
and  North  Platte  rivers,  hunting  as  he  went,  Sir  St.  George  finally 
crossed  the  mouth  of  the  Tongue  River,  where  it  debouches  into  the 
Yellowstone.  There  he  built  a  fort  for  the  protection  of  his  party  and 
remained  for  nine  months,  trading  with  the  Indians  and  pursuing  his 
hunting  projects. 


The  destruction  of  game  by  his  party  was  so  great  as  to  excite  indig- 
nation of  the  Crow  Indians  and  bring  forth  a  remonstrance  on  their  part. 
They  were  willing,  they  said,  that  all  that  was  needed  for  food  should 
be  killed,  but  objected  to  the  wholesale  slaughter  for  mere  sport,  the 
carcasses  being  left  to  rot  upon  the  prairie.  From  a  letter  of  Col.  A.  J. 
Vaughan,  then  Indian  agent  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  to  the  superintendent 
of  Indian  affairs  at  St.  Louis,  dated  July,  1856,  it  appears  that  105  bears 



and  some  2,000  buffalo,  elk  and  deer,  had  already  fallen  victims  to  the 
British  nimrod.  At  last  the  Indians,  in  retaliation,  drove  off  a  consider- 
able part  of  his  horses  in  one  swoop,  and  subsequently,  in  the  winter  of 
1856-57,  while  he  was  wintering  between  Forts  Union  and  Berthold,  made 
a  clean  sweep  of  the  remainder.  , 

In  the  summer  of  1856,  the  English  hunter  broke  up  his  big  camp 
about  eight  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Tongue  River,  and  despatching 
his  wagons  to  Fort  Union  by  land,  he  himself,  with  a  portion  of  his  com- 
mand, descended  the  Yellowstone  in  boats  prepared  from  the  hides  he 
had  taken. 


Arriving  *  at  Fort  Union,  the  trading  post  of  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany still  in  charge  of  Major  Culbertson,  Sir  St.  George  agreed  with  the 
company  for  the  construction  of  two  mackinaw  boats,  with  which  to 
descend  the  river,  the  company  agreeing  to  take  his  stock,  wagons,  etc., 
at  some  stipulated  price.  When  the  boats  were  finished,  there  was  a 
misunderstanding  as  to  the  terms  of  the  bargain,  and  he  fancied  that  in 
his  remoteness  from  man  the  company  was  seeking  to  speculate  upon 
his  necessities.  He  seems  to  have  been  mercurial,  wrathful,  effervescent 
and  reckless  and,  heedless  of  the  consequences,  he  refused  the  terms 
offered  by  the  company.  Accordingly,  he  burned  his  wagons  and  all  the 
Indian  goods  and  supplies  not  needed,  in  front  of  the  fort,  guarding 
the  flames  from  the  plunder  of  either  whites  or  Indians.  It  is  ,said,  even 
after  such  drastic  action,  he  was  apprehensive  that  the  members  of  the 
fur  company  might  rescue  from  the  flames  the  hot  irons  of  his  wagons 
and  carts.  So,  having  guarded  them  until  night  came  on,  he  threw  them 
all  into  the  Missouri  River.  His  cattle  and  horses, t  according  to  the 
Heldt  narrative,  he  sold  to  the  "vagabond  hangers-on  of  the  Indians  there, 
or  gave  them  away,  and,  with  two  flat-boats  he  had  built  at  the  mouth  of 
Tongue  River,  proceeded  with  his  party,  now  decimated  by  mutual  con- 
sent, to  Fort  Berthold."  In  the  spring  of  1857,  Sir  St.  George  left  that' 
trading  post  so  near  to  the  western  frontier  of  the  United  States  and 
returned  to  St.  Louis  by  steamboat. 


William  T.  Hamilton,  a  Scotch-Englishman  from  St.  Louis,  who  had 
long  traded  with  the  western  Indians,  been  a  gold  miner  of  California 
and  afterward  a  Buckskin  Ranger  engaged  in  the  protection  of  the 
miners  against  the  savages  of  the  new  country,  had  later  been  employed 
by  the  Government  as  a  scout  in  such  campaigns  as  the  Modoc  and  the 
Spokane  and  Yakima  wars.  After  the  Indians  had  been  subdued  in  the 
latter  series  of  engagements,  in  September,  1858,  the  Walla  Walla  coun- 

*F.  George  Heldt  in  Contributions  to  the  Historical  Society  of  Montana,  Vol. 
I,  p.  146. 

tLieutenant  Bradley's  Journal  states  that  the  remainder  of  his  horses  were 
stolen  by  the  Indians  in  the  winter  of  1856-57. 


try  was  declared  open  to  settlement,  and  the  region  was  soon  overrun 
with  white  adventurers  from  Oregon  and  Washington.  Then  a  rumor 
was  received  from  the  Indians  who  had  been  east  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains that  the  tribes  were  inclined  to  be  hostile,  and  as  the  Government 
was  becoming  tired  of  continual  Indian  wars,  it  was  determined  to  in- 
vestigate that  rumor.  Mr.  Hamilton  was  selected  for  the  mission.  More 
than  forty  years  afterward,  after  he  had  fought  under  General  Crook 
in  the  Sioux  war  and  resided  for  many  years  at  Fort  Benton  and  the 
Flathead  country  of  Northwest  Montana,  as  a  fur  trader  and  a  guide — 
this  William  Hamilton,  then  a  grizzly  old  man  of  about  seventy  and 
seven  years,  first  told  the  story  of  his  tour  of  investigation  in  1858,  to 
sound  the  attitude  of  the  Indians  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Rockies. 

In  1858,  Mr.  Hamilton  was  stationed  at  Walla  Walla,  of  which  mili- 
tary post  Colonel  Wright  was  in  command.  "Upon  the  conclusion  of 
the  Spokane  and  Yakima  war,"  runs  his  narrative,  "an  orderly  informed 
me  that  I  was  wanted  at  the  officers'  rooms.  The  meeting  was  held  at 
Captain  Dent's  quarters.  (He  was  a  relative  of  General  Grant's  wife.) 
I  accordingly  reported  and  found  some  twenty  officers  present.  It  looked 
like  a  council  of  war.  They  directed  me  to  a  chair  in  their  midst,  and 
I  soon  learned  that  they  were  discussing  the  possibility  or  probability  of 
another  Indian  war  east  of  the  Rocky  mountains,  by  reason  of 
the  rumor  received  as  above  stated.  They  asked  my  opinion  of  the  news 
received.  I  had  been  interviewing  many  Indians  who  had  lately  arrived 
from  the  buffalo  country  and  learned  that  they  were  on  friendly  terms 
with  all  the  tribes  through  which  they  sojourned,  except  the  Blood 
Indians,  and  I  had  ascertained  from  them  the  section  of  country  which 
each  tribe  inhabited,  and  the  disposition  of  the  same,  insofar  as  they  were 
able  to  give  me  information  on  this  point.  I  accordingly  imparted  unto 
the  officers  the  information  I  had  thus  received  and  my  opinion  re- 
garding the  same. 

"The  officers  asked  me  if  I  had  ever  been  in  that  country  and  I  replied 
in  the  negative,  but  informed  them  that  I  had  a  great  desire  to  visit  and 
explore  those  sections  as  far  as  the  Missouri  River.  I  was  acquainted 
with  the  country  to  the  south  of  this  river.  Lieutenant  Sheridan  and 
others  thought  it  would  be  a  foolhardy  undertaking  at  the  present  state 
of  affairs.  I  replied,  'Yes  for  any  person  not  acquainted  with  the  Indians 
and  who  could  not  converse  with  them'.  I  was  then  credited  with  being 
the  most  expert  sign  talker  among  the  Indians.  This  knowledge  came 
almost  natural  to  me,  and  therefore.  I  do  not  give  myself  any  particular 
credit  for  proficiency  in  that  art.  The  knowledge  of  the  sign  language 
is  necessary  to  mountaineers  and  scouts.  It  assists  them  in  extricating 
themselves  from  many  difficult  dilemmas.  All  wild  tribes  of  Indians 
have  great  respect  for  a  man  who  meets  them  boldly  and  can  converse 
with  them  by  signs.  It  is  the  reverse  with  them  when  they  meet  a  man 
they  cannot  understand. 

"I  informed  the  officer  I  apprehended  no  great  difficulty  in  making 
the  trip ;  that  the  greatest  danger  was  in  passing  through  the  late  subdued 
tribes,  but  if  these  chiefs  were  held  prisoners  until  I  returned  I  did  not 


think  there  would  be  any  great  danger;  the  Indians  being  well  aware 
that  I  represented  the  government  should  the  trip  be  finally  determined 
upon.  I  informed  the  officers  that  I  should  visit  the  villages  of  the 
subdued  tribes  and  would  want  an  official  envelope  with  some  reading 
matter,  and  that  I  would  interpret  what  would  be  necessary  in  order  to 
set  them  thinking  of  something  else  besides  taking  my  scalp.  The  officers 
all  laughed  at  this  mode  of  outwitting  the  Indians,  and  before  the  meeting 
broke  up  shook  hands  with  me,  Phil.  Sheridan,  with  others,  expressing 
great  confidence  in  my  ability  to  carry  out  the  undertaking.  They  then 
informed  me  to  hold  myself  in  readiness  for  a  few  days  and  they  would 
take  the  matter  under  advisement. 


"So  about  the  2oth  of  September,  1858,  I  received  an  order  from 
Colonel  Wright  to  report  at  headquarters  at  2  P.  M.  I  reported  promptly 
on  time,  the  reception  room  being  crowded  with  officers  and  their  wives, 
with  most  of  whom  I  was  acquainted,  and  was  somewhat  taken  back 
by  their  presence  in  the  council.  With  an  array  of  maps  and  writing 
material  spread  out  upon  a  large  table,  I  surmised  that  some  move  was  on 
tap  different  from  what  I  anticipated,  but  in  a  moment  was  undeceived. 
I  then  received  an  appointment  as  secret  Indian  detective  with  pay  as 
scout,  and  was  ordered  to  proceed  through  the  different  tribes  of  Indians 
to  the  Blackfoot  nation  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  report  on  the 
condition  and  disposition  of  the  different  tribes  visited,  at  the  earliest 

Hamilton  received  an  ovation  from  both  the  ladies  and  officers  at  his 
departure,  promising  the  former  "many  nice  Indian  trinkets"  and  as- 
suring the  latter  that  he  might  be  expected  to  return  about  the  I5th  of 
November.  His  only  companion,  McKay,  also  a  scout,  carried  his  bows 
and  arrows,  as  he  was  an  expert  in  their  use.  Their  horses  were  said 
to  be  the  fleetest  in  the  country,  "thoroughly  broken  under  fire  and  could 
not  be  stampeded."  They  passed  through  the  countries  of  the  Spokanes 
and  the  Palouse  tribe — late  enemies,  using  the  official  envelope,  with 
"interpretations,"  to  good  advantage,  the  name  of  Colonel  Wright  being 
especially  potent.  Within  a  week,  they  had  reached  St.  Mary's  River, 
where  they  met  some  Pend  d'Oreille  Indians,  who  warned  them  to  beware 
of  the  Blackfeet,  Piegans  and  Snake  Indians. 


A  paragraph  in  Hamilton's  journal,  at  this  point  in  the  narrative, 
describes  the  primitive  advantages  of  the  country,  at  and  around  the 
modern  city  of  Missoula :  "Next  morning,  by  sun,  we  were  packed  up  and 
asking  the  chief  the  proper  route  to  take,  he  pointed  to  a  canyon  some 
fourteen  miles  distant,  stating  we  should  follow  up  that  stream  three 
sleeps,  then  keep  to  the  right  of  a  certain  butte,  follow  up  a  small  stream 
and  cross  the  mountains.  The  stream  they  mentioned  is  now  called  the 


Little  Black  Foot.  We  crossed  a  rolling  prairie,  a  beautiful  country, 
about  ii  A.  M.,  and  arrived  at  a  beautiful  creek,  now  Rattlesnake,  where 
we  camped.  We  saw  no  Indians,  but  signs  in  abundance.  We  laid  over 
one  day  and  I  explored  this  section  for  several  miles,  and  informed 
McKay  I  would  at  some  time  in  the  future  open  a  trading  post  at  this 
place.*  It  was  manifest  by  the  convergence  of  the  trails  that  it  would 
.be  a  splendid  place  for  trade  on  account  of  its  centrality.  All  these  trails 
showed  signs  of  being  constantly  travelled  by  different  bands  of  Indians. 


"We  were  aware  of  being  in  the  Flathead  country  and  thought  we 
could  not  be  over  thirty  or  forty  miles  from  Fort  Owen.f  I  was  ac- 
quainted with  many  of  the  Flatheads.  They  were  always  looked  upon 
by  all  mountaineers  as  being  the  bravest  of  Indians  and  mountain  men's 
friends  in  every  circumstance.  Flatheads  never  missed  an  opportunity 
to  render  assistance  to  the  mountaineer;  hence  the  great  friendship  be- 
tween the  two.  I  had  met  Maj.  John  Owen  at  Walla  Walla.  He  was 
agent  for  the  Flatheads.  He  invited  me  to  pay  him  a  visit  at  some  time 
and  I  promised  to  do  so,  but  on  this  occasion  had  not  time." 

Hamilton  and  McKay  then  followed  the  trail  up  Hell  Gate  River, 
crossed  the  Big  Black  Foot,  guided  and  guarded  by  friendly  Flatheads, 
and  on  the  i6th  and  i/th  of  October  were  encamped  on  the  Dearborn 
River  and  the  south  fork  of  the  Sun,  east  of  the  Continental  divide  and 
north  of  the  Missouri  River.  From  the  latter  camp,  accompanied  by  a 
band  of  Flatheads,  Hamilton  rode  down  the  river  some  twenty-five  miles 
to  visit  the  Piegan  Indian  agent,  Colonel  Vaughn,  whom  he  described  as 
"a  fine  looking  old  man  from  the  State  of  Mississippi."  Upon  applica- 
tion, he  gave  Hamilton  a  statement  as  to  the  disposition  of  the  Piegans 
toward  the  whites;  what  tribes  were  actually  hostile,  or  inclined  to  be 
so.  The  colonel  further  informed  him  where  Little  Dog,  the  head  chief 
of  the  Piegans  was  camped,  advising  Hamilton  to  see  the  chief,  as  he 
might  render  great  assistance;  also  informing  him  that  "the  Piegans 
had  very  many  fine  robes." 


The  white  scouts  then  followed  the  base  of  the  mountains,  crossed  the 
north  fork  of  the  Sun  River  and  some  ten  miles  beyond  that  stream 
found  Little  Dog's  Indians  and  the  proud,  fine  chief  himself.  Colonel 
Vaughn  had  informed  Hamilton  that  Little  Dog  was  considered  one  of 
the  bravest  and  proudest  Indians  on  the  plains,  and  the  two  scouts  there- 
fore "dressed  all  up"  in  expectation  of  meeting  him.  "I  just  got  through 
(supper),"  says  Hamilton,  "and  was  looking  north  expecting  to  see 
Indians  every  moment,  when  sure  enough  about  one  mile  distant,  we  dis- 

*As  he  did,  remaining  there  for  several  years. 

tFounded  eight  years  before  by  Maj.  John  Owen,  former  sutler  in  the  United 
States  army,  upon  certain  improvement^  of  old   St.   Mary's  mission. 



covered  twenty-five  Indians,  splendidly  mounted,  coming  rapidly.  They 
saw  that  we  had  discovered  them  and  when  within  one-fourth  of  a  mile 
distant  they  pulled  their  guns  and  fired  into  the  air,  which  is  the  sign 
of  friends.  We  returned  the  salute.  At  that  they  came  with  a  whirl- 
wind speed.  It  was  a  beautiful  sight.  When  within  fifty  yards  the  chief 
gave  an  order  and  they  halted  at  a  jump,  as  trappers  say.  Sure  enough, 
it  was  Little  Dog,  and  he  dismounted  with  a  proud  step  and  advanced. 
I  met  him  half  way.  He  scrutinized  me  from  head  to  foot,  then  reached 


out  his  hand  with  the  customary  remark  'How.'  He  was  a  fine  looking 
specimen  of  an  Indian  chieftain.  Many  an  artist  would  have  been  glad 
to  have  had  the  opportunity  of  taking  his  picture,  just  as  he  stood  before 
me.  He  was  over  six  feet  in  height,  straight  as  an  arrow,  with  his  im- 
plements of  war  on  his  person  and  a  magnificent  war  bonnet  upon  his 
head.  Three  years  afterward  I  became  the  owner  of  this  bonnet." 


Little  Dog  evidently  approved  of  the  completeness  of  the  scouts' 
outfits  and  was  further  impressed  by  the  presentation  of  a  handsome 
blanket  sent  by  Colonel  Vaughn.  Then  came  the  chief's  son,  Fringe, 


who  was  to  prove  of  such  service.  "Little  Dog  spoke  to  a  splendid  look- 
ing Indian  about  nineteen  years  of  age,"  says  Hamilton,  "to  come  and  sit 
down  beside  him  and  informed  me  that  this  was  his  eldest  son.  Well 
the  chief  might  be  proud  of  this  son,  a  young  man  as  handsome  as  an 
Apollo  and  as  proud  as  Lucifer.  I  made  him  a  present  of  the  blanket, 
which  was  a  counterpart  of  the  one  his  father  had  just  received.  No 
sooner  had  he  received  the  blanket  than  he  jumped  up  and  gave  a  ringing 
war  whoop  which  made  all  the  horses  prick  up  their  ears,  and  then 
stepping  proudly  up  to  me  took  me  by  the  hand  and  made  sign  to  me  'you 
are  my  friend.'  I  observed  his  father's  eyes  sparkle  with  pleasure.  Ever 
after,  father  and  son  were  as  brothers  to  me  and  I  to  them,  until  their 
death  which  occurred  nine  years  after." 

Other  communications  followed,  by  signs,  and  Hamilton  from  the 
time  of  that  conference  was  known  among  the  Piegans  as  Sign-Talking 
White  Man.  The  Indians  were  loaded  with  provisions  and  presented 


with  plug  tobacco,  when  Little  Dog  departed  with  most  of  his  warriors, 
leaving  his  son  and  two  other  Indians  to  guard  the  white  men's  camp 
during  the  night.  Although  Hamilton  assured  McKay  that  he  had  every 
confidence  in  the  reliability  of  Fringe,  or  Never  Tire,  each  took  turns  in 
sleeping.  The  former  here  writes :  "Now  fhese  two  Indians,  Little  Dog 
and  his  son  affected  me  as  no  other  Indians  ever  had.  An  attachment 
sprung  up  in  my  breast  for  them  that  I  could  not  understand  and  account 
for,  since  I  was  considered  by  all  of  my  mountain  friends  to  be  very 
bitter  and  anything  but  friendly  with  Indians.  I  had  lost  many  friends 
by  them  at  different  times." 


The  next  morning  the  journey  was  resumed  toward  Little  Dog's 
village,  thirteen  or  fourteen  miles  away,  the  later  portion  of  the  trip  being 
taken  with  an  escort  of  Piegan  warriors  whom  the  chief  had  sent  for  that 
purpose.  At  the  village  Little  Dog  himself  met  them  and  the  following 
two  days  were  passed  in  feasting,  exchanging  compliments  and  news, 
and  trading,  for  buffalo  robes,  dried  tongues  and  ponies,  revolvers,  am- 


munition,  scarlet  cloth,  calico,  buttons,  knives,  etc.,  the  scouts  sometimes 
using  such  articles  in  trade  and  at  other  times  as  presents.  The  robes  of 
the  Piegans  were  of  a  very  superior  quality,  many  of  them  being  gar- 
nished beautifully  and  "would  bring  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  dollars  in 
any  market  in  those  days."  While  the  trading  was  at  its  height  six  Crow 
chiefs  were  received  into  the  lodge,  with  two  of  whom  Hamilton  was 
acquainted.  Afterward  the  scouts  and  traders,  through  the  assistance  of 
the  Piegans,  secured  over  forty  good  robes  from  the  Crows,  who  had 
returned  to  Little  Dog's  village. 


Then  the  Crows  and  Piegans,  who  had  been  at  peace  since  the  pre- 
vious spring,  turned  to  pleasure,  one  of  their  favorite  forms  of  sport  being 
horse-racing.  Whereupon  an  event  occurred  in  that  line,  which  was 
remembered  and  discussed  long  after  it  occurred ;  and  McKay's  thorough- 
bred was  the  hero  of  the  occasion.  As  told  by  Hamilton,  the  story  was : 
"After  feasting  and  smoking  (for  about  two  hours  after  the  trading),  it 
was  about  2  P.  M.  when  the  crier  harangued  the  village  to  the  effect 
that  the  Crows  wanted  to  run  races  with  the  Piegans.  In  a  short  time 
there  were  fully  five  hundred  assembled  on  the  race  grounds  not  over 
half  a  mile  from  the  village.  I  took  Little  Dog  to  one  side,  and  told  him  to 
let  the  Crows  win  the  first  two  races;  that  the  Crows  had  one  American 
horse  they  wanted  to  run  about  half  a  mile,  and  not  to  race  any  of  their 
horses  against  this  American  horse,  but  for  Piegans  to  bet  all  they  could 
get  on  McKay's  horse,  which  could  almost  fly  for  almost  half  a  mile. 

"Little  Dog  secretly  notified  the  Piegans  of  this  programme,  and  the 
Indians  were  quick  to  catch  on.  After  three  races  had  been  run,  all  of 
which  the  Crows  got  away  with,  they  became  wild,  having  won  several 
ponies  and  many  robes.  Fringe  then  led  up  McKay's  horse,  which  was 
not  so  tall  as  the  Indian  horse.  Fringe  signed  to  the  Crows  he  would  run 
this  horse  against  their  American  horse,  and  the  Crows  jumped  at  the 
offer,  bringing  all  the  ponies  and  robes  they  had  won  and  twice  as  many 
more  to  bet  on  their  horse,  all  of  which  bets  were  taken.  I  told  Little 
Dog  to  inform  his  people  to  get  all  the  bets  they  could  and  they  certainly 

"After  leading  up  fully  twenty-five  more  ponies  and  piling  up  the 
robes  in  abundance,  the  Crows  commenced  to  look  carefully  at  McKay's 
horse,  which  they  believed  belonged  to  the  Piegans,  and  they  could  see 
nothing  extraordinary  about  him,  but  were  somewhat  taken  aback  at  the 
amount  the  Piegans  were  anxious  to  stake  on  the  race;  at  all  events 
they  would  only  take  a  few  more  bets.  Little  Dog's  youngest  son  was 
called  up  by  Fringe  and  told  to  prepare  to  ride  the  race,  McKay  having 
Informed  Fringe  that  any  boy  could  ride  the  horse.  The  boy  promptly 
complied  with  the  order  of  his  older  brothef  by  stripping  naked.  A  Crow 
boy  was  also  stripped,  the  track  cleared  and  the  horses  led  out  to  the 
starting  point.  An  Indian  race  is  started  by  the  signal  Go !  The  first 
out  wins  the  race,  no  difference  what  may  happen  to  either  horse  or 


rider.  Little  Dog  and  the  Crow  chief  were  judges.  I  had  seen  a  great 
many  races,  but  never  saw  one  in  which  the  Indians  took  such  an  interest 
as  on  this  occasion.  Neither  myself  nor  McKay  could  tell  certainly  what 
would  be  the  result  of  this  race,  but  one  thing  we  were  quite  sure  of: 
The  Indian  horse  had  to  be  a  world-beater  to  beat  McKay's  at  that 

"When  the  horses  reached  the  starting  place  I  turned  round.  Every- 
thing was  hushed,  all  the  dogs  being  held  by  the  squaws.  I  was  looking 
at  Fringe  with  a  glass  and  could  see  him  address  his  younger  brother  on 
the  horse  and  then,  both  horses  being  turned,  Fringe  let  go  of  McKay's 
horse,  which  he  was  holding  at  the  head,  and  the  Crow  let  go  of  his  horse 
at  the  same  time.  When  the  race  was  fairly  commenced,  I  could  see 
McKay's  horse  was  being  held,  while  the  Crow  was  whipping.  They  ran 
together  neck  and  neck  to  within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  coming-out 
place,  when  the  boy  on  McKay's  horse  gave  him  the  whip.  The  horse 
fairly  flew  from  the  Crow  horse  and  won  the  race  by  about  sixty  feet. 
An  Indian  yell  went  up  from  five  hundred  throats. 

"The  Crows  were  the  worst  non-plussed  I  ever  beheld.  They  ap- 
peared sullen  and  silent,  having  very  little  to  say.  In  a  short  time  they 
departed  for  their  own  village.  All  the  young  Piegans  had  a  great  time 
dancing  and  singing  that  night  until  a  late  hour.  A  great  many  may  say 
and  think  we  played  the  Crows  a  mean  trick  by  allowing  McKay's  horse 
to  be  used  as  if  he  belonged  to  the  Piegans,  but  not  so.  We  looked  upon 
the  Piegans  as  friends  and  the  reverse  with  the  Crows.  I  firmly  believe 
the  Crows  had  stolen  the  American  horse  from  some  white  man  on  the 
emigrant  road.  I  told  the  Crows  as  much  and  they  did  not  deny  it.  At 
all  events  our  action  made  the  Piegans  our  firm  friends  ever  afterwards. 

Little  Dog's  village,  where  Hamilton  and  McKay  had  been  so  warmly 
received  and  through  the  friendship  of  the  chief  and  his  son  had  done  such 
profitable  trading,  was  on  Maria's  River.  They  remained  three  days  at 
that  place,  and  at  their  departure  for  the  Blackfoot  camp  on  the  north 
fork  of  the  Milk  River,  the  chief  sent  Fringe  and  five  other  Piegans  to 
accompany  them  thither.  Arriving  at  one  of  the  lodges  of  a  Crow  chief, 
Hamilton  produced  both  a  mysteriously  marked  arrow  given  him  by 
Little  Dog  and  the  convenient  official  envelope  representing  the  might  and 
dignity  of  the  United  States  Government.  Although  outwardly  im- 
pressed, they  indicated  by  the  expression  of  their  faces  and  signs  made 
behind  the  backs  of  the  scouts  that  they  had  a  contempt  for  the  United 
States,  as  they  belonged  to  Red  Jacket's  band  of  Canadian  Crows.  The 
white  men  obtained  fifty-five  garnished  robes  and  two  good  packhorses 
and  saddles,  in  exchange  for  their  stock — the  design  of  the  thieving 
Crows  being  (as  Hamilton  learned  by  their  signs)  to  induce  them  to  re- 
main in  their  village  until  the  Piegans  should  depart  and  then  rob  them 
of  their  entire  outfit. 

On  the  following  morning,  when  the  Crows  were  told  of  the  intended 


departure  of  the  whites  and  their  Piegan  escort,  there  was  nearly  a  rup- 
ture between  the  two  parties,  which  was  only  averted  by  the  boldness 
and  coolness  of  Fringe.  When  they  separated,  the  Crows  refused  to 
shake  hands  with  the  whites  and  many  left  the  lodge  without  smoking 
the  pipe  of  peace.  Fringe  and  his  young  Piegan  warriors  also  agreed 
to  accompany  the  scouts  for  a  safe  distance  from  the  threatening  Crows, 
as  Hamilton  and  his  friend  had  already  gathered  a  valuable  outfit — sev- 
enteen head  of  stock,  besides  two  mules  they  had  received  from  Little 
Dog  and  his  son,  and  fourteen  packs  of  goods. 

The  white-red  party  finally  got  safely  out  of  the  Crow  village  and 
headed  for  a  Kootenai  village  on  St.  Mary's  lake,  and  when  well  out  of 
sight  of  the  enemy  Indians,  Fringe  and  his  Indian  companions  turned 
in  the  direction  of  their  own  village;  not,  however,  before  they  had  re- 
ceived from  Hamilton  three  revolvers,  with  plenty  of  ammunition  and 
other  welcome  presents.  A  few  hours  afterward  the  scouts  and  their 
outfit  were  attacked  by  three  mounted  Blackfeet.  The  men  had  a  narrow 
escape,  but  their  return  attack  was  so  decisive  that  the  Indians  were 
quickly  shot  from  their  horses  and  scalped  by  McKay.  Not  long  after- 
ward they  reached  the  Kootenai  village,  and  the  bloody  Blackfoot  scalps 
caused  a  furor  among  its  warriors.  They  were  tied  to  the  ends  of  poles 
and  paraded  through  the  village,  followed  by  a  procession  of  old  and 
young  singing  their  war  songs,  which  they  kept  up  until  about  midnight. 


Hamilton  and  McKay  soon  made  friends  with  the  Kootenais,  who  put 
them  down  at  once  as  great  warriors,  thus  coolly  bringing  in  Blackfoot 
scalps  and  carrying  such  a  ponderous  outfit  of  goods  and  livestock.  Like 
the  Flatheads,  they  had  remained  firm  friends  of  the  whites  and  had 
refused  to  be  drawn  into  the  Spokane  war,  in  the  outcome  of  which  they 
showed  much  interest.  The  Kootenais  inquired  if  the  scouts  had  any 
powder  and  lead,  and  when  they  were  presented  with  a  ten-pound  keg 
of  powder,  as  a  gift,  their  joy  was  such  that  "McKay  remarked  he  had 
never  seen  such  pleased  Indians  in  his  life."  That  was  the  first  step  in 
cementing  the  friendship  of  the  Indians,  as  they  "were  not  going  to  part 
company  with  the  Kootenais  this  side  of  Tobacco  Plains*,  provided  we 
ever  go  there,  The  chief,  after  being  informed  that  the  ammunition  was 
a  present,  made  the  sign  'wait  until  we  cross  the  mountains  to  our 
people.' " 


The  squaws  built  a  strong  corral  for  the  livestock  and  brought  in  fully 
a  thousand  pounds  of  bunch  hay  before  night,  the  packs  were  brought  in 
and  carefully  secured,  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  scalp  dance  and  a 

*  Tobacco  plains,  along  Kootenai   River,  in  the  northern   part  of  the  present 
county  of  Lincoln,  far  northwestern  Montana. 


"very  pleasant  evening,"  the  night  guards  took  post.  They  comprised 
Hamilton  and  McKay  and  two  sons  of  the  old  chief,  Black  Bear.  Nothing 
eventful  occurred  during  the  first  guard,  held  by  Hamilton  and  the  oldest 
of  the  chief's  sons.  At  about  four  o'clock  Hamilton  was  awakened  by 
gun  shots  all  around  the  village  and  he  and  young  Black  Bear  ran  to  the 
assistance  of  McKay  and  the  other  Kootenai  guard.  They  reached  them 
just  in  time  to  see  the  other  brother  flash  his  knife  and  scalp  a  Blackfoot 
whom  he  had  thrown  to  the  ground,  and  McKay  also  had  his  foot  on 
a  six-foot  enemy  Indian,  while  he  was  reloading  his  shot-gun.  Only 
a  few  Indian  ponies  had  stampeded  and  the  corral  built  by  the  squaws 
had  kept  the  livestock  secure.  After  the  uproar  in  the  camp  had  sub- 
sided it  was  found  that  five  Blackfeet  had  been  made  "good  Indians,  two 
being  credited  to  McKay."  One  young  Blackfoot  had  been  taken  pris- 
oner, and  brought  into  the  chief's  lodge.  After  breakfast  the  next  day, 
many  of  the  young  Indians  mounted  upon  their  best  ponies  were  scouring 
the  prairies  and  when  they  had  brought  in  the  few  animals  which  had 
escaped,  turned  their  attention'  to  the  prisoner.  They  took  him  outside 
the  village,  stripped  him,  cut  his  hair  and  gave  him  fully  thirty  lashes, 
his  yelling  being  heard  all  over  the  village.  Afterward  he  was  told  to  go, 
which  he  did  at  a  fifteen  mile  gait,  until  he  passed  over  the  ridge  and 
out  of  sight.  A  shot  was  heard  and  soon  after  a  young  Kootenai,  a 
brother  to  the  one  who  had  been  killed  in  the  recent  fight  with  the  Black- 
feet,  made  his  appearance  from  the  direction  the  Blackfoot  had  taken. 
He  passed  by  near  where  Hamilton  and  McKay  were  standing,  and  the 
former  asked  him  by  sign  "Got  Blackfoot?"  He  smiled,  shook  his  head 
and  went  on  to  his  lodge.  Hamilton  afterwards  found  out  that  the 
Kootenai  had  "got"  the  one  that  had  been  captured  and  released,  but  that 
he  reported  his  hair  was  too  short  for  a  scalp. 

The  Kootenais,  with  Hamilton  and  McKay  on  their  mules,  broke  camp 
October  27th,  and,  with  the  squaws  keeping  the  pack  animals  in  order, 
the  mixed  party  moved  forward  toward  the  northern  home-land  of  the 
Indians  beyond  the  mountains.  They  had  not  gone  far  before  a  band  of 
two  hundred  Blackfeet  warriors  was  discovered  concealed  in  a  draw, 
and  the  moving  village  quickly  closed  up  into  a  compact  circle,  Hamilton 
and  McKay  exchanging  their  white  mules  for  their  war-horses. 


The  advance  of  the  two  little  armies  of  red  warriors  is  well  de- 
scribed by  Hamilton:  "We  then  mounted  our  horses  and  rejoined  the 
advance  and  found  the  warriors  stripped  to  the  breech  clouts.  Whenever 
you  see  that,  be  assured  they  are  prepared  to  die  in  defense  of  their 
women  and  children.  They  were  a  noble  looking  body  of  brown-skinned 
warriors.  They  had  no  time  for  painting,  for  the  Blackfeet  had  been 
preparing  for  the  attack  by  stripping  themselves  in  the  draw.  Many  of 
them  did  not  have  a  stitch  upon  them,  except  a  belt  and  war  bonnet  and 
implements  of  war.  At  this  time  they  showed  themselves  upon  a  rise 
about  four  hundred  yards  distant.  They  gave  forth  a  thrilling  yell  and 


then  divided  into  two  wings,  as  if  going  to  surround  the  Kootenai  out- 
fit. It  was  a  very  interesting  sight  to  see  them  coming  at  whirlwind  speed, 
shouting  forth  yell  after  yell,  and  evidently  expecting  their  yelling  would 
stampede  some  of  the  Kootenai  outfit.  In  this  they  were  disappointed, 
as  the  Kootenais  were  up  to  all  such  manoeuvres  and  had  placed  all  the 
squaws  and  young  ones  on  the  outside  of  the  pack  animals.  The  squaws 
were  nervy,  evidently  realizing  that  everything  they  held  dear  was  in 
danger;  at  all  events  they  were  rustlers  on  this  occasion  in  keeping  the 
stock  from  being  stampeded.  When  about  one  hundred  of  the  Blackfeet, 
who  were  charging  on  our  side,  got  within  300  yards  of  us,  they  opened 
fire  with  their  Hudson  Bay  flint  lock,  muzzle-loading  guns,  but  fortu- 
nately they  were  of,  short  range.  There  was  one  Blackfoot  in  advance 
riding  on  a  fine  pinto  horse  and  I  turned  to  McKay  and  said :  'Let  us  try 
and  stop  that  fellow.'  As  I  have  before  stated,  our  ponies  were  thoroughly 
broken  under  fire  and  would  scarcely  breathe  when  we  took  aim.  We 
both  fired  at  the  Indian  at  once  and  both  horse  and  rider  went  to  the 
grass  and  remained  there ;  then  the  Kootenais  sent  forth  their  war  yell  of 

That  seemed  to  give  the  Blackfoot  warriors  pause  and,  being  also 
outnumbered,  they  beat  a  retreat.  Only  a  few  Kootenais  followed  McKay, 
whom  Hamilton  had  been  endeavoring  to  draw  out  of  danger,  as  the 
latter  was  far  in  advance  charging  after  the  fleeing  Blackfeet.  This  was 
not  accomplished,  although  both  man  and  horse  were  bleeding  from 
wounds,  until  the  fiery  Scotchman  had  "lifted  some  hair" — taken  some 
Blackfeet  scalps.  The  two  whites  and  their  small  band  of  Kootenai 
warriors  were  quite  a  distance  from  the  main  body  of  Indian  warriors 
before  their  chief  called  off  his  men. 

The  result  of  the  battle  was  about  thirty-five  enemy  scalps,  as  against 
four  killed  and  twenty  wounded  of  the  Kootenais.  Their  booty  com- 
prised a  lot  of  Blackfoot  blankets  which  had  been  left  in  the  draw  and 
about  fifty  horses,  the  latter  replacing  the  Kootenai  animals  which  had 
been  shot  and  crippled  in  the  fight. 

As  the  Blackfeet  warriors,  in  sign  language  on  their  retreat,  had 
threatened  to  renew  the  fight  when  the  party  were  crossing  the  moun- 
tains, Chief  Black  Bear  sent  ahead  for  reenforcements,  and  then  camped 
to  bury  the  dead  and  care  for  the  wounded.  The  advance  then  con- 
tinued, in  spite  of  Hamilton's  advice  to  the  chief  to  send  scouts  ahead, 
the  moving  village  was  attacked  as  it  emerged  from  a  mountain  pass  and 
a  timbered  stretch.  Shots  followed  rapidly  and  the  Blackfeet  both 
mounted  and  afoot  came  at  the  Kootenais  with  a  yell.  They  also  at- 
tempted to  stampede  the  pack  animals,  and  Hamilton,  even  with  the  aid 
of  his  famous  horse  Hickory,  had  much  difficulty  in  saving  his  white  mule 
which  a  Blackfoot  was  riding  off  into  the  timber.  A  reenforcement  of 
Kootenais  coming  over  the  mountains  threw  the  Blackfeet  into  a  panic. 
But,  to  the  disgust  of  the  scouts,  the  retreating  Blackfeet  were  not  fol- 
lowed. Hamilton  notes  the  bravery  of  the  young  boys  in  the  fight :  "One 
of  the  young  boys  who  was  driving  our  pack  animals  was  killed  and  two 


others  were  wounded.  Those  little  boys  fought  more  bravely  than  many 
of  the  grown  Indians." 

Many  were  wounded,  but  few  killed  in  this  engagement.  Both  the 
horses  of  Hamilton  and  McKay  were  badly  wounded  by  arrows  and  the 
latter  was  also  painfully  injured  in  the  same  way.  The  former  earned 
as  great  a  name  as  a  "medicine  man"  as  he  did  for  his  warlike  achieve- 
ments, but,  if  anything,  the  plucky  and  fearless  "Me,"  with  his  wonderful 
proficiencies  as  a  bowman  and  his  penchant  for  Indian  scalps,  seemed  to 
have  been  most  admired  as  a  white  warrior.  So  great  was  Hamilton's 
reputation  as  a  healer,  with  the  advance  of  the  party,  that  several 
wounded  squaws  insisted  that  he  attend  them,  in  preference  to  their  own 
medicine  men. 

On  the  2Qth  of  October,  the  summit  of  the  mountains  was  reached, 
a  scouting  party  of  the  newly  arrived  Kootenais  now  in  the  advance,  as 
well  as  on  the  sides  and  at  the  rear.  At  the  base  of  the  mountains,  an 
encampment  was  made,  while  two  young  men  were  dispatched  with  robes 
to  the  Hudson  Bay  trading  post,  on  the  north"  side  of  Tobacco  Plains,  to 
trade  for  powder  and  lead,  the  stock  of  which  had  become  dangerously 
low.  The  Kootenais  expected  another  attack  from  the  Blackfeet,  as  it 
is  in  the  Indian  Code  that  to  suffer  defeat  and  not  retaliate — even  if  the 
aggressor — is  cowardly  and  inexcusable. 


Black  Bear  and  his  people  decided  that  they  would  move  their  village 
to  the  Catholic  mission,  southwest  side  of  Tobacco  Plains,  on  the  banks 
of  the  Kootenai  River.  On  the  ist  of  November,  accompanied  by  Young 
Black 'Bear,  and  provided  with  three  ponies  by  his  Indian  friends,  Ham- 
ilton set  out  for  the  Hudson  Bay  Company's  trading  post  to  get  some 
groceries.  "The  distance  to  the  post,"  he  says,  "was  about  six  miles, 
it  being  situated  about  one-fourth  mile  north  of  the  boundary  line  after- 
wards established,  which  was  disappointing  to  the  Hudson  Bay  Company, 
as  they  thought  the  whole  Tobacco  Plains  was  north  of  the  line.  I  and 
Linklighter,  the  trader,  had  a  dispute  about  where  the  line  would  be,  he 
claiming  the  whole  country  as  Hudson  Bay  territory,  and  I  claiming 
the  whole  of  Tobacco  Plains  for  Uncle  Sam.  Neither  of  us  at  that  time 
knew  what  we  were  talking  about,  for  the  line  as  run  divided  the  Plains 
about  equally.  The  trader,  after  all,  was  a  good  kind  of  a  Scot,  but  had 
been  educated  to  think  Mr.  John  Bull  had  a  lease  upon  all  of  North 


Scotty,  as  the  trader  was  called,  returned  to  the  Kootenai  village  with 
Hamilton  and  Young  Black  Bear,  adding  to  their  outfit,  on  his  own  ac- 
count, provisions  for  a  feast.  He  looked  over  the  wounded  horses  and 
men  and  expressed  his  regret  that  he  could  not  have  been  present  at  such 


"a  glorious  fight."  Within  the  following  few  days,  signs  of  the  enemy 
became  more  and  more  numerous,  and  on  November  5th,  with  Hamilton 
McKay  (now  recovered  from  his  wounds)  and  Scotty  (riding  a  tough 
little  pony),  the  scouts  decked  in  warlike  attire  and  horses  painted,  were 
advancing  with  a  hundred  Kootenai  warriors,  to  feel  out  the  enemy 
Blackfeet.  About  an  equal  number  of  their  warriors  soon  appeared,  set 
up  a  war  whoop  and  fired  from  a  safe  distance.  They  were  driven  into 
a  grove  from  which  they  had  emerged,  and  the  Kootenais  circled  around 
the  timber  not  knowing  how  many  Blackfeet  were  hidden  there.  McKay 
and  Scotty  were  for  an  immediate  charge,  but  after  a  council  with  the 
main  body  of  the  Kootenais,  Hamilton's  plan  was  adopted  of  "smoking 
out"  the  enemy,  after  which  the  squaws  could  put  out  the  fire  with  wet 
blankets.  That  plan  proved  a  success  and  the  fleeing  Blackfeet  were 
pursued,  McKay,  as  usual  getting  so  far  ahead  of  the  native  advance 
that  both  he  and  his  horse  were  wounded.  Scotty,  also,  had  an  arrow 
stuck  through  his  thigh,  and  seemed  quite  proud  of  his  wound.  The 
Kootenai  lost  three  men  and  many  were  wounded.  Not  a  few  Blackfeet 
were  killed  and  some  of  them  mutilated. 


This  was  the  last  real  adventure  of  the  trip,  and  the  scouts,  after 
exchanging  a  shotgun  and  ammunition  for  a  mule,  saddle  and  twelve 
-robes  (from  Black  Bear),  said  good-bye  to  their  Kootenai  friends,  and 
started  for  the  lower  end  of  Lake  Pend  d'Oreille,  which  occupied  six 
days.  Thence  they  crossed  Spokane  River  and  plains,  and  to  Walla  Walla 
had  the  escort  of  a  band  of  friendly  Nez  Perces  Indians.  They  arrived 
at  the  post  at  seven  o'clock  P.  M.,  of  November  22,  1858,  about  a  week 
after  the  date  fixed  at  their  departure. 


Another  trip,  which  tended  still  further  to  open  up  Western  Mon- 
tana, was  that  made  in  the  spring  of  1858.  The  government  outfit,  em- 
bracing about  sixty-five  head  of  animals,  was  in  charge  of  Maj.  John 
Owen,  who  had  been  appointed  agent  for  the  Flathead,  Upper  and  Lower 
Pend  d'Oreille,  and  Kootenai  Indians.  Accompanying  the  expedition 
from  the  Dalles  of  the  Columbia  to  Fort  Owen,  Bitter  Root  Valley,  was 
Charles  W.  Frush,  who  describes  himself  as  a  "kind  of  brevet  second 
lieutenant  in  command  of  the  mess  box."  From  his  pen  is  enjoyed  a 
sketch  of  the  journey  in  that  pioneer  day.  Also  members  of  the  party 
were  a  colored  boy  as  cook  and  four  Flathead  Indian  packers. 

The  route  was  along  the  famous  Buffalo  Trail,  through  the  Rocky 
Mountains  and  over  the  divide  until  finally  it  struck  Fort  Colville,  a  post 
of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  charge  of  Angus  McDonald.  The  de- 
feat of  the  government  troops  under  Colonel  Steptoe,  in  what  was  then 
Washington  territory  (Whitman  County  of  today)  had  emboldened  many 
of  the  Indians  east  of  the  Rockies,  and  when  the  party  had  reached  the 


Little  Spokane  River  some  thirty  tniles  south  of  the  foot  of  the  present 
Flathead  Lake,  "a  war  party  of  Spokanes  and  Kalispels  came  to  camp 
and  had  a  long  talk  and  a  smoke  among  themselves  relative  to  the  major; 
whether  or  not  they  should  keep  him  or  kill  him,  but  after  a  lengthy 
pow-wow  they  concluded  "to  let  him  go,  though  they  said  (so  the  women 
of  our  party  interpreted  to  us)  that  Major  Owen  had  big  eyes  and  big 
hands ;  that  he  said  and  wrote  bad  things  about  them  to  the  Great  Father 
at  Washington,  and  it  was  better  that  such  things  should  be  stopped. 
During  the  talk  they  took  the  major's  saddle  animal  and  tied  her  near 
their  camp,  but  afterwards  an  Indian  brought  the  mule  back  and  tied  her 
at  our  camp ;  and  we  all  drew  another  long  breath  and  satisfied  ourselves 
(by  feeling)  that  the  hair  was  still  on  our  heads,  though  the  major  would 
have  lost  a  few  silver  threads  only." 

The  route  then  lay  over  the  divide  to  the  old  Kalispel  mission,  then 
abandoned,  which  was  located  some  forty  miles  below  Lake  Pend  d'Oreille, 
on  the  east  bank  of  the  river  by  that  name,  now  known  as  Clark's  Fork 
of  the  Columbia ;  thence  up  that  stream  to  where  the  Flathead  and  Mis- 
soula  rivers  join,  called  Horse  Plains,  and  thence  to  St.  Ignatius  Mission, 
whose  fathers  heartily  welcomed  Major  Owen  and  his  party.  After  a 
day's  rest,  the  trail  took  a  southerly  course  to  the  beautiful  Valley  of  the 
Jocko,  thence  to  the  bottom  lands  in  the  Hell  Gate  Ronde,  which  like 
Horse  Plains,  offered  wonderful  grazing  and  a  fine  camping  spot.  "Our 
last  day's  march,"  concludes  the  story,  "brought  us  to  the  long-looked  for 
haven,  Fort  Owen ;  and  after  a  lapse  of  twenty  years  I  can  see  those  old 
adobe  walls  and  buildings  as  distinctly  as  if  it  were  but  yesterday.  When  the 
party  reached  the  fort  Mr.  Caleb  E.  Irvine,  who  had  been  left  in  charge, 
and  a  few  attaches  of  the  fort,  ran  out  to  welcome  us,  and  general  hand- 
shaking and  congratulations  ensued. 

"The  names  of  the  pioneers  of  this  section  and  where  they  were  lo- 
cated, I  will  give  as  near  as  I  can  remember.  There  were  camped  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  of  Fort  Owen  the  following :  Fred  Burr,  Thomas 
Adams,  Reece  (Rezin)  Anderson,  Capt.  Richard  Grant  and  family,  David 
Petty  and  John  Powell ;  those  living  at  Fort  Owen  were  Maj.  John  Owen, 
Thomas  Harris  and  wife,  Caleb  E.  Irvine  and  family,  Henry  M.  Chase  and 
family,  John  Silverthorne  and  the  writer.  Old  hunters  who  had  located 
farms  and  settled  in  the  Bitter  Root  valley  were  Mr.  Lumphrey,  Al.  Tal- 
man,  a  Frenchman  called  Johnny  Crappeaux,  and  an  old  Mexican  named 
Emanuel,  and  there  was  one  settler  in  the  Hell  Gate  ronde  named  Brooks. 
In  the  fall  of  1858  a  couple  of  Frenchmen  from  Colville  valley  whose 
names  were  Louis  Brown  and  Crooked-Hand  Shaw  camped  in  the  Jocko 
valley  and  shortly  afterward  moved  to  what  is  now  known  as  Frenchtown, 
in  Missoula  county." 


The  firm  of  LaBarge,  Harkness  &  Company  was  formed  in  St.  Louis, 
in  the  spring  of  1862,  for  the  purpose  of  trading  on  the  Upper  Missouri 
River.    The  members  of  the  firm  were  Eugene  Jaccard,  James  Harkness,g 
Captains  Joseph  and  John  LaBarge  and  William  Galpin.    Two  steamboats 

Vol.  I— 1J 


were  purchased — the  "Shreveport,"  a  small,  light-draft  boat  for  the  upper 
river,  and  the  "Emilie,"  a  fine,  large  boat.  The  LaBarges  attended  to  the 
steamboat  interest,  while  Mr.  Harkness  went  to  Washington  to  obtain  the 
necessary  permits  from  the  Interior  Department.  On  his  return  he  bought 
a  large  stock  of  goods  for  the  Indian  and  mining  trade,  a  saw  and  a 
grist  mill,  and  doors,  windows,  saws,  axes,  nails,  etc.,  for  building  a 
store  for  the  sale  of  the  goods.  On  the  3Oth  of  April,  the  "Shreveport" 
started  for  Fort  Benton  with  seventy-five  passengers  and  all  the  freight 
she  could  carry.  On  the  I4th  of  May,  the  "Emilie"  followed,  loaded  with 
passengers  and  freight.  Many  were  attracted  by  the  novelty  of  the  trip, 
others  by  the  reports  of  gold  in  Dakota  and  Washington  territories,*  and 
others  went  as  employes  of  the  firm.  Mr.  Harkness  preceded  the  "Emilie" 
several  days,  going  by  railroad  as  far  as  St.  Joseph,  from  which  point  he 
kept  a  journal,  which  has  been  published  by  the  Historical  Society  of 
Montana  (Vol.  II),  and  bears  many  graphic,  albeit  homely  details  of 
the  trip  up  the  Missouri  to  the  Deer  Lodge  Valley  of  Far  Western  Mon- 
tana, thus  penetrating  to  the  richest  mineral  district  of  the  present. 


Under  date  of  May  18,  1862,  Mr.  Harkness  noted,  as  the  steamboat 
left  St.  Joseph,  575  miles  above  St.  Louis,  that  "about  one-third  of  the 
place  has  been  burned  arid  destroyed  by  the  army."  Twelve  days  up  the 
river,  Omaha,  Sioux  City  and  Yankton  had  been  passed  and  Fort  Pierre 
reached.  At  Fort  Berthold,  still  further  up  the  river  in  Dakota,  another 
steamer,  "Spread  Eagle,"  was  met.  It  left  at  10 :3O  A.  M.,  June  5th,  and 
the  "Emilie"  half  an  hour  later.  A  third  boat,  also  going  up  the  Missouri, 
was  overtaken  in  the  afternoon  of  that  day.  It  was  the  "Key  West," 
which  evidently  was  overhauled.  Early  the  next  day,  Mr.  Harkness  en- 
tered the  region  of  the  "bad  lands,"  and  notes:  "The  'Spread  Eagle'  is 
just  alongside  of  us,  and  we  are  having  a  race,  (probably)  the  first  ever 
run  on  the  Upper  Missouri.  She  passed  us  and  then  we  passed  her, 
when  she  ran  into  us,  breaking  our  guards  and  doing  some  other  dam- 
age. There  was  a  good  deal  of  ahgry  talk."  In  the  afternoon  the  steam- 
boat was  opposite  the  mouth  of  White  Earth  River,  in  what  is  now  North 
Dakota  near  the  most  northern  point  in  the  Missouri  and  was  2,235  miles 
above  St.  Louis.  Aside  from  the  steamboat  race,  no  excitement  was  re- 
ported except  the  running  down  of  a  number  of  buffalo  who  were  swim- 
ming across  the  river.  On  the  morning  of  the  8th  of  June,  the  mouth 
of  the  Yellowstone  was  passed  and  Fort  Union  was  reached  in  the  after- 
noon. From  that  point  on,  for  some  time,  Mr.  Harkness's  diary  is  given 
over  to  what  we  now  speak  of  as  Montana. 


"Landed  at  Fort  Union  7  :oo  A.  M.,  and  fired  a  salute  of  four  guns," 
notes  the  diary.  "The  fort  is  on  a  good  site,  but  fast  going  to  decay. 

*Montana,  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  was,  in  1862,  a  portion  of  Washington 
Territory;  that  east  of  it  was  included  within  the  bounds  of  Dakota. 


The  Indians  lost  about  five  hundred  head  of  horses  in  the  winter  from 
the  intense  cold  and  have  very  poor  robes.  They  do  not  go  out  of  the 
fort  without  being  well  armed  through  fear  of  the  Sioux."  Past  Poplar 
and  Porcupine  rivers,  with  herds  of  buffalo  and  antelopes,  and  packs  of 
wolves  continually  in  sight,  the  "Emilie"  steamed,  breaking  her  tiller 
rope,  grounding  and  otherwise  misbehaving,  but  on  the  whole  pro- 
gressing. Mr.  Harkness  was  sick  and  Captain  LaBarge  had  the  rheu- 
matism, as  the  weather  was  cold  and  wet.  On  the  eleventh,  the  boat 
reached  the  mouth  of  the  Milk  River,  and  on  the  following  day  passed 
Round  Butte,  half  way  between  Fort  Union  and  Fort  Benton,  the  latter 
being  the  immediate  objective.  Rain  had  been  falling  much  of  the  time, 
and  the  river  became  so  swollen  and  the  current  so  rapid  that  in  order  to 
get  up  sufficient  steam  for  the  "Emilie"  to  move,  tar  had  to  be  burned.  At 
Dauphan's  Rapids,  above  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  River,  the  companion 
boat,  the  "Shreveport,"  was  passed,  and  about  the  same  time  a  gov- 
ernment boat  was  met  going  down  the  Missouri,  having  aboard  a  num- 
ber of  Lieut.  John  Mullan's  men  who  had  been  engaged  in  building  the 
military  road  from  Walla  Walla  to  Fort  Benton. 

The  "Shreveport,"  the  smaller  and  less  powerful  boat,  was  taken  on 
wood  just  below  the  rapids  (also  called  "Drowned  Men's  Rapids").  Note 
from  the  diary,  under  date  of  Sunday,  June  I5th:  "Passed  Judith  river 
and  overtook  the  'Shreveport'  just  below  '  Drowned  Men's  Rapids,'  where 
she  was  wooding.  Procured  some  dry  wood  and  passed  the  rapids  with- 
out much  delay.  Dropped  a  line  to  the  'Shreveport'  and  helped  her  over. 
The  rain  fell  in  torrents,  but  the  passengers  walked  over  with  cheers ;  quite 
a  number  were  acquainted  with  each  other  on  the  boats.  We  had  a  very 
agreeable  time  and  I  found  my  son  and  daughter  in  good  health.  Laid 
up  for  the  night  at  8:30.  Invited  all  the  passengers  of  the  'Shreveport' 
over  to  listen  to  a  discourse  by  Rev.  J.  F.  Bartlett." 


Taking  the  "Shreveport"  in  tow,  the  "Emilie"  continued  the  journey, 
past  Maria's  River  and  in  view  of  the  Little  Rockies  to  the  northwest 
and  the  Judith  Mountains  to  the  southeast,  "wooding"  along  the  route. 
At  Fort  Benton,  two  days  afterward,  both  boats  discharged  their  freight 
"on  a  prairie  devoid  of  timber."  Mr.  Harkness  therefore  found  his  saw- 
mill useless  at  that  point.  He  says  significantly  that  "some  of  the  at- 
taches are  glad  to  see  us."  Little  Dog,  the  chief  of  the  Blackfeet, 
who  was  at  Fort  Benton  at  the  time,  pledged  his  friendship,  "and  sent 
out  runners  for  his  people  to  come  in.  Had  a  business  meeting  of 
all  the  partners,"  he  adds,  "and  decided  to  build  our  post  a  mile  and  a 
half  above  Fort  Benton,  naming  it  Fort  LaBarge."  It  was  laid  out  in  a 
few  days,  300  by  200  feet,  Madam  LaBarge  driving  the  first  stake. 

On  the  i8th,  "began  the  erection  of  a  canvas  store,  and  goods  are 
selling  fast.  Very  warm,  one  hundred  degrees  in  the  shade."  On  the 
following  morning,  the  "Emilie"  left  for  St.  Louis,  and  on  the  day  after, 
the  "Spread  Eagle"  arrived,  also  soon  departing  for  St.  Louis.  The  re- 


mainder  of  the  trip  up  the  Missouri  was  to  be  made  in  the  "Shreveport." 
At  this  period  of  the  venture,  the  weather  seemed  to  be  "freakish."  One 
day  it  was  "very  warm — one  hundred  and  four  degrees  in  the  store,  but  it 
rained  and  turned  so  cold  that  we  made  a  fire  in  the  cabin  of  the  'Shreve- 
port.' *  *  *  Trade  good  until  stopped  by  one  of  the  most  terrible 
hail  storms  I  ever  saw.  The  ground  was  covered  to  the  depth  of  sev- 
eral inches.  The  roof  of  the  boat  was  cut  so  that  she  leaked  in  many 


June  3Oth  was  a  day  of  historic  note,  as  witness  this  enfry :  "  A  party 
was  made  up  to  visit  the  Great  Falls  of  the  Missouri.  It  consisted  of  Eu- 
gene Jaccard,  Father  De  Smet,  Giles  Filley  and  son  Frank,  Madam  La- 
Barge,  Margaret  Harkness  (daughter  of  the  proprietor),  Mrs.  Culbertson 
and  son  Jack,  W.  G.  Harkness,  Tom  LaBarge  and  Cadotte,  the  guide,  the 
last  three  being  on  horseback,  and  the  others  in  an  ambulance  drawn  by 
four  mules.  They  started  at  4  P.  M.  and  in  the  afternoon  met  some 
Blood  Indians,  relatives  of  Mrs.  Culbertson,  who  were  friendly  under  the 
influence  of  Father  De  Smet  and  Mrs.  C.  An  antelope  was  killed  and 
cooked  for  supper  and  the  party  camped  for  the  night.  They  started  at 
4  A.  M.  next  morning,  and  reached  the  falls  about  9  or  10  A.  M.  Madam 
LaBarge  and  Margaret  Harkness,  leaving  the  ambulance,  ran  to  the  point 
from  which  the  first  glimpse  could  be  had,  and  are  the  first  white  women 
to  have  seen  the  Great  Falls  of  the  Missouri.  They  found  the  way  down 
to  the  river  with  difficulty,  and  looking  up  saw  the  falls  in  all  their  beauty 
and  grandeur." 


Below  the  Great  Falls,  the  "Shreveport"  was  discharged  of  her  freight, 
oxen  and  horses  were  bought,  as  well  as  four  small  mules,  and  the  steam- 
boat returned  to  St.  Louis,  the  balance  of  the  trip  to  Deer  Lodge  Valley 
and  the  mining  country  being  made  overland.  After  crossing  the  Sun 
River,  the  mountain  road  was  taken  toward  the  South.  At  the  Dear- 
born, "lost  best  mule  owing  to  flies  and  wild  disposition,"  and  in  as- 
cending the  Prickly  Pear  found  a  bad  wash-out  in  Mullan's  military 
road,  which  the  men  were  endeavoring  to  repair.  It  is  human  nature  to 
criticise,  and  Harkness  cannot  refrain  from  commenting  on  Mullan's 
work:  If  he  had  made  the  road  on  the  hills  it  might  have  been  per- 
manent. They  had  twenty  yoke  of  oxen  to  one  wagon  and  could  not  take 
it  up.  They  have  cut  logs  all  day  to  place  across  the  gullies,  putting  on 
cross-pieces  to  make  a  road.  It  is  now  evening  and  they  are  going  to1 
try  the  new  road.  I  hope  there  will  be  no  accidents.  A  miss  of  six 
inches  would  have  sent  them  five  hundred  feet  into  the  creek  bottom." 

Harkness  found  the  road  filled  with  trains,  bound,  like  his  own, 
to  the  Montana  mining  country.  He  also  met  disappointed  miners  return- 
ing to  the  States;  also  some,  on  the  way,  who  had  struck  "pay  dirt." 


His  trains  left  the  Government — Mullan's  Road — and  took  a  short-cut  to 
Little  Blackfoot  River,  which  they  crossed  for  the  last  time.  They 
had  now  crossed  the  divide  to  the  western  slopes  of  the  Rockies,  and 
commenced  the  descent  into  Deer  Lodge  Valley.  It  was  now  July  23rd, 
and  the  diary  has  this  to  say:  "After  a  few  miles  we  commenced  the 
descent  to  Deer  Lodge  Valley.  From  the  top  of  the  hill  a  fine  view  of  the 
valley,  surrounded  by  snow-capped  mountains,  is  presented.  The  dif- 
ferent creeks,  with  their  lining  of  willows,  can  be  traced  with  a  field  glass 
almost  to  their  sources  in  the  mountains  and  houses  can  be  seen.  After 
descending  the  hill,  which  was  fully  three  miles  long,  we  crossed  the 
bottom  and  the  Deer  Lodge  River,  a  wide  and  fine  stream  at  this  point. 
Nooned  at  1 1  A.  M.  in  the  most  intense  heat,  and  after  dinner  went  down 
to  John  Grant's  house  at  the  Forks,  where  N.  Wall  and  the  American 
Mining  Company  are  (located).  Quite  a  number  of  our  old  acquaintances 
are  here,  and  I  think  I  will  remain. 

"I  saw  several  hundred  cows  and  calves  belonging  to  Grant,  the 
finest  I  have  ever  seen  in  America.  Red  clover  is  growing  on  the  banks, 
proof  to  me  that  grain  can  be  raised  here.  Trout  are  plentiful  and  the 
miners  catch  and  dry  them,  and  game  birds  are  numerous.  The  hills  roll 
gently  back  towards  the  East,  and  in  the  West  they  rise  abruptly,  nearly 
to  perpetual  snow.  The  Blackfoot  and  Deer  Lodge  rivers  unite  and 
form  the  Hell  Gate  River,  not  far  from  the  houses." 

But  Mr.  Harkness  did  not  remain.  He  prospected  for  gold  on  Flint 
and  Gold  creeks  and  along  Hell  Gate  River,  but  found  the  outlook  either 
for  gold  or  trade  far  from  his  expectations.  The  weather  also  was 
alternately  fiery  hot  and  intensely  cold.  Most  of  the  miners  who  had 
not  given  up  hope,  were  also  preparing  to  go  to  Oregon  for  the  winter. 
He,  therefore,  sold  his  ambulance,  evidently  a  sort  of  an  elephant  on 
his  hands,  to  Mr.  Grant,  and  on  August  8,  1862,  turned  his  face  and  his 
party  toward  the  Missouri,  and  just  a  month  afterward  reached  Fort 
Union  on  the  return  trip.  At  Fort  LaBarge,  Mr.  Harkness  built  a  boat 
forty  feet  long  called  the  "Maggie"  (named  after  his  daughter),  which 
he  launched  on  the  26th,  and  started  down  the  river  accompanied  by  one 
of  Major  Culbertson's  boats.  As  the  Sioux  were  again  on  the  war 
path,  the  two  boats  kept  together  for  mutual  protection.  Two  others 
joined  them,  so  that  the  fleet  put  out  of  Fort  Union  with  confidence. 
At  Fort  Pierre,  Dakota,  the  danger  zone  was  considered  negotiated,  and 
the  remainder  of  the  trip  to  St.  Louis  was  made  without  special  anxiety 
or  incident.  Mr.  Harkness  reached  St.  Louis  (by  railroad  from  Han- 
nibal) October  7,  1862. 

The  immediate  results  of  the  expedition  sent  out  by  LaBarge,  Hark- 
ness &  Company,  or  LaBarge,  Harkness  &  Jallard,  were  not  epoch-mak- 
ing, but  various  unrelated  incidents  of  that  period  indicated  the  creation 
of  new  conditions  in  the  development  of  Montana.  Fort  LaBarge,  as  a 
rival  of  Fort  Benton,  proved  a  failure,  although  the  conditions  seemed 
favorable  to  the  growth  of  any  trading  post  along  the  middle  reaches  of 
the  Missouri,  which  might  serve  as  a  depot  of  supplies  for  the  Eastern 
emigrants  and  others  bound  for  the  newly  opened  gold  diggings  of 




Southwestern  Montana.  In  the  summer  of  Mr.  Harkness'  venture,  while 
the  "Spread  Eagle"  and  "Key  West,"  owned  by  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany, and  the  "Emilie"  and  "Shreveport,"  of  his  own  firm,  were  speeding 
up  the  Missouri  with  supplies  for  Fort  Benton,  a  party — one  of  many — 
of  130  men,  women  and  children,  with  52  wagons,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Capt.  James  L.  Fisk,  was  proceeding  overland  from  Minnesota 
for  Fort  Benton  and  the  gold  fields  of  Bannack  City.  In  September,  1862, 
the  great  emigrant  train  reached  Fort  Benton,  and  continued  west  to 
Gold  Creek,  where  it  arrived  twenty  days  later  and  dispersed  to  the  vari- 
ous diggings  then  known. 

But  although  the  LaBarge  concern  had  proven  its  enterprise  by  bring- 
ing into  Montana  the  first  steam  sawmill  put  in  operation  within  the  pres- 
ent limits  of  the  state,  neither  in  capital  nor  influence  was  it  able  to 
compete  with  the  American  Fur  Company.  Its  stock  of  goods  was  much 
inferior  to  that  of  the  older  and  wealthier  company  and  its  freighting 
capacities  more  limited.  The  great  bulk  of  trade,  therefore,  continued 
to  go  to  Fort  Benton. 

The  years  1863-64  saw  the  decline  and  fall  of  Fort  LaBarge,  then  in 
charge  of  Robert  H.  Lemon.  Lieutenant  Bradley,  in  his  "Affairs  at  Fort 
Benton,"  gives  the  following  explanation  of  the  decisive  disaster: 

"They  had  contracted  this  year  (1863)  to  deliver  at  Fort  Benton  cer- 
tain freight  for  Capt.  Nicholas  Wall,  an  old  and  well  known  steamboat 
captain,  and  an  influential  man  in  charge  at  St.  Louis.  The  low  stage  of 
water  compelled  the  discharge  of  the  freight,  with  the  goods  of  the  com- 
pany as  well,  above  Cow  Island,  and  Lemon  was,  therefore,  compelled 
to  seek  other  transportation  for  his  goods,  and  the  freighting  capacities 
of  the  country  being  very  limited,  King  and  Gillette  received  twenty- 
five  cents  a  pound  for  carrying  them  from  Snake  Point  to  Bannack  City,  a 
distance  of  about miles.  Captain  Wall  at  once  instituted  proceed- 
ings against  the  firm  and  obtained  judgment  against  them.  Fort  LaBarge 
with  all  its  appurtenances,  including  the  sawmill  and  a  considerable  quan- 
tity of  peltries  was  attached  and  sold  at  sheriff's  sale  the  following  sum- 
mer. The  fort  was  purchased  by  the  American  Fur  Company,  while  the 
sawmill  was  knocked  down  to  a  bidder  from  the  mining  regions,  whither 
it  was  carried." 

Lieutenant  Bradley 's  footnotes,  or  comments,  regarding  this  famous 
pioneer  lawsuit,  which  resulted  in  the  discontinuance  of  Fort  Benton's 
rival,  present  some  interesting  facts,  as  follows:  "Picotte  was  in  charge, 
Lemon  came  up  as  agent  of  Labarge.  Lemon  discharged  Picotte  on  ac- 
count of  insufficiency  and  drunkenness,  and  put  their  business  in  the 
hands  of  Dawson.  Picotte  had  been  instructed  to  remove  the  goods  in 
a  flatboat  from  Cow  Island,  but  he  lay  in  the  house  drunk  and  neglected 
the  business.  When  the  business  was  turned  over  to  Dawson,  he,  na- 
turally not  being  bound  to  the  Labarges,  moved  his  own  goods  first, 
but  during  the  winter  hauled  all  the  Labarges  and  Wall's  also.  The  law- 
suit was  on  account  of  this  delay.  *  *  * 

"Labarge  sued  Wall  and  got  damages  for  seizure  of  his  fort  and 
injury  to  his  business.  The  sawmills  and  buildings  were  sold  in  1864, 
but  the  goods  and  peltries,  etc.,  not  until  1866." 


The  post  and  the  town  of  Fort  Benton  arose  as  a  mart  of  trade,  its 
early  prosperity  as  a  fur  center  being  subsequently  accelerated  and  sus- 
tained as  a  depot  of  supplies  for  the  mining  country,  and  the  emigrants 
en  route  thereto.  The  other  large  municipalities  and  towns  of  the  pioneer 
period  were  based  directly  on  the  gold  discoveries  and  workings,  the 
story  of  which  is  a  continuous  tale  of  unrest  and  adventure. 


The  first  "colors"  of  the  precious  metal  in  Montana  were  found  by 
a  peddler  of  Indian  goods  and  trinkets,  of  mongrel  Scotch  and  Indian 
blood,  whose  route  stretched  from  the  Rocky  Mountains  of  Western 
Montana  to  the  Pacific  Coast.  Francois  Finlay,  or  Benetsee,  after  ex- 
changing his  colored  clothes,  beads,  powder,  lead,  and  what-not  (perhaps 
whiskey)  with  the  red  wanderers  of  the  west,  for  furs  and  buffalo  robes, 
became  so  prosperous  that  he  bought  a  large  drove  of  horses  in  California 
and  brought  them  to  Deer  Lodge  Valley.  How  many  years  passed  in 
such  occupations,  history  recordeth  not;  but  it  is  known  that  Benetsee 
went  to  reside  in  that  pleasant  place  in  Montana  sometime  prior  to  1850. 
The  stream  upon  which  he  located  his  retreat  became  known  as  Benetsee 

The  wandering  habits  of  a  western  peddler,  or  trader,  cannot  be  ob- 
literated, and  the  half-breed  continued  his  trips  to  the  Pacific  Coast,  with 
his  Montana  ranch  as  his  base  of  operations.  After  one  of  his  journeys 
to  California,  in  1852,  he  returned  to  his  quiet  home  in  Deer  Lodge 
Valley,  hot  with  the  gold  fever  of  the  far  west.  Examining,  with  critical 
eye,  the  near  country,  especially  the  sand  bars  along  his  home  creek,  he 
was  impressed  with  its  remarkable  resemblance  to  the  gold-bearing  soil 
of  California.  Finlay  then  obtained  a  pan  and  commenced  to  wash  the 
gravel,  as  he  had  seen  the  California  miners  do,  and  at  length  obtained 
about  a  teaspoonful  of  yellow  grains.  This  sample  he  took  to  Angus 
McDonald,  chief  factor  of  the  post  controlled  by  the  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany, about  twenty  miles  south  of  Flathead  Lake.  Although  not  a  miner, 
the  fur  trader  had  such  faith  in  the  "find"  that  he  purchased  it  and  then 
sent  it  to  be  analyzed  by  an  expert  at"  one  of  the  company's  other  posts. 
His  judgment  was  confirmed  and  he  "grub-staked"  Finlay  to  the  extent 
of  a  month's  provisions  and  necessary  miner's  tools.  After  Finlay  had 
delivered  to  his  backer  about  two  ounces  of  the  gold  dust,  they  both  tired 

'.  184 


of  the  venture  and  returned  to  the  ways  of  trade,  especially  as  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company  discouraged  mining  as  likely  to  interfere  with  its  legitimate 

Finlay's  findings  resulted  in  no  further  explorations  for  gold  in 
Montana  fields  until  1856.  In  that  year,  a  party  comprising  Robert  Here- 
ford, late  of  Helena,  John  Saunders  (Long  John),  and  Bill  Madison,  on 
their  way  to  Salt  Lake  from  the  Bitter  Root  Valley,  where  they  had  spent 
the  winter  trading  with  the  Indians,  prospected  a  little  while  passing 
Benetsee  Creek  and  found  some  gold  dust.  This  they  gave  to  old  Captain 
Grant,  "who  used  to  show  it  up  to  the  time  of  his  death  in  1862  as  the 
first  piece  of  gold  found  in  the  country." 


Bradley's  journal  (Vol.  Ill,  Montana  Historical  Society's  contribu- 
tions, p.  277)  has  this  to  say  about  a  gold  find  which,  at  that  time,  seemed 
quite  mysterious:  Major  Culbertson  had  arrived  at  Fort  Benton  from 
a  trip  down  the  Missouri,  in  October,  1856,  and  not  long  afterward  a 
mountaineer  "appeared  at  the  fort  with  a  quantity  of  gold  dust  which  he 
desired  to  exchange  for  goods.  He  had  been  prospecting,  he  said,  in  the 
mountains  to  the  southwest,  but  where  there  was  plenty  of  gold,  but 
seemed  averse  to  describing  the  exact  locality.  He  demanded  $1,000 
worth  of  goods  for  the  dust,  but  as  nothing  was  known  at  the  fort  of 
the  presence  of  gold  in  the  adjoining  country,  Major  Culbertson  had 
doubts  of  the  genuineness,  or  of  its  value  of  gold,  and  hesitated  to  accept 
it.  A  young  man  named  Ray,  a  relative  of  Culbertson's  and  an  employe 
at  the  fort,  was  sanguine  the  metal  was  gold  and  worth  all  that  was  asked 
for  it;  and  by  his  advice  Major  Culbertson  finally  received  it  as  a  private 
venture,  charging  the  goods  to  his  own  account.  The  mountaineer  took  in 
exchange  a  supply  of  horses,  arms,  blankets,  tobacco,  etc.,  and  went  back 
to  the  mountains.  The  next  season  the  dust  was  sent  to  the  mill  and 
realized  to  Major  Culbertson  the  sum  of  $1,525,  it  having  been  proved 
to  be  nearly  pure  gold.  This  was  the  earliest  exchange  of  gold  dust  in 
Montana,  and  no  more  was  brought  to  Fort  Benton  till  after  the  mining 
excitement  began  in  1860.^  It  was  undoubtedly  collected  within  the  limits 
of  the  territory,  and  may  be  safely  set  down  as  the  first  important  yield 
from  the  mines  that  have  since  attained  a  place  among  the  most  im- 
portant gold  fields  of  the  world." 

As  a  footnote  Lieutenant  Bradley  adds  the  following,  after  giving 
Silverthorn  as  the  name  of  the  mountaineer  who  brought  the  gold  dust  to 
Fort  Benton:  "He  remained  in  the  country  for  several  years,  retiring 
•alone  for  long  periods  to  the  mountains,  and  appearing  at  the  forts  or 
settlements  with  plenty  of  gold  to  buy  all  his  necessities.  He  could  never 
be  induced  to  tell  where  he  got  his  gold,  but  said  it  was  a  mine  known  only 
to  himself.  According  to  his  statement,  it  was  not  a  very  rich  one,  paying 
him  only  four  or  five  dollars  a  day,  but  the  amount  of  gold  he  always  had 
seemed  to  belie  his  words." 

Later  historians  of  Montana  than  Lieutenant  Bradley  have  unearthed 
the  personality  of  Silverthorn  and  claim  that  he  never  posed  as  a  gold  dis- 


coverer.  The  matter  is  thus  clarified  by  W.  F.  Wheeler,  former  librarian 
of  the  Montana  Historical  Society:  "In  1858,  John  Silverthorn,  an  em- 
ploye of  Major  Owen  and  who  had  charge  of  his  pack  trains,  while  on  his 
way  from  Fort  Owen  to  Fort  Benton,  carrying  with  him  fine  furs,  skins 
and  robes,  purchased  from  the  Indians  which  were  to  be  shipped  from 
Fort  Benton  down  the  Missouri  River  to  the  eastern  market,  happened 
to  camp  over  night  at  Benesee's  or  Gold  Creek.  Silverthorn  and  Finlay 
were  old  acquaintances.  Finlay  wanted  tobacco  and  a  few  supplies  which 
he  knew  Silverthorn  always  carried,  and,  as  he  had  no  money,  offered 
in  exchange  for  the  articles  a  quantity  of  yellow  dust  which  he  said  Mr. 
McDonald  had  informed  him  was  gold,  and  which  Silverthorn  hesitat- 
ingly took  in  exchange  for  about  ten  dollars'  worth  of  such  supplies  as 
Finlay  needed.  Arrived  at  Fort  Benton,  Silverthorn  showed  the  dust  to 
Major  Culbertson,  then  the  agent  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  and 
finally  sold  it  to  him  for  twelve  dollars  in  trade.  Major  Culbertson 
shipped  the  yellow  stuff  to  St.  Louis,  describing  what  he  believed  it  to  be, 
whence  it  came  and  the  sum  he  had  paid  for  it.  At  St.  Louis  it  was 
properly  assayed  and  pronounced  to  be  worth  fifteen  dollars." 


But  despite  all  subsequent  encouragement  offered  by  Major  Culbert- 
son to  his  fur  employes  to  be  on  the  look-out  for  gold,  there  were  no. 
developments  for  several  years  outside  of  Finlay  and  Benetsee's  Creek. 
The  discovery  of  the  half-breed  and  the  major's  promotion  of  gold  mining 
were  barren  of  results  until  the  two  Stuart  brothers  came  along  and  com- 
menced the  practical  development  of  the  "colors"  found.  Coming  of  a 
good  Virginia  family,  transplanted  to  Illinois  and  Iowa,  the  two  sons, 
James  and  Granville,  accompanied  their  father  to  California  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1852,  and  arrived  in  Sacramento  Valley  in  the  fall.  The  elder 
man  returned;  the  sons  and  brothers  remained.  They  mined,  herded 
stock,  Helped  defend  the  pioneer  miners  against  the  Indians,  prospected 
over  a  wide  range  of  country,  and  in  tHe  summer  of  1857  started  for 
the  States.  There  were  eleven  in  their  party..  On  account  of  the  bad 
weather,  they  suffered  greatly,  and  Granville  was  taken  sick  with  moun- 
tain fever  in  the  valley  of  the  Humboldt  River,  and  the  two  brothers,  with 
Reece  Anderson,  remained  at  the  camp  of  a  trader  for  eight  days,  while 
the  remainder  of  the  party  continued  the  journey.  When  Granville  had 
recovered,  after  about  two  weeks,  the  Mormons  had  closed  all  the  main 
roads  leading  to  the  States,  by  way  of  the  southern  thoroughfare  through 
South  Pass.  As  they  could  not  proceed  along  the  regular  emigrant  road, 
the  three  men  decided  to  accompany  some  mountaineers,  who  traded  each 
summer  with  the  emigrants  along  the  overland  road,  and  who  usually 
moved  north  to  winter  in  the  Beaverhead  and  Deer  Lodge  Valleys. 

The  winter  of  1857-58  was  spent  in  Beaverhead  Valley  and  on  the 
Big  Hole  River.  The  Stuart  brothers  and  Anderson  had  as  neighbors 
at  the  latter  camp  Jacob  Meeks,  Robert  Dempsey  and  family,  Jackson 
Antoine  Leclaire  and  family,  and  Oliver  and  Michael  Leclaire;  and 


scattered  around  in  a  radius  of  twenty-five  miles  were  the  following  per- 
sons, who  spent  the  same  winter  there :  Richard  Grant,  Sr.,  and  family, 
John  F.  Grant  and  family,  Thomas  Pambrun  and  family,  L.  R.  Maillet, 
John  M.  Jacobs  and  family,  Robert  Hereford,  John  Morgan,  John  W. 
Powell,  John  Saunders,  — : —  Ross,  Antoine  Pourrier,  Antoine  Courtoi, 
and  a  Delaware  Indian  named  Jim  Simonds,  who  had  a  considerable 
quantity  of  goods  for  the  Indian  trade,  as  did  also  Hereford  and  the 
Grants.*  Most  of  the  others  had  small  lots  of  goods  and  trinkets  with 
which  to  buy  horses,  furs  and  dressed  skins  from  the  Indians.  The  price 
of  a  common  horse  in  those  days  was  two  blankets,  one  shirt,  one  pair 
of  cloth  leggings,  one  small  mirror,  one  knife,  one  paper  of  vermilion  and 
usually  a  few  other  trifles.  A  dressed  deer-skin  brought  from  fifteen 
to  twenty  balls,  with  powder  to  carry  them ;  an  elk,  twenty  to  twenty-five 
balls  and  powder;  an  antelope,  five  to  ten;  a  beaver,  twenty  to  twenty- 
five,  and  a  pair  of  good  moccasins,  ten.  The  Grants  and  the  Hudson 
Bay  men  generally  complained  bitterly  of  the  American  hunters  and  ad- 
venturers, claiming  that  they  had  more  than  doubled  the  price  of  all  those 
articles  among  the  Indians  in  the  last  ten  years ;  "which,"  says  Granville 
Stuart,  "was  doubtless  so." 

"Simonds  and  Hereford  each  had  considerable  whiskey  in  their  outfits, 
but  it  was  only  for  the  whites,  as  they  did  not  trade  it  to  the  Indians, 
who  were  scattered  about,  a  few  families  in  a  place,  engaged  in  hunting 
and  trapping.  They  were  mostly  Snakes  and  Bannocks,  with  a  few  Flat- 
heads.  They  did  not  seem  to  crave  liquor,  as  most  Indians  do,  but  were 
quiet  and  unobtrusive,  and  as  respectable  as  Indians  ever  get  to  be.  But 
the  whites  and  half-breeds  drank  enough  while  it  lasted  (which,  for- 
tunately, was  not  long)  for  themselves  and  all  the  Indians  in  the  country ; 
and  their  extravagant  antics  were  true  copies  of  the  pictures  drawn  by 
Bonneville  of  a  mountaineer  and  trapper  rendezvous.  At  times  it  seemed 
as  though  blood  must  be  shed;  but  that  Providence  that  seems  to  watch 
over  the  lives  of  drunken  men  stood  by  them,  and  the  end  of  the  liquor 
was  reached  before  anybody  was  killed." 

While  hunting  and  trading  in  that  region,  like  other  pioneers  of  that 
period,  the  Stuarts  and  their  companions  were  several  times  obliged  to 
eat  their  horses  to  keep  from  starving,  as  game  was  unusually  scarce. 
They  were  also  under  the  constant  menace  of  having  the  animals  upon 
which  they  must  rely  for  transportation  stolen  by  the  Blackfeet,  whose 
deviltry  was  then  confined  to  stealing  rather  than  murder.  In  April,  1858, 
while  planning  to  go  to  Fort  Bridger,  from  which  there  was  a  crying 
demand  for  beef,  James  Stuart  and  his  companions  returned  to  Deer 
Lodge,  where  game  was  more  abundant,  to  kill  and  dry  enough  meat  to 
take  them  to  the  southern  post.  Before  starting  for  Fort  Bridger,  the 
Stuart  brothers,  and  Anderson  and  Ross,  made  a  little  side  trip  to  in- 
vestigate the  reported  finding  of  gold  by  the  Red  River  half-breed, 
Benetsee,  in  the  lower  end  of  Deer  Lodge,  in  1852,  and  its  subsequent 
discovery,  in  1856,  by  a  party  on  its  way  to  Salt  Lake  from  the  Bitter 

*  See  Granville  Stuart's  "Life  of  James  Stuart." 


Root  Valley.  They  accordingly  left  the  rest  of  the  mountaineers  on  the 
4th  of  April,  1858,  and  moved  over  to  Deer  Lodge  and  found  John  M. 
'Jacobs  camped  at  the  mouth  of  what  is  now  Gold  Creek  (then  known  as 
Benetsee  Creek),  with  a  band  of  cattle  that  he  had  taken  from  John  F. 
Grant  on  shares ;  and  here  they  luxuriated  on  milk  and  wild  game,  after- 
ward joining  camp  with  Thomas  Adams,  who  also  had  a  band  of  cattle, 
and  with  whom  they  prospected  on  Benetsee  Creek  and  found  fair  pros- 
pects near  the  surface.  But  as  they  had  no  tools  and  were  living  on  meat 
alone,  and  were  much  harassed  by  the  Blackfeet,  who  stole  four  of  their 
horses  and  made  nightly  attempts  to  get  the  rest,  they  gave  up  pros- 
pecting and  moved  up  Flint  Creek  to  a  point  three  miles  above  where 
the  town  of  Phillipsburg  now  stands,  where  they  built  a  corral  strong 
enough  to  bid  defiance  to  the  Blackfeet,  into  which  they  put  all  their 
horses  every  night. 

The  Stuarts  reached  Fort  Bridger  June  28,  1858;  a  few  weeks  after- 
ward were  at  Camp  Floyd,  forty  miles  south  of  Salt  Lake  City  where 
Johnston  army  was  stationed  to  keep  the  Mormons  in  order,  and  there 
sold  their  horses;  then  went  to  Green  River  and  began  "buying  and 
trading  in  poor  oxen  with  the  supply  trains,"  and  subsequently  doing  bus- 
iness with  the  emigrants,  bound  for  "Pike's  Peak  or  bust."  The  following 
winter  and  spring  saw  them  on  Henry's  Fork  of  the  Green  River  and  in 
Salt  River  Valley,  on  Lander's  cut-off  of  the  emigrant  road,  engaged  in 
trading  with  the  mountain  men  and  the  emigrants.  In  the  fall  of  1860, 
they  moved  north  to  the  mouth  of  the  Pah-Sammeri,  or  Stinking  Water, 
in  Beaverhead  Valley,  intending  to  winter  there ;  but  the  Indians  be- 
coming insolent  and  semi-hostile  and  beginning  to  kill  their  cattle,  they 
moved  over  to  Deer  Lodge,  and  located  at  the  mouth  of  Gold  Creek,  re- 
solved to  develop  the  gold  mines  in  that  vicinity.  In  the  spring  (1861), 
they  found  good  prospects  in  several  places.  James  went  to  Fort  Benton, 
where  a  steamboat  was  expected,  to  buy  supplies,  leaving  his  brother  alone 
in  charge  of  the  ranch,  Anderson  having  gone  down  the  river  from 
Benton  on  a  visit  to  the  States.  The  steamboat  burned  near  the  mouth 
of  Milk  River  and  consequently  James  failed  to  get  any  supplies,  and, 
as  misfortunes  seldom  come  single,  during  his  absence  four  Bannack 
Indians  stole  a  band  of  horses  from  the  Flatheads  at  Camas  prairie  (just 
below  what  is  now  Bear  Gulch),  who  pursued  and  overtook  them  at 
Moose  Creek,  on  the  Big  Hole  River,  and  killed  two  of  them  and  re- 
captured all  the  horses.  They  spared  the  other  two,  telling  them  to  go 
and  tell  their  people  to  quit  stealing  from  the  Flatheads,  who  wished  to 
be  at  peace  with  them.  The  Flatheads  returned  home  rejoicing;  but 
their  success  was  the  whites'  calamity,  for  the  two  they  spared  followed 
them  back  to  Gold  Creek,  where,  on  the  night  of  June  22,  1861,  they  stole 
all  the  horses  there,  except  three  that  Granville  kept  tied  every  night  at 
the  cabin  door.  They  took  twenty-three  head  of  half  and  three-quarters 
breed  American  mares  and  colts,  none  of  which  were  ever  recovered. 
It  was  evident  that  at  first  these  Indians  did  not  want  to  steal  from 
the  whites,  for  they  had  passed  by  the  same  horses  twice  before  without 


molesting  them,  but  after  their  misfortune  at  the  hands  of  the  Flatheads, 
they  ceased  to  be  respecters  of  persons.    And  this  is  Indian  ethics  anyhow. 


There  being  neither  tools  nor  lumber  to  be  had,  upon  James's  return 
they  hired  two  men  to  whipsaw  sluice  lumber  at  ten  cents  per  foot,  and 
sent,  by  Worden  &  Company's  pack  train,  to  Walla  Walla  for  picks  and 
shovels,  that  being  the  nearest  place  at  which  they  could  be  procured, 
but  they  did  not  arrive  in  time  to  commence  mining  that  season.  They 
dug  a  ditch,  however,  and  completed  their  arrangements  for  the  following 
spring.  Late  in  the  fall,  a  few  others  came  in  and  began  to  prospect, 
among  whom  were  Maj.  W.  Graham,  A.  S.  Blake,  and  P.  S.  McAdow, 
who  found  good  prospects  in  a  dry  gulch  just  below  where  the  village  of 
Pioneer  now  stands,  and  determined  to  remain  and  mine  at  that  place 
in  the  spring. 

In  May,  1862,  operations  were  commenced,  but  only  paid  from  one 
to  three  dollars  per  day  by  the  old  pick  and  shovel  process,  except  one 
claim  in  Pioneer  Gulch,  just  above  the  mouth  of  French  Gulch,  which 
paid .  from  six  to.  twenty  dollars  per  day  to  the  hand.  While  working  in 
the  gulch,  which  only  paid  from  $1.50  to  $2  a  day,  the  Stuart  company 
kept  their  horses  picketed  on  a  grassy  slope,  now  known  as  Bratton's  bar, 
which  in  1866,  was  accidentally  discovered  to  be  rich  in  gold,  and  has  paid 
enormously  ever  since;  but  in  '62  nobody  ever  thought  of  looking  on  a 
grassy  hillside  for  gold,  although  subsequent  developments  proved  that 
there  were  many  rich  channels  and  deposits  on  the  hills  in  that  vicinity, 
while  the  creeks  and  gulches  were  usually  too  poor  to  pay  for  working. 
Such  is  mining,  in  which  it  is  better  to  be  lucky  than  to  have  the  wisdom 
of  Solomon. 

On  the  24th  of  June,  sixteen  men  arrived,  being  the  first  of  quite  a 
large  number  who  left  Pike's  Peak  mines  (now  Colorado  Territory)  for 
•the  Salmon  River  mines,  but  most  of  whom  finally  brought  up  in  Deer 
Lodge  and  vicinity.  Among  the  first  party  was  J.  M.  Bozeman,  after 
whom  the  flourishing  county-seat  of  Gallatin  County  was  subsequently 
named,  and  who  was  murdered  by  the  Indians  on  the  Yellowstone  in 
1867.  This  party  discovered  a  rich  claim  in  a  branch  of  Gold  Creek, 
which  has  since  been  known  as  "Pike's  Peak  Gulch." 

A  considerable  number  of  men  also  came  up  the  Missouri  River  on 
steamboats  to  Fort  Benton,  bound  for  the  Salmon  River  mines,  but 
many  of  whom  stopped  at  Gold  Creek  and  remained  permanently.  The 
first  of  these  reached  Gold  Creek  on  the  29th  of  June,  and  among  them 
were  S.  T.  Hauser  and  W.  B.  Dance,  both  of  whom  became  intimate 
friends  of  James  Stuart,  and  were  associated  with  him  most  of  his  sub- 
sequent life. 


During  this  summer  he  sent  east  and  procured  a  number  of  medical 
works  and  instruments  and  a  small  stock  of  drugs  and  medicines,  and 
applied  himself  assiduously  to  the  study  of  medicine  and  surgery.  He  had 


read  medicine  under  a  physician  in  his  youth,  and  also  attended  a  course 
or  two  of  medical  lectures.  He  continued  his  studies  in  this  department 
of  science  during  the  rest  of  his  life,  and,  at  the  time  of  his  death,  was 
possessed  of  a  good  medical  library  and  the  latest  improved  medical  and 
surgical  instruments,  and  was  probably  one  of  the  best  read  physicians 
and  surgeons  in  Montana.  He  never  practiced,  however,  except  among 
his  friends  and  associates,  many  of  whom  owe  their  lives  to  his  skill,  for 
he  was  very  successful,  and  rarely  failed  to  cure  any  case.  But  he  would 
never  accept  even  the  slightest  compensation  from  any  one,  seeming  to 
think  the  pleasure  he  derived  from  having  cured  them  reward  enough. 


On  the  I4th  of  July,  1862,  an  election  was.  held  at  Pioneer  Gulch, 
Fort  Owen  and  Hell  Gate  and  James  Stuart  was  elected  sheriff  of 
Missoula  County,  Washington  Territory,  which  embraced  what  is  now 
Missoula  County  and  all  of  Deer  Lodge  west  of  the  range.  This  was 
the  first  election  held  in  the  Rocky  Mountains,  north  of  Colorado. 


About  this  time  (July,  1862)  one  Hurlbut  discovered  the  diggings 
on  Big  Prickly  Bear  Creek,  where  the  town  of  Montana  City  (northern 
part  of  Jefferson  County)  afterward  sprang  up;  and  a  few  days  after, 
John  White,  with  a  party  on  the  way  to  Pioneer,  struck  the  mines  at 
Bannack  City,  which  proved  very  rich;  almost  simultaneously  Slack  and 
party  found  mines  on  the  head  of  Big  Hole  River,  and  within  a  week 
John  W.  Powell  and  party  found  the  Old  Bar  mines  on  North  Boulder 
Creek.  At  this  time  quite  a  village,  known  as  American  Fork,  had  grown 
up  at  Stuart's  ranch,  at  the  mouth  of  Gold  Creek,  but  it  soon  lost  its  im- 
portance because  of  the  superior  richness  of  the  mines  at  Bannack  City. 
The  first  discovery  in  that  locality  had  been  made  in  August,  and  a  little 
city  had  grown  up  in  a  few  months. 

In  the  summer  of  1862  the  streams  of  immigration  were  setting 
strongly  toward  both  the  Gold  Creek  country  of  Montana  and  the  Salmon 
River  fields  of  Idaho — especially  the  Florence  diggings.  The  Idaho  at- 
tractions led  to  the  Bannack  City  discoveries.  William  A.  Clark  tells  how 
in  his  centennial  address:  "During  this  summer  (1862)  a  small  party 
discovered  some  mines  on  Big  Hole  River  of  limited  extent.  A  party 
of  Coloradians,  among  them  Dr.  Levitt,  of  Bannack,  had  attempted  the 
route  to  the  Florence  mines  by  way  of  Lemhi  Valley,  and  were  forced 
to  abandon  it  by  reason  of  precipitous  mountains,  and  were  by  favorable 
reports  led  to  the  Deer  Lodge  Valley  as  a  desirable  wintering  place.  This 
point  they  reached  in  July,  1862.  While  there,  two  horsemen  came  in 
from  Lemhi  and  reported  the  existence  of  favorable  indications  for  gold 
on  Grasshopper  Creek,  near  where  Bannack  now  stands.  They  were 
provided  with  supplies  and  urged  to  return  and  prospect  the  gulch  and 
report.  This  they  proceeded  to  do,  and  returning  with  the  news  met  the 



impatient  party  moving  on  toward  the  place.  Augmented  by  other  pros- 
pectors joining  them,  they  proceeded  to  the  discovery  which  had  been 
made  by  John  White  on  the  i6th  of  August,  1862,  and  in  honor  of  the 
discoverer,  named  White's  Bar.  Soon  afterward  other  bars  were  found 
which  were  extremely  rich.  The  gulch  itself  was  then  opened  and  mining 
began  in  earnest.  In  the  autumn  a  train  was  dispatched  to  Salt  Lake 
City  for  provisions,  the  town  of  Bannack  was  laid  out,  and  by  the  first 
of  January,  1863,  a  population  of  500  souls  had  gathered  there,  and 
among  them  some  of  the  wildest  and  most  reckless  adventurers  whose 
names  and  misdeeds  figure  conspicuously  in  the  early  history  of  the 


Territory.     Thus  began  the  first  important  mining  operations  in  this 


About  the  middle  of  August,  1862,  three  horse  thieves  and  desperadoes 
arrived  at  American  Fork  from  the  lower  country,  and  were  appre- 
hended by  their  pursuers.  One  of  them,  who  resisted,  was  shot  to 
death  in  a  saloon  where  he  was  gambling;  his  companion  was  captured 
there,  and  the  third  was  taken  in  Worden  &  Company's  store.  One  of 
the  other  two  was  acquitted,  while  the  third  (C.  W.  Spillman)  was  hanged 
at  twenty-seven  minutes  past  two  o'clock,  P.  M.,  August  26,  1862.  His 
only  claim  to  be  noticed  in  this  history  is  that  his  was  the  first  execution 
in  what  is  now  Montana,  and  that  he  was  hanged  in  half  an  hour  from 
the  time  he  was  sentenced.  The  execution  caused  the  town  of  American 
Fork  to  be  recorded  as  Hangtown  on  all  the  western  maps  for  some 
years  after,  although  it  was  never  known  by  that  name  in  the  locality. 

It  was  not  that  undesirable  name  which  induced  the  Stuart  brothers 
to  abandon  American  Fork,  at  about  this  time,  but  as  nearly  everyone 
had  left  Gold  Creek  and  gone  to  booming  Bannack  City,  they  decided  to 


locate  there  with  the  crowd  and  engage  in  the  butchering  business  and 
anything  else  which  promised  honest  profit.  They  made  the  move,  leaving 
Anderson  in  charge  of  the  ranch  and  stock  at  Gold  Creek.  As  the  spring 
of  1863  drew  near,  James  Stuart  chaffed  under  the  restraint  and  decided 
to  organize  a  company  for  the  purpose  of  exploring  and  prospecting  in 
the  valley  of  the  Yellowstone,  which  had  been  almost  abandoned  since 
the  extermination  of  the  beaver  and  the  trade  founded  on  its  fur. 


The  men  who  were  to  form  the  famous  Yellowstone  expedition  of 
1863  started  from  Bannack  City  for  the  Fifteen  Mile  Creek,  or  Rattle- 
snake Creek,  on  the  9th  of  April,  1863.  They  went  in  squads  of  two  and 
three  and  in  the  forenoon  of  the  following  day  fourteen  men,  who  were 
to  form  the  party,  organized  a  company  under  the  following  form  of 
agreement :  "Having  determined  to  explore  a  portion  of  the  country 
drained  by  the  Yellowstone  for  the  purpose  of  discovering  gold  mines 
and  securing  town  sites,  and  believing  the  object  could  be  better  accom- 
plished by  forming  ourselves  into  a  regularly  organized  company,  we 
hereby  appoint  James  Stuart  captain,  agreeing  upon  our  word  of  honor 
to  obey  all  orders  given  or  issued  by  him  or  any  subordinate  officer  ap- 
pointed by  him.  In  case  of  any  member  refusing  to  obey  an  order  or 
orders  from  said  captain,  he  shall  be  forcibly  expelled  from  our  camp.  It 
is  further  understood  and  agreed  that  we  all  do  our  equal  portions  of 
work,  the  captain  being  umpire  in  all  cases,  sharing  equally  the  benefits 
of  said  labor  both  as  to  the  discovery  of  gold  and  securing  town  sites. 
Signed:  James  Stuart,  Cyrus  D.  Watkins,  John  Vanderbilt,  James  N. 
York,  Richard  McCafferty,  James  Hauxhurst,  Drewyer  Underwood, 
Samuel  T.  Hauser,  Henry  A.  Bell,  William  Roach,  A.  Sterne  Blake, 
George  H.  Smith,  Henry  T.  Geery,  Ephraim  Bostwick.  The  fifteenth 
man,  George  Ives,  did  not  sign  the  agreement,  notes  Granville  (who 
edited  the  journal  of  the  expedition  prepared  by  James),  because  he  did 
not  overtake  the  party  until  next  day,  when  it  seems  to  have  been  for- 
gotten. Six  men,  who  had  intended  to  join  the  expedition,  were  en- 
deavoring to  collect  their  horses  which  had  been  wintering  in  Deer 
Lodge,  and  failed  to  overtake  the  main  body.  They  were  turned  back 
by  hostile  Crows  and  the  discovery  of  Alder  Gulch  and  the  rise  of  Vir- 
ginia City  resulted.  But  that  is  another  story. 


On  the  divide  between  the  Madison  and  Stinking  Water,  two  of  the 
members  of  the  Stuart  expedition  (Geery  and  McCafferty)  "got  a 
splendid  prospect  on  a  high  bar,"  and  although  the  news  was  conveyed 
to  the  captain  the  rest  of  the  party  were  not  informed  "for  fear  of 
breaking  up  the  expedition."  As  it  afterward  developed,  "this  prospect 
was  on  a  fork  of  Alder  Gulch,  called  Granite  Creek,"  and  if  the  rich 
"strike"  had  not  been  made  by  one  of  the  men  left  behind,  it  is  certain 


that  the  honor  would  have  fallen  to  the  Stuart  party.  "As  it  was,  when 
they  got  back,  Alder  Gulch  was  full  of  miners  and  all  the  interest  centered 

The  Stuart  outfit  crossed  the  divide,  over  the  old  Buffalo  road  and 
through  the  low  gap  in  the  mountains  described  in  the  Lewis-Clark 
journal,  and  at  that  point  the  captain  of  the  expedition  noted:  "We  are 
following  Lewis  and  Clark's  trail.  We  are  about  thirty  miles  from  the 
three  forks  of  the  Missouri."  The  general  direction  of  travel  was  north- 
east to  the  divide  between  the  Yellowstone  and  Missouri  Rivers  and 
thence  to  Shields  River,  a  northern  tributary  of  the  Yellowstone  in  what 
in  now  Park  County.  Here  Stuart's  journal  stops  to  note:  "We  are 
supposed  to  be  on  Shields  River  (as  they  were).  Lewis  and  Clark  have 
played  us  out;  if  we  had  left  the  notes  and  map  of  their  route  at  home 
and  followed  the  Indian  trail,  we  would  have  saved  four  days'  travel  in 
coming  from  Bannack  City  here." 


The  party  traveled  up  the  north  bank  of  the  Yellowstone,  and  some- 
where in  the  present  county  of  Yellowstone  fell  in  with  a  band  of  Crow 
Indians,  who  attempted  to  frighten  the  whites  and  steal  their  horses  and 
every  other  thing  within  reach.  Stuart's  men  were,  with  difficulty,  pre- 
vented from  attacking  the  red-skins  at  once.  The  party  was  undoubtedly 
saved  through  the  coolness,  strategy  and  bravery  of  the  leader.  At  his 
direction,  when  the  chief  was  caught  apart  from  his  thieving,  insolent 
warriors,  the  leader  of  the  Crows  was  covered  with  Captain  Stuart's  rifle, 
and  the  principal  Indian  warriors  also  looked  into  the  rifles  and  pistols 
of  the  whites,  although  the  Indians  out-numbered  the  whites  two  to 
one.  In  the  meantime,  the  Indians  had  thrown  off  their  blankets  and 
stood  naked  with  their  muskets  leveled  at  the  whites.  It  was  a  contest 
of  eye-to-eye  will  power  and,  as  was  the  rule,  the  whites  won.  Many 
years  afterward  one  of  the  men,  Samuel  T.  Hauser,  thus  described  the 
dramatic  scene :  "The  suspense  and  anxiety  we  endured  for  a  few  min- 
utes, while  we  glared  at  each  other,  was  fearful.  To  realize  it,  one  has 
only  image  himself  surrounded  by  these  savage  fiends,  hundreds  of  miles 
from  relief  or  reinforcements.  They  were  two  to  one  of  us,  equally  as 
well  armed  as  we  were,  and  several  hundred  more  of  them  within  a  few 
miles.  But,  fortunately,  they  all  looked  to  their  chief,  and  saw  that  he 
was  lost  if  a  gun  was  fired. 

"We,  too,  looked  to  our  captain,  and  our  danger  was  almost  forgotten 
in  admiration.  His  whole  features,  face  and  person  had  changed;  he 
seemed  and  was,  taller;  his  usually  calm  face  was  all  on  fire;  his  quiet, 
light  blue  eye  was  now  flashing  like  an  eagle's,  and  seemingly  looking 
directly  through  the  fierce  and,  for  a  time,  undaunted  savage  that  stood  be- 
fore him.  For  several  seconds  it  was  doubtful  whether  the  old  warrior 
chief  would  cower  before  his  white  brother,  or  meet  his  fate  then  and 

"Our  captain,  with  his  flashing  eyes  riveted  upon  him,  was  fiercely  and 

Vol.1— 13 


eloquently  reproaching  him  with  his  bad  faith  to  the  pale  faces  and  their 
Great  Father,  winding  up  by  saying,  in  a  voice  of  stern  determination, 
'Signal  your  warriors  off,  or  I'll  send  you  to  your  last  hunting  ground !' 
For  an  instant  the  suspense  was  beyond  description;  a  death-like  silence 
reigned.  The  dark,  fierce,  snake-like  eyes  of  the  fiends  about  us  were 
enough  to  unnerve  the  most  of  men.  To  me  the  delay  was  awful,  and  I 
could  not  decide  from  the  defiant  air  of  their  chief  whether  he  was  going 
to  give  the  desired  signal  or  die ;  but  finally  a  wave  of  his  hand  relieved 
our  doubts,  and  his  braves  all  lowered  their  weapons  of  death  and  sul- 
lenly sought  their  robes  and  ponies." 

Hauser  adds  that  the  second  chief,  a  tall,  fine  looking  young  warrior, 
was  so  enraged  both  at  the  old  chief's  action  and  the  hilarity  of  the 
former,  that  "rushing  up  to  me  in  a  white  heat,  he  placed  his  finger  on 
my  nose  and  then  on  his  own,  and  quickly  touching  his  gun  and  then  mine, 
pointed  to  one  side.  All  of  which  was  a  plain  enough  challenge  to  a  single- 
handed  combat.  And  while  I  didn't  'see  it,'  the  other  fellows  did,  shouting 
with  laughter  and  saying  'Go  in,  Hauser.  You  can  get  away  with  him.' 
But  I  couldn't  'see  it'  in  that  light,  and  the  young  brave  had  to  retire 
without  satisfaction,  which,  I  regret  to  say,  he  got  afterward." 


Three  or  four  days  after  this  rather  disturbing  adventure,  the  Stuart 
party  reached  Pompey's  Pillar,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Yellowstone 
about  in  the  middle  of  the  county  by  that  name.  Of  course  there  is  a 
town  there  now.  When  Stuart  was  passing  along  in  1863,  ne  says,  under 
date  of  May  3rd:  "We  camped  three  miles  below  Pompey's  Pillar,  on 
which  we  found  the  names  of  Captain  Clark  and  two  of  his  men  cut  in 
the  rock,  with  the  date  of  July  25,  1806.  Fifty-seven  years  ago!  And  it 
is  probable  that  this  landscape  then  looked  precisely  the  same  as  it  does 
now.  There  are  also  two  more  names  cut  here  which  I  never  heard  of 
before.  But  I  suppose  they  must  have  belonged  to  some  of  the  bands 
of  trappers  that,  under  old  Jim  Bridger,  the  Sublette  and  Bonneville, 
made  this  their  hunting  ground.  The  names  are  Derick  and  Vancourt, 
and  the  accompanying  date  is  May  23,  1834.  The  pillar  is  a  good  land- 
mark, but  it  is  all  stuff  about  the  spring  in  the  top  of  it. 

"Buffalo  to  be  seen  in  every  direction,  and  very  tame.  We  can  ride 
within  300  yards  of  them,  unless  they  smell  us ;  and  if  they  do,  they 
will  run  if  they  are  a  mile  away.  Small  game  is  also  abundant.  No 
wonder  the  Crows  like  their  country ;  it  is  a  perfect  paradise  for  a  hunter." 


Two  days  afterward,  when  the  expedition  reached  the  mouth  of  the 
Big  Horn,  it  had  traveled  401  miles,  but  the  captain  decided  that  he  had 
been  so  misled  by  the  Lewis  and  Clark  notes  and  maps  that  at  least 
seventy-five  miles  had  been  needlessly  traveled;  which  left  326  miles 
actual  distance  between  Bannack  City  to  that  point,  "and  there  can  be  a 


good  wagon-road  made  over  the  route  with  but  very  little  labor."  Captain 
Stuart's  journal  says  that  "In  the  evening,  some  of  the  party  washed  a 
few  pans  of  loose  gravel  from  a  bar  on  the  Big  Horn,  and  found  from 
ten  to  fifty  very  fine  colors  of  gold  in  every  pan.  They  also  tried  a  gravel 
bank  about  fifty  feet  above  the  river,  and  got  several  colors  to  the  pan. 
All  the  party  think  we  will  find  good  diggings  up  the  river." 

The  prospects  were  so  favorable  that  under  the  date  of  the  following 
day,  May  6,  1863,  the  record  reads :  "Early  in  the  morning,  five  men  were 
detailed  to  cross  the  Big  Horn  and  survey  a  town-site  and  ranches.  They 
made  a  raft  and  crossed  without  any  difficulty.  Four  men  were  sent  out 
to  prospect,  and  the  rest  had  to  keep  camp  and  guard  the  horses. 

"The  prospectors  returned  first.  They  found  only  a  few  colors  or 
specks  of  gold.  The  party  that  went  across  the  Big  Horn  located  a 
town  site  of  320  acres  and  thirteen  ranches  of  160  acres  each,  while  I 
located  two  ranches  in  the  ^bottom  between  the  two  rivers.  The  sub- 
joined plat  shows  the  shape  of  all  the  locations,  as  well  as  the  general 
topography  of  the  vicinity.  (Historical  contributions,  Vol.  I,  p.  182.) 
I  also  engraved  my  name,  with  the  date,  on  a  sandstone  about  three 
quarters  of  a  mile  above  camp,  on  the  Big  Horn.  It  will  stay  there  for 
ages,  and  if  I  perish  on  this  expedition,  I  have  left  my  mark.  In  the 
evening  four  of  the  party  cut  their  names  on  a  perpendicular  sandstone 
rock  between  the  rivers." 

Now  traveling  up  the  Big  Horn  River,  the  prospectors  found  "plenty 
of  colors  to  the  pan;"  also  a  few  signs  of  Indians.  They  also  met,  as 
they  thought,  three  white  men  going  down  the  river,  who  fled  in  a  panic 
into  some  deep  ravines  leading  to  the  stream,  thinking  the  Stuart  party 
was  a  band  of  Indians.*  The  following  day  (May  12,  1863)  the  men 
found  so  many  horse  tracks  and  other  Indian  signs  near  their  camp  that 
the  captain  concluded  they  "would  have  to  look  out  for  squalls,"  as  there 
was  evidently  a  war  party  in  the  neighborhood.  The  threatening  out- 
look also  reminded  him  of  this :  "It  is  eleven  years  today  since  I  left  the 
home  of  my  boyhood  (in  Iowa,  with  his  father  and  brother,  bound  for 
California).  Who  knows  how  many  more  it  will  be  before  I  see  it  again, 
if  ever?" 


The  horrors  of  that  very  night  made  him  even  more  doubtful  of 
coming  through  alive.  "Last  night,"  he  says,  in  his  record  of  May  I3th, 
"Smith  and  I  had  the  first  watch,  and  about  eleven  o'clock  the  horses  at 
my  end  were  scared  at  something,  but  it  was  very  dark  and  I  could  not 
see  anything.  I  thought  it  might  be  a  wolf  prowling  around  camp.  A 
few  minutes  before  eleven  o'clock  I  sat  up  and  lit  a  match  to  see  what 
time  it  was,  and  also  to  light  my  pipe,  but  at  once  laid  down  again ;  we 
were  both  lying  flat  on  the  ground  to  see  what  made  the  horses  so  uneasy, 

*It  was  afterward  learned  that  the  three  were  J.  M.  Bozeman  and  John  M. 
Jacobs  and  the  latter's  little  daughter,  and  that  the  men  were  exploring  a  route 
for  a  wagon  road  from  the  Three  Forks  of  the  Missouri  to  the,  North  Platte 
River — afterward  known  as  the  Jacobs  and  Bozeman  Cut-Off. 


and  to  this  we  both  owe  our  lives.  Just  then  I  heard  Smith  whisper  that 
there  was  something  around  his  part  of  the  horses,  and  a  few  seconds 
later  the  Crows  fired  a  terrific  volley  into  the  camp. 

"I  was  lying  between  two  of  my  horses,  and  both  were  killed,  and 
very  nearly  fell  on  me.  Four  horses  were  killed  and  five  more  wounded, 
while  in  the  tents  two  men  were  mortally,  two  badly  and  three  more 
slightly  wounded.  Smith  shouted,  'Oh,  you  scoundrels!'  and  fired  both 
barrels  of  his  shot-gun  at  the  flash  of  theirs,  but,  so  far  as  we  could  tell 
next  morning,  without  effect;  he  most  probably  fired  too  high.  I  could 
not  fire,  for  the  horses  were  in  the  way.  I  shouted  for  someone  to  tear 
down  the  tents,  to  prevent  their  affording  a  mark  for  the  murderous 
Indians  a  second  time.  York  rushed  out  and  tore  them  down  in  an 
instant.  I  then  ordered  all  who  were  able  to  take  their  arms  and  crawl 
out  from  the  tents  a  little  way,  and  lie  flat  on  the  ground;  and  thus  we 
lay  until  morning,  expecting  further  attack  each  instant,  and  determined 
to  sell  our  lives  as  dearly  as  possible.  When  at  last  day  dawned,  we  could 
see  a  few  Indians  among  the  rocks  and  pines  on  a  hill  some  five  or  six 
hundred  yards  away,  watching  to  see  the  effects  of  their  bloody  work. 

"An  examination  of  the  wounded  presented  a  dreadful  sight.  C.  D. 
Watkins  was  shot  in  the  right  temple,  and  the  ball  came  out  at  the  left 
cheek-bone;  the  poor  fellow  was  still  breathing  but  still  insensible.  E. 
Bostwick  was  shot  in  five  places — once  in  the  back  part  of  the  shoulder, 
shattering  the  shoulder  blade,  but  the  ball  did  not  come  out  in  front ;  three 
balls  passed  through  the  right  thigh  all  shattering  the  bone,  and  one 
ball  passed  through  the  left  thigh,  which  did  not  break  the  bone;  he 
was  sensible,  but  suffering  dreadful  agony.  H.  A.  Bell  was  shot  twice — 
one  ball  entered  at  the  lowest  rib  on  the  left  side  and  lodged  just  under 
the  skin  on  the  right  side ;  the  other  ball  entered  near  the  kidneys  on  the 
left  side  and  came  out  near  the  thigh  joint.  D.  Underwood  was  shot 
once,  but  the  ball  made  six  holes ;  it  first  passed  through  the  left  arm 
above  the  elbow  just  missing  the  bone,  and  then  passed  through  both 
breasts  which  were  large  and  full  and  just  grazing  the  breast-bone.  H.  T. 
Geery  was  shot  in  the  left  shoulder  blade  with  an  arrow,  but  not  danger- 
ously hurt.  George  Ives  was  shot  in  the  hip  with  a  ball — a  flesh  wound. 
S.  T.  Hauser  in  the  left  breast  with  a  ball,  which  passed  through  memor- 
andum book"  in  his  shirt  pocket  and  stopped  against  a  rib  over  his  heart, 
the  book  saving  his  life.  Several  others  had  one  or  more  ball-holes 
through  their  clothes. 

"We  held  a  council  of  war ;  concluded  that  it  was  impossible  to  return 
through  the  Crow  country  now  that  they  were  openly  hostile;  therefore 
determined  to  strike  for  the  emigrant  road  on  Sweetwater  River,  throw- 
ing away  all  our  outfit  except  enough  provisions  to  do  us  to  the  road. 
Watkins  was  still  breathing,  but  happily  insensible.  Poor  Bostwick  was 
alive  and  sensible,  but  gradually  failing,  and  in  great  agony.  With  noble 
generosity  he  insisted  on  our  leaving  him  to  his  fate,  as  it  was  impossible 
to  move  him,  and  equally  impossible  for  him  to  recover  if  we  remained 
with  him,  and  which,  he  said,  would  only  result  in  all  of  us  falling  vic- 
tims of  the  fiendish  savages.  He  asked  us  to  hand  him  his  trusty  re- 


volver,  saying  he  would  get  even  with  the  red  devils  when  they  came  into 
camp.  We  gave  it  to  him,  and  a  few  moments  later  were  startled  by  the 
report  of  his  pistol,  and  filled  with  horror  when  we  saw  he  had  blown 
out  his  brains." 

Hauser  gives  a  more  detailed  account  of  the  attack  than  Captain 
Stuart,  as  he  insists  that  his  leader  only  "briefly  notices  one  of  the  most 
fearful  tragedies  that  ever  occurred  in  the  mountains,  and  in  which  his 
nobleness  of  soul  and  heroic  courage  shone  more  brilliantly  than  ever 
before."  The  picture  which  he  gives  of  the  sufferings  and  suspense  of 
that  awful  night  following  the  Crows'  attack  is  appalling.  It  seems  that 
the  savages  poured  only  one  volley  into  the  sleeping  camp,  as  they  knew 
that  the  white  men  would  respond  by  the  flashes  of  their  shot-guns. 
Thereafter,  in  the  pitchy  darkness,  they  sent  a  continuous  shower  of  hiss- 
ing arrows  among  their  white  enemies. 

"Instantly  (after  the  attack)  seizing  our  rifles,"  says  Hauser,  "we 
(Drew,  Underwood  and  Hauser)  crawled  out  of  the  tent,  but  before  we 
got  out  the  yelling  and  firing  had  ceased.  It  was  pitch  dark,  dark  as 
Egypt,  and  what  followed  was  even  more  trying  to  our  nerves  than  what 
had  passed.  We  could  distinctly  hear  the  demon-like  whisperings  of  the 
murderous  fiends  in  the  ravine  that  we  knew  was  not  over  ten  paces  from 
us — yet  so  perfectly  dark  that  we  could  not  even  see  the  outlines  of  the 
bushes  that  bordered  the  ravine ;  in  fact,  we  could  not  see  our  hands  be- 
fore us.  Add  to  this,  that  we  did  not  know  how  many  of  our  little  band 
were  left  alive.  Some  we  knew  were  dying,  from  the  moans  we  heard, 
yet  we  could  not  see  them  or  offer  a  word  of  consolation,  for  one  audible 
word  would  have  brought  a  shower  of  arrows.  As  it  was,  they  were 
flying  in  all  directions,  and  it  seemed  impossible  to  escape  being  pierced 
by  them.  We  could  hear  them  whizzing  through  the  air  every  second, 
and  so  near  that  we  often  felt  the  wind ;  and  so  close  were  the  Indians 
that  we  could  hear  the  twang  of  their  bow-strings." 

Before  the  day  dawned,  and  passing  upright  through  this  storm  of 
arrows,  Stuart  calmly  walked  down  to  the  river  to  get  some  water  for 
Bell  and  Bostwick,  who  were  then  believed  to  be  the  most  severely 
wounded.  Almost  miraculously,  he  brought  it  to  them  unscratched. 
"Morning  came  at  last,"  continues  Hauser's  graphic  account,  "and  what 
a  sight  it  revealed !  There  was  poor  Watkins,  shot  through  the  temple  and 
unconscious,  but  crawling  around  on  his  elbows  and  knees;  Bostwick 
shot  all  to  pieces,  but  still  alive,  and  five  others  wounded ;  the  men  scat- 
tered all  about  the  camp-ground,  faces  downward,  with  cocked  rifles  and 
revolvers  in  hand,  eagerly  watching  the  bushes  and  ravine  from  which  the 
fatal  fire  had  come.  Five  horses  were  dead  and  six  or  seven  others  had 
arrows  sticking  into  them.  *  *  *  Within  a  radius  of  thirty  or  forty 
feet  of  where  Underwood  and  I  had  been  lying,  I  picked  up  forty-eight 
arrows,  and  the  tents  were  completely  riddled.  Probably  three  hundred 
balls  and  arrows  passed  through  them." 

Watkins  died  before  the  party,  after  a  conference,  started  to  move 
toward  the  emigrant  road  on  Sweetwater  River.  Bostwick,  who  had  been 
so  terribly  wounded,  shot  himself  while  helping  the  badly  wounded  Bell 


on  to  one  of  the  few  uninjured  horses.  But  a  third  life  was  to  be  lost 
as  a  result  of  this  unfortunate  venture  into  the  Crow  country.  The 
shattered  expedition  moved  slowly,  generally  toward  the  southwest ;  the 
cowardly  Indians,  outnumbering  them  many-fold  and  having  mounted 
their  ponies,  paralleled  their  route,  hovering  over  the  unfortunate  men 
like  so  many  vultures  patiently  awaiting  their  prey.  On  the  day  after  the 
attack,  while  unpacking  the  outfit  for  supper,  Geery,  who  had  only  suf- 
fered a  slight  shoulder  wound,  accidentally  discharged  his  rifle.  The  ball 
entered  his  breast,  making  a  ghastly  and  mortal  wound.  Like  Bostwick, 
he  realized  the  danger  to  the  survivors  of  the  party  if  they  delayed  to 
care  for  him,  and  knowing  his  wound  to  be  fatal,  despite  the  repeated 
protests  of  his  comrades,  headed  by  Stuart,  he  insisted  upon  shooting 
himself.  He  was  buried  at  his  earnest  request,  in  his  soldier's  overcoat. 


That  march  of  the  little  party,  by  way  of  Sweetwater  River  (the 
emigrant  road),  South  Pass,  and  Fort  Bridger  to  Bannack  City,  taking 
a  loop  far  into  Wyoming,  up  the  Big  Horn  and  Wind  Rivers,  along  the 
Wind  River  Mountains,  was  the  painful  progress  of  a  body  of  wounded 
and  determined  heroes.  On  May  22nd,  ten  days  travel  from  the  scene  of 
the  massacre,  with  the  Big  Horn  Mountains  in  sight  toward  the  north- 
east and  the  Wind  River  Mountains  to  the  west,  Stuart  remarks:  "Our 
route  since  the  massacre  has  been  through  a  part  of  the  country  too  mean 
for  Indians  to  either  live  or  hunt  in,  and  I  came  through  it  to  keep  out 
of  the  way.  We  are  traveling  for  safety,  not  comfort."  Notwithstanding, 
sprinkled  through  the  record  are  "fresh  Indian  signs,"  with  now  and  then 
discoveries  of  "colors"  along  the  rivers.  Six  or  seven  days  later,  the 
weary  march  had  brought  the  party  to  Sweetwater  River,  at  the  foot  of 
Rocky  Ridge,  then  called  Pacific  City  (Wyoming).  The  sight  of  "tel- 
egraph poles"  and  an  emigrant  train  was  indeed  cheering.  When  the 
latter  was  overtaken  at  "Pacific  City,"  which  consisted  of  a  trading  house 
only,  the  Stuart  outfit  found  the  emigrants  drawn  up  in  a  square  in  front 
of  their  stock  which  they  were,  prepared  to  defend  from  what  they  be- 
lieved to  be  hostile  Indians.  With  the  emigrants  were  four  soldiers  from 
South  Pass  station,  who  gave  Stuart  information  that  they  had  been 
pursuing  some  Indians,  horse  thieves,  who  had  left  some  flour  behind; 
the  latter  fact  proving  that  Stuart  and  his  men  had  been  followed  for  four 
hundred  miles  by  the  vindictive  and  dogged  Crows  who  had  obtained  the 
flour  from  the  ill-fated  camp,  the  members  of  which  had  been  obliged 
to  leave  it  behind  as  they  had  no  means  of  transporting  it. 

After  spending  a  couple  of  days  in  eating  and  sleeping  at  the  post, 
the  expedition  continued  the  northward  journey,  along  the  old  emigrant 
or  overland  road  to  California  and  Oregon.  They  were  now  continually 
meeting  travelers,  and,  at  times,  acquaintances,  on  the  way.  One  of  the 
party,  York,  concluded  to  go  to  Salt  Lake  with  a  train  which  had  been 
met,  and  William  McAdow  was  added  to  the  outfit.  So,  as  Stuart  says, 
"it  is  merely  an  exchange."  He  adds:  "I  let  York  have  Red  Bear,  the 


black  horse  the  old  chief  gave  me,  so  that  if  he  did  not  get  a  situation  to 
suit  him  he  would  have  the  horse  to  ride  to  Bannack  or  Deer  Lodge." 
When  this  exchange  was  made,  the  party  went  on  to  Green  River  and 
headed  for  Fort  Bridger,  which  was  reached  in  the  afternoon  of  June 
3,  1863.  Then,  along  Bear  and  Snake  Rivers,  far  Western  Wyoming, 
into  Southwestern  Montana,  and  finally,  on  June  22,  1863,  the  maimed, 
tired  and  all  but  broken-down  men  of  the  Stuart  expedition,  were  on  the 
road  to  Bannack  City,  which  passed  down  through  Red  Rock  Valley  and 
Horse  Prairie. 

The  conclusion  of  the  record,  as  made  by  James  Stuart,  is  this : 
"Started  at  five  o'clock  (June  22nd),  and  traveled  until  half  past  ten 
A.  M.,  when  we  halted  for  dinner  above  the  point  of  rocks  on  Horse 
Prairie  Creek.  Passed  a  lot  of  gamblers  camped  on  Red  Rock  Creek. 
They  are  en  route  for  Denver,  via  Salt  Lake  and  Fort  Bridger.  After 
dinner,  packed  up  and  pushed  on  to  Bannack  City,  which  we  reached  late 
in  the  evening.  Everybody  was  glad  to  see  us,  and  we  were  glad  to  see 
everybody,  although  our  hair  and  beards  had  grown  so,  and  we  were  so 
dilapidated  generally  that  scarcely  anyone  knew  us  at  first ;  and  no  won- 
der, for  we  had  ridden  sixteen  hundred  miles,  and  for  the  last  twelve 
hundred  without  tents  or  even  a  change  of  clothing."  Of  the  original 
fifteen  members  of  the  expedition,  three  had  been  buried  in  the  land  of 
the  Crows  as  a  result  of  the  dreadful  massacre  of  the  preceding  May,  and 
Bell,  who  had  been  brought  on  horseback  and  partially  recovered  from 
his  wounds,  had  remained  on  the  Sweetwater  to  have  a  ball  extracted 
from  his  side.  They  had  been  away  from  Bannack  City  two  months  and 
a  half  and,  despite  their  deaths  and  hardships,  had  accomplished  but 
little,  although  the  expedition  probably  established  the  fact  that  the  pros- 
pects for  gold  along  the  main  valley  of  the  Yellowstone  were  a  minus 
quantity.  "Colors"  had  been  found,  now  and  then,  and  that  was  about  all. 


It  was  the  men  who  had  intended  to  accompany  the  Stuart  party,  and 
who  did  not,  that  became  noted  in  the  history  of  gold  mining  in  Montana. 
In  setting  out  for  his  calamitous  trip,  James  Stuart  noted  in  his  journal : 
"Louis  Simmons  and  party  were  to  have  met  us  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Stinking  Water,  but  we  can  find  no  trace  of  them ;  they  have  failed  from 
some  cause  to  us  unknown."  A  footnote  to  this,  Granville  Stuart  ex- 
plains:  "This  party  consisted  of  Louis  Simmons,  William  Fairweather, 
George  Orr,  Thomas  Cover,  Barney  Hughes  and  Henry  Edgar.  They 
were  detained  by  not  being  able  to  find  their  horses,  which  had  wintered 
in  Deer  Lodge.  They  arrived  at  the  appointed  place  of  rendezvous  some 
three  or  four  days  after  the  main  party  had  passed,  and  taking  their  trail 
followed  on,  expecting  to  soon  overtake  them;  but  before  they  did  so 
they  were  met  on  the  upper  Yellowstone  by  a  large  party  of  Crow  In- 
dians, who  at  once  proceeded  to  plunder  them,  taking  nearly  all  they  had, 
and  giving  them  miserable  sore-backed  ponies  in  exchange  for  their 
horses,  ordered  them  to  return  on  pain  of  death.  Situated  as  they  were 


they  could  only  comply,  and  started  on  their  way  back,  with  many  mis- 
givings as  to  the  fate  of  the  main  party  and  curses  both  loud  and  deep 
against  the  Crows. 


And  yet  this  vexatious  outrage  was  the  most  fortunate  thing  that 
could  have  occurred  for  their  own  interest  and  that  of  the  territory,  for 
on  their  way  back  to  Bannack  City  they  went  one  day's  travel  up  the 
Madison  River,  above  where  they  had  struck  it  as  they  went  out,  and, 
crossing  through  a  low  gap  to  the  southwest,  "they  camped  at  noon  on  a 
small  creek.  While  his  comrades  were  cooking  a  scanty  meal,  Fair- 
weather,  on  going  out  to  look  after  the  few  broken-down  ponies  the 
Indians  had  given  in  exchange  for  their  good  horses,  observed  a  point  of 
bare  bed  rock  projecting  from  the  side  of  the  gulch  and  determined  to 
try  a  pan  of  dirt.  He  was  astonished  by  obtaining  thirty  cents  in  beautiful 
coarse  gold,  and  in  a  few  more  trials  he  got  one  dollar  and  seventy-five 
cents  to  the  pan.  This  was  at  the  point  afterward  famous  as  'Fair- 
weather's  discovery  claim'  in  Alder  Gulch.  Believing  the  locality  would 
prove  rich,  they  proceeded  to  stake  off  claims,  and  Hughes  was  sent  to 
Bannack  for  provisions  and  friends ;  and  on  his  arrival  there,  in  spite  of 
his  efforts  to  keep  the  matter  a  secret,  it  became  known  that  rich  diggings 
had  been  struck  somewhere.  A  close  watch  was  kept  on  Hughes,  and 
when  he  started  he  was  followed  by  some  200  men.  About  the  present 
site  of  Daley's  ranch,  on  the  Stinking  Water,  Hughes  refused  to  go 
farther  until  morning  and  the  party  encamped ;  but  during  the  night  he 
appointed  a  rendezvous  for  his  particular  friends  whom  he  escorted  into 
the  mines  in  the  night.  In  the  morning,  the  remainder  of  the  party 
followed  his  trail  into  camp,  and  Fairweather  district,  with  Dr.  Steele  as 
president  and  James  Fergus  as  recorder,  was  organized  on  the  6th  of 
Tune,  1863.  Further  prospecting  of  the  gulch  developed  an  alluvial  de- 
posit of  gold  exceeding  in  richness  and  extent  the  most  sanguine  hopes  of 
the  discoverers,  and  perhaps  combining  these  two  qualities  in  a  greater 
degree  than  any  discovery  ever  made." 


Col.  W.  W.  DeLacy,  a  Virginia  West  Pointer,  a  teacher  of  languages 
and  captain  in  the  United  States  Navy,  a  wide  traveler,  a  brave  soldier 
in  the  Mexican  war  and  in  the  Indian  campaigns  of  the  West,  and  the 
engineer  in  surveying  the  famous  Mullan  Road  from  Walla  Walla  to 
Fort  Benton — in  the  August  following  the  return  of  the  Stuart  expedition 
he  led  a  party  of  explorers  from  Virginia  City  to  prospect  up  the  South 
Snake  River.  The  venture  which  was  devoid  of  exciting  or  tragic  events 
resulted  in  the  discovery  of  the  source  of  the  South  Snake  River,  several 
miles  above  Jackson's  Lake,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  present  Yellow- 
stone Park.  For  nearly  ten  years  all  the  maps  of  that  region  gave  the 
name  of  this  head  of  the  river  as  DeLacy's  Lake.  Colonel  DeLacy  wrote 


an  account  of  the  expedition  of  1863,  and  says:  "In  1872,  Professor 
Hay  den  (the  government  geologist)  visited  this  lake  and  renamed  it 
Shishone  Lake,  stating  that  the  numerous  and  outrageous  errors  in  my 
map  deprived  me  of  any  claim  to  the  perpetuation  of  my  name,  and  in- 
sinuating that  I  claimed  to  have  been,  but  had  not  been  in  the  region." 
From  the  fountain-head  of  the  Snake,  the  colonel  and  his  men  passed 
over  to  the  head  of  the  Madison  and  West  Gallatin  rivers,  discovering 
the  Lower  Geyser  Basin  of  the  Yellowstone  Park.  The  500  miles  of 
travel  indicated  were  made  in  about  fifty-one  days.  Its  leader  claims  that 
the  wrong  done  to  him  by  Professor  Hayden  was  never  rectified,  publicly, 
although  he  sent  to  that  noted  scientist  his  original  note-book  and  map  and 
received  from  him  a  private  explanation  that  the  harsh  and  unjust  crit- 
icism and  erasure  of  his  name  from  the  lake  which  he  discovered  were 
made  by  an  irresponsible  assistant. 

At  the  time  of  his  trip,  Colonel  DeLacy  was  one  of  the  most  widely 
known  soldiers  and  engineers  in  the  West,  and  for  nearly  thirty  years 
afterward  was  one  of  the  leading  figures  in  connection  with  the  public 
land  survey  and  the  surveyor  general's  office  in  Montana. 



The  most  detailed  and  graphic  account  of  the  discovery  of  Alder 
Gulch  was  written  by  Henry  Edgar,  one  of  the  party  who  vainly  en- 
deavored to  overtake  Stuart's  expedition  bound  for  the  Yellowstone. 
They  waited  for  Stuart  eight  days  at  the  rendezvous  agreed  upon,  and 
from  March  23rd  to  May  2nd  cut  across  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri 
and  along  the  north  bank  of  the  Yellowstone  to  Shields  River.  Some 
distance  beyond  that  stream  and  when  close  on  the  trail  of  the  main  party, 
the  dastardly  Crows  came  upon  them.  That  was  May  2,  1863,  and 
Edgar's  journal  gives  this  picture  of  their  coming:  "All  went  well  through 
the  night,  but  towards  morning  the  horses  became  restless  and  required 
a  good  deal  of  looking  after.  Just  as  morning  came,  I  took  two  of  them 
where  the  boys  were  sleeping  and  woke  them  up.  I  put  the  saddles  on 
and  was  just  going  out  to  Bill  (Fairweather)  when  the  hills  were  alive 
with  Indians.  They  were  all  around  Bill  and  I  got  on  the  horse  and 
started  for  him,  but  an  Indian  grabbed  him  by  the  head;  I  pulled  my 
revolver,  Simmons  was  alongside  of  me  and  told  me  not  to  shoot.  Well, 
I  got  off  and  gave  the  rope  of  the  other  horse  to  my  Indian.  Here  they 
come  with  other  horses  and  Bill  mounted  behind  another  Indian  with  hat 
in  one  hand  and  rifle  in  the  other,  digging  his  heels  in  the  horse's  flanks 
and  yelling  like  the  very  devil  he  is.  'How  goes  it  boys  ?'  he  asked,  as  he 
got  off.  Simmons  was  talking  to  the  Indians  and  told  us  to  keep  quiet. 
Quiet !  Everything  we  had  they  had  got,  but  our  arms !  A  young  buck 
took  hold  of  Cover's  gun  and  tried  to  take  it  from  him.  Bill  stuck  his 
revolver  in  the  buck's  ear ;  he  looked  in  Bill's  face  and  let  go  of  the  gun. 
We  told  Simmons  to  tell  them  that  they  had  got  everything  but  our 
guns  and  that  they  could  not  get  them  without  killing  us  first.  We  were 
told  to  keep  them.  Everything  we  had  was  packed  and  off  to  the  village. 


Such  a  hubbub  when  we  got  there.  Our  traps  were  put  in  a  pile  and  a 
tent  put  over  them.  Simmons  and  the  chief  held  a  long  powwow.  The 
women  brought  us  some  breakfast;  good  of  the  kind  and  plenty.  Sim- 
mons told  us  we  were  prisoners,  to  keep  still  and  not  to  be  afraid.  I  went 
through  the  village  and  counted  the  lodges;  there  were  180  of  them." 

"We  talked  the  matter  over  and  agreed  to  keep  together  and  if  it 
has  to  come  to  the  worst  to  fight  while  life  lasts.  All  the  young  ones  are 
around  us  and  the  women.  What  fun!  We  get  plenty  to  eat.  Indians 
are  putting  up  a  great  big  lodge — medicine  lodge  at  that.  Night;  what 
will  tomorrow  bring  forth  ?  I  write  this — will  anyone  ever  see  it  ?  Quite 
dark,  and  such  a  noise — dogs  and  drums !" 

The  two  chiefs  and  the  medicine  man  of  the  village  conferred  and 
finally  informed  the  men,  through  Simmons,  that  they  would  be  killed  if 
they  continued  down  the  river;  that  if  they  turned  back,  their  horses 
would  be  returned.  They  decided  to  retrace  their  steps,  but  only  a  few 
of  their  horses  were  returned;  their  good  animals  were  generally  re- 
placed by  blind  and  halt  ponies.  The  Indians  did  return  their  saddles,  a 
hundred  pounds  of  flour,  some  coffee  and  sugar,  one  plug  of  tobacco  and 
gave  them  two  robes  each  for  their  clothes  and  blankets.  The  disap- 
pointed and  disgusted  little  party  of  eight  then  started  to  return  the  way 
they  had  come.  By  the  rrfiddle  of  May,  they  had  reached  Madison  River, 
at  the  foot  of  Tobacco  Root  Mountains,  and  a  few  days  afterward,  camped 
at  Big  Bald  Mountain.  Two  of  the  men  climbed  Old  Baldy,  as  they  called 
the  peak ;  they  had  discovered  good  "color"  for  quartz  gold  and  wanted 
to  find  where  it  came  from.  From  the  top  of  the  mountain  they  could  see 
the  Stinking  Water  and  Beaverhead  rivers.  Having  moved  their  camp 
around  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  they  expected  to  be  on  the  Stinking 
Water  in  two  days. 


On  the  26th  of  May,  they  find  "fine  grassy  hills  and  lots  of  quartz, 
some  antelope  in  sight;  down  a  long  ridge  to  a  creek  and  camp;  had 
dinner,  and  Rodgers,  Sweeney,  Barney  (Hughes)  and  Cover  go  up  the 
creek  to  prospect.  It  was  Bill's  and  my  turn  to  guard  camp  and  look 
after  the  horses.  We  washed  and  doctored  the  horse's  leg.  Bill  went 
across  to  a  bar  to  see  or  look  for  a  place  to  stake  the  horses.  When  he 
come  back  to  camp  he  said  'There  is  a  piece  of  rimrock  sticking  out  of 
the  bar  over  there.  Get  the  tools  and  we  will  go  and  prospect  it.'  Bill 
got  the  pick  and  shovel  and  I  the  pan  and  went  over.  Bill  dug  the  dirt 
and  filled  the  pan.  'Now  go,'  he  says,  'and  wash  that  pan  and  see  if  we 
can  get  enough  to  buy  some  tobacco  when  we  get  to  town.'  I  had  the  pan 
more  than  half  panned  down  and  had  seen  some  gold  as  I  ran  the  sand 
around,  when  Bill  sang  out  'I  have  found  a  scad.'  I  returned  for 
answer,  'If  you  have  one,  I  have  a  hundred.'  He  then  came  down  to 
where  I  was  with  his  scad.  It  was  a  nice  piece  of  gold.  Well,  I  panned 
the  pan  of  •  dirt  and  it  was  a  good  prospect ;  weighed  it  and  had  two 
dollars  and  forty  cents;  weighed  Bill's  scad  and  it  weighed  the  same. 


Four  dollars  and  eighty  cents !  Pretty  good  for  tobacco  money.  We  went 
and  got  another  pan  and  Bill  panned  that  and  got  more  than  I  had ;  I  got 
the  third  and  panned  that — best  of  the  three;  that  is  good  enough  to 
sleep  on. 

"We  came  to  camp,  dried  and  weighed  our  gold ;  altogether  there  was 
twelve  dollars  and  thirty  cents.  We  saw  the  boys  coming  to  camp  and  no 
tools  with  them.  'Have  you  found  anything?'  'We  have  started  a  hole 
but  didn't  get  to  bedrock.'  They  began  to  growl  about  the  horses  not 
being  taken  care  of  and  to  give  Bill  and  me  fits.  When  I  pulled  the  pan 
around  Sweeney  got  hold  of  it  and. the  next  minute  sang  out  'Salted!'  I 
told  Sweeney  that  if  he  'would  pipe  Bill  and  me  down  and  run  us  through 
a  sluice  box  he  couldn't  bet  a  color,'  and  'the  horses  could  go  to  the  devil 
or  the  Indians.'  Well,  we  talked  over  the  find  and  roasted  venison  till 
late;  and  sought  the  brush,  and  spread  our  robes;  and  a  more  joyous  lot 
of  men  never  went  more  contentedly  to  bed  than  we. 

"May  27th :  Up  before  the  sun ;  horses  all  right ;  soon  the  frying  pan 
was  on  the  fire.  Sweeney  was  off  with  the  pan  and  Barney  telling  him 
'to  take  it  aisy.'  He  panned  his  pan  and  beat  both  Bill  and  me.  He  had 
five  dollars  and  thirty  cents.  'Well,  you  have  got  it  good,  by  jove !'  were 
his  greeting  words.  When  we  got  filled  up  with  elk,  Hughes  and  Cover 
went  up  the  gulch,  Sweeney  and  Rodgers  down,  Bill  and  I  to  the  old 
place.  We  panned  turn  about  ten  pans  at  a  time,  all  day  long,  and  it  was 
good  dirt  too.  'A  grub  stake  is  what  we  are  after'  was  our  watchward  all 
day,  and  it  is  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  in  good  dust.  'God  is  good,' 
as  Rodgers  said  when  we  left  the  Indian  camp.  Sweeney  and  Rodgers 
found  a  good  prospect  and  have  eighteen  dollars  of  the  gold  to  show 
for  it.  Barney  and  Tom  brought  in  four  dollars  and  a  half.  As  we  quit, 
Bill  says  'there's  our  supper,'  a  large  band  of  antelope  on  the  hillside. 

"We  had  our  guns  with  us.  He  took  up  one  draw  and  I  the  other ; 
it  was  getting  dark,  but  light  enough  to  shoot ;  got  to  a  good  place  within 
about  seventy-five  yards  and  shot;  the  one  I  shot  at  never  moved;  I 
thought  it  missed ;  I  rolled  over  and  loaded  up  my  gun,  then  the  antelope 
was  gone.  Bill  had  shot  by  this  time ;  I  went  to  where  the  one  I  shot  at 
was  standing,  and  found  some  blood,  and  the  antelope  dead  not  ten  steps 
away ;  Bill  got  one  too ;  ate  our  fill ;  off  to  bed. 


"May  28th :  Staked  the  ground  this  morning ;  claims  one  hundred 
feet.  Sweeney  wanted  a  water — a  notice  written  for  a  water  right — and 
asked  me  to  write  it  for  him.  I.  wrote  it  for  him ;  then  'What  name  shall 
we  give  the  creek?'  The  boys  said  'You  name  it.'  So  I  wrote  'Alder.' 
There  was  a  large  fringe  of  alder  growing  along  the  creek,  looking  nice 
and  green  and  the  name  was  given.  We  staked  twelve  claims  for  our 
friends  and  named  the  bars  Cover,  Fairweather  and  Rodgers  when  the  dis- 
coveries were  made.  We  agree  to  say  nothing  of  the  discovery  when  we 
get  to  Bannack  and  come  back  and  prospect  the  gulch  thoroughly  and  get 
the  best;  It  was  midday  when  we  left ;  we  came  down  the  creek  past  the 


forks  and  to  its  mouth,  made  marks  so  we  could  find  the  same  again  and 
on  down  the  valley  (Ram's  Horn  Gulch)  to  a  small  creek;  the  same  we 
camped  on  as  we  went  out  and  made  camp  for  the  night ;  a  more  happy  lot 
of  boys  would  be  hard  to  find,  though  covered  with  seedy  clothes. 

"May  2gth :  All  well.  Breakfast  such  as  we  have,  bread  and  antelope 
and  cold  water  and  good  appetites.  What  better  fare  could  a  prince  wish ! 
It  might  be  worse  and  without  the  good  seasoning  given  by  our  find. 
Down  and  over  the  Stinking  Water  along  a  high  level  bench  twelve 
miles  or  more  to  the  Beaverhead  River,  then  up  about  six  miles  and  camp. 
We  have  come  about  twenty-five  miles. 

"May  3Oth:  All  well.  Ate  up  the  last  of  our  meat  for  breakfast; 
will  have  supper  at  Bannack,  ham  and  eggs.  Away  we  go  and  have  no 
cares.  Crossed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rattlesnake  and  up  to  the  Bannack 
•trail,  the  last  stage  over  the  hill  and  down  to  the  town,  the  raggedest  lot 
that  was  ever  seen,  but  happy.  Friends  on  every  side.  Dod  Dempsey 
grabbed  our  horses  and  cared  for  them.  Frank  Ruff  got  us  to  his  cabin. 
Salt  Lake  eggs,  ham,  potatoes,  everything.  Such  a  supper!  One  has  to 
be  on  short  commons  and  then  he  will  know.  Too  tired  and  too  glad. 

"May  3 1st:  Such  excitement?  Everyone  with  a  long  story  about 
the  'new  find.'  After  I  got  my  store  clothes  on,  I  was  sitting  in  a  saloon 
talking  with  some  friends ;  there  were  lots  of  men  that  were  strangers  to 
me ;  they  were  telling  that  we  brought  in  a  horse  load  of  gold  and  not  one 
of  the  party  had  told  that  we  had  found  a  color.  Such  is  life  in  the  'Far 
West.'  Well  we  have  been  feasted  and  cared  for  like  princes. 

"June  ist:  Got  what  we  wanted  and  were  all  ready  for  the  return, 
but  it  is  impossible  to  move  without  a  crowd.  Left  the  horses  in  Demp- 
sey's.  corral  for  the  night  and  gave  over  till  morning. 

"June  2nd:  Left  Bannack  this  forenoon  and  came  over  to  Rattle- 
snake. A  crowd  awaits  us ;  crowds  follow  after  us ;  they  carr\p  right 
around  us,  so  we  can't  get  away. 

"June  3rd:  Move  on  down  to  Beaverhead  River  and  the  crowd  gets 
more  and  more  strong,  on  foot  as  well  as  on  horseback. 

"June  4th :  Down  the  river  we  go  over  two  hundred  strong.  Bill 
says  to  me,  'If  we  had  this  crowd  with  us  when  the  medicine  man  made 
his  medicine,  wouldn't  we  have  given  him  Hail  Columbia?' 

"We  see  it  is  no  good  to  try  to  get  away  from  the  crowd,  so  we  will 
camp  where  we  leave  the  river.  Made  a  camp  near  the  Beaverhead  Rock. 
'Miners'  meeting  called  for  this  afternoon.'  I  was  chosen  to  state  to  the 
crowd  what  we  had  found.  I  did  so  and  told  them  that  we  had  panned 
out  one  hundred  and  eighty-nine  dollars  altogether,  showing  them  a  sam- 
ple of  the  gold,  stating  what  the  prospect  was  and  the  extent  of  the 
gulch  so  far  as  we  had  prospected,  what  we  know  it  to  be;  told  what 
we  had  done ;  the  claims  we  had  staked,  and  said  "If  we  are  allowed  to 
have  the  claims  as  we  have  staked  them,  we  will  go  on,  if  not,  we  will 
go  no  farther.'  Some  talk  and  it  was  put  to  a  vote;  the  vote  was  in 
our  favor ;  only  one  vote  against.  At  the  meeting  there  was  a  set  of  laws 
adopted  to  govern  our  claims.  A  provision  of  the  law  passed  was  that 
the  claims  of  our  party  should  never  be  jumped  nor  taken  from  us  and 


they  are  exempt  from  one  day's  work  in  seven  required  by  law  to  hold 
claims.  Well  and  good.  They  wanted  to  know  where  the  gulch  was, 
but  as  some  were  on  foot  and  others  on  horseback  with  that  advantage, 
they  were  told  'when  we  get  to  the  creek  you  will  know  and  not  till  then.' 
Everybody  satisfied. 

"June  5th :  Off  and  away  across  the  long  flat  between  the  two  rivers 
and  camp  at  the  same  small  creek  the  third  time.  We  are  fearful  that 
when  the  crowd  gets  in,  they  may  pull  up  our  stakes.  So  some  of  the 
boys  on  the  outside  of  the  ring  were  told  of  the  plan  and  Barney  with 
ten  or  twelve  will  get  out  ahead  to  make  them  secure. 

"June  6th:  This  morning  the  crowd  was  told  that  we  would  be  in 
the  gulch  today  and  to  prepare  for  it.  When  we  came  to  the  creek  and 
were  going  up  I  said  to  them,  'This  is  the  creek.'  Such  a  stampede ! 

"I  never  saw  anything  like  it  before.  I  was  left  alone  with  our 
packs  and  took  my  time,  for  I  know  my  claim  is  safe.  After  I  crossed 
the  small  creek  that  comes  in  from  the  left,  as  we  go  up,  Colonel  Wood 
caught  up  with  me.  He  asked  me  if  I  knew  where  he  could  get  a  claim. 
I  told  him  'Yes,  I'll  show  you  where  two  bits  was  got,  but  only  one  pan 
was  panned.'  I  showed  him  the  place  and  he  stopped  and  located  a 
claim.  Got  back  to  camp  at  Discovery  about  4  o'clock.  The  creek  is  all 

"The  foregoing  are  all  the  notes  of  the  trip  from  the  time  the  party 
left  Bannack,  February  4,  1863,  to  the  time  the  crowd  came  back  with 
them  to  their  discovery  of  Alder  gulch. 

"At  a  meeting  held  on  the  Qth  day  of  June,  1863,  Dr.  Steele  was 
elected  judge  and  Henry  Edgar  was  elected  recorder,  who  refused  to 
serve  and  appointed  James  Fergus  deputy  recorder. 

"The  loth  of  June,  Barney  Hughes  took  two  horses  and  went  to 
LaBarge  (Deer  Lodge)  after  George  Orr,  whom  we  left  when  we  started 
on  the  expedition,  who  was  given  a  full  and  equal  share  in  the  Fair- 
weather  and  Cover  bar  discoveries,  and  his  being  given  this  caused 
Sweeney  and  Rodgers  to  separate  from  the  rest  of  the  party. 

"The  discovery  party  were  as  follows : 

"Bill  Fairweather,  native  of  New  Brunswick,  St.  John's  River. 

"Mike  Sweeney,  native  of  Frederickstown,  St.  John's  River. 

"Barney  Hughes,  native  of  Ireland. 

"Harry  Rodgers,  native  of  St.  John's,  New  Foundland. 

"Tom  Cover,  native  of  Ohio. 

"Henry  Edgar,  native  of  Scotland. 

"The  above  is  a  true  narration  of  the  expedition." 

Philipsburg,  Montana,  April  13,  1897. 



Maj.  Peter  Ronan,  an  Iowa  and  a  Montana  newspaper  man  and  long 
Indian  agent  of  the  Flatheads,  arrived  at  Bannack  City  in  April,  1863, 
during  its  first  boom,  and  in  the  following  month  was  one  of  the  mad  rush 



to  the  Alder  openings,  and  has  written  an  interesting  account  of  the 
coming  of  the  Idaho  miners  to  Montana  and  their  historic  "find."  We 
pass  over  the  steps  leading  to  the  point  where  Barney  Hughes,  Tom 
Cover,  Henry  Rodgers,  Bill  Fairweather,  Henry  Edgar  and  Bill  Sweeney, 
were  turned  back  toward  Bannack  City  by  Indians  hostile  to  the  gold 
prospectors,  who  were  endeavoring  to  overtake  the  Stuart  expedition. 
"On  the  22nd  of  May  the  wornout  prospectors  and  fugitives  from 
Indians  went  into  camp  in  a  flat  on  the  creek,  and  on  that  same  after- 


noon  the  party  struck  thirty-three  cents  to  the  pan  on  the  bar  which  rose 
above  the  camp,  right  in  the  grass  roots.  This  was  the  first  discovery 
of  gold  on  the  celebrated  Alder  Gulch — the  richest  continuous  streak  of 
gold  ever  struck  on  any  gulch  in  the  world. 

"Of  course  there  was  rejoicing  in  the  camp,  and  although  now  in  pos- 
session of  a  mine  of  glittering  wealth  our  brave  and  persevering  pros- 
pectors could  plainly  see  that  another  effort  must  be  made  or  they  would 
starve  to  death  on  their  heaps  of  gold. 

"After  the  discovery  was  made,  Henry  Edgar,  with  his  trusty  rifle, 


which  he  managed  to  retain  from  the  Crows,  went  above  the  discovery 
on  the  mountain,  and  shot  an  antelope.  There  was  then  rejoicing-  in  the 
camp.  After  sinking  below  the  surface  a  few  feet  at  the  spot  where 
the  first  pan  was  prospected,  five  dollars  and  ten  cents  was  obtained 
from  the  one  pan  of  dirt.  It  was  then  concluded  that  the  party  should 
return  to  Bannack,  procure  provisions  and  tools,  and  bring  in  their  friends 
to  the  new  Eldorado. 

"Upon  arriving  at  Bannack,  the  secret  of  the  new  discovery  was 
divulged  and  quietly  talked  over  by  the  discoverers  and  their  friends,  and 
a  certain  day  fixed  upon  to  start  for  the  discovery.  Meanwhile,  tempting 
offers  were  made  secretly  to  Barney  Hughes,  and  to  others  of  the  party 
of  prospectors,  to  quietly  slip  out  with  two  or  three  opulent  claim  owners 
of  Bannack,  and  guide  them  to  the  discovery  ahead  of  the  stampede. 
But  the  discoverers  were  deaf  to  their  importunities  and  could  not  be 
tempted  with  gold  to  throw  off  their  old  mining  friends,  and  determined 
that  all  should  start  off  together.  The  start  was  made  and  it  was  found 
that  three  or  four  hundred  men  were  following  the  discoverers  on 
horseback  and  with  their  tools  and  provisions  for  at  least  a  short  cam- 

"Upon  reaching  the  point  of  rocks  on  the  Beaverhead  river,  Hughes 
and  his  fellow  discoverers,  knowing  the  rapacity  of  the  average  gold 
hunter,  commenced  to  think  that  if  their  rights  were  not  secured  before 
the  party  reached  the  gulch,  very  little  respect  would  be  shown  them  as 
discoverers,  and  the  stampeders  would  take  the  lion's  share  and  leave 
the  poor  and  almost  unknown  prospectors  and  discoverers  out  in  the 
cold.  A  halt  was  called  and  the  prospectors  announced  to  the  stampeders 
that  unless  two  hundred  feet  of  ground  was  guaranteed  to  each  one  of 
them,  extending  across  the  gulch  from  rim  to  rim,  they  would  go  no 
farther,  and  would  not  divulge  the  locality  of  their  discovery. 

"Colonel  Sam  McLean,  who  was  afterwards  elected  the  first  dele- 
gate to  represent  Montana  in  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  now  gone 
to  his  rest  in  his  beloved  and  native  state  of  Pennsylvania,  and  his  mining 
partner,  Wash  Stapleton — the  latter  an  honored  citizen  of  our  Territory 
today — were  among  the  crowd  of  stampeders.  Those  generous  minded 
gentlemen  saw  at  once  the  justice  of  the  demand  of  the  heroic  prospectors, 
and  a  code  of  laws  governing  the  mining  district,  was  then  and  there 
drawn  up  which  secured  to  Hughes  and  his  comrades  the  ground  they 
demanded.  After  all  the  preliminaries  were  arranged,  laws  and  regula- 
tions which  were  to  govern  the  new  mining  district  were  passed  upon 
and  duly  recorded,  before  any  of  the  crowd,  except  the  prospectors,  knew 
even  the' direction-  in  which  the  new  Eldorado  lay.  The  crowd  moved  on, 
led  by  Hughes  and  his  party.  Upon  reaching  the  spot  where  the  house 
of  Pete  Daly  now  stands,  on  the  old  Daly  ranch,  the  party  went  into 
camp  for  the  night.  Hughes  had  several  old  mining  acquaintances 
among  the  vast  crowd  which  followed  his  lead,  whom  he  particularly 
desired  to  locate  on  good  claims,  as  they  had  had  a  continuous  run  of  bad 
luck  in  other  localities  and  were  flat  broke,  as  indeed  were  nearly  all 
of  the  crowd  who  followed.  I  here  recall  the  names  of  some  of  the  men 


whom  Hughes  secretly  requested  to  meet  him  under  a  certain  tree  near 
the  camp  at  1 1  o'clock  on  the  night  of  that  encampment ;  they  were  Paddy 
Sky,  Jim  McNulty,  Andy  Brown,  Tom  Duffy,  Jim  Patten,  and  Charley 
Keegan.  Hughes  here  imparted  to  these  friends  that  outside  of  the  bar 
prospected  by  him  and  companions,  he  knew  nothing  of  the  prospects,  but 
assured  them  it  was  his  opinion  if  they  got  in  ahead  of  the  crowd  and 
located  near  the  discoverers  they  would  be  likely  to  get  some  good  ground, 
and  volunteered  to  lead  them  into  the  gulch  that  night  on  foot  while  the 
camp  was  asleep. 

"The  proposition  was  gladly  accepted,  and  the  party  stole  out  of  the 
camp  in  the  silence  of  the  night,  and  leaving  their  horses,  food,  and 
camping  outfit  behind  made  a  night  march  for  the  diggings,  led  by 
Hughes.  At  daylight  the  discovery  was  reached  and  the  party  staked 
their  claims. 

"It  is  needless  here  to  dwell  upon  the  rage  of  the  stampeders  and  the 
imprecations  which  they  heaped  upon  Hughes  and  his  companions  when 
the  morning  broke  upon  the  vast  camp,  when  they  found  out  that  the 
party  had  struck  out  in  the  silence  of  the  night.  Nor  is  it  necessary 
to  dwell  upon  the  fact  that  nearly  all  the  camp  secured  good  claims,  as 
did  thousands  of  others  who  followed  for  years  afterwards. 

"Among  the  toil1  worn  followers  of  that  stampede,  who  staked  their 
claims  on  Alder  Gulch,  on  that  early  June  morning  of  1863,  was  the 
writer,  and  I  may  here  add  that  some  three  days  after  his  stake  was 
driven  the  first  wagon  that  arrived  in  Alder  gulch  was  owned  and  driven 
in  by  James  Sheehan.  In  the  wagon  was  Sheehan's  wife  and  family, 
and  one  of  that  family  was  a  little  child  who  is  now  the  wife  of  the 
narrator,  and  the  first  white  girl  who  came  to  Alder  Gulch;  and  now 
that  she  is  raising  a  family,  desired  for  their  sake  the  privilege  of  mem- 
bership in  the  Pioneer  Association. 

"But  the  six  brave  prospectors  who  paved  the  way  to  fortune  for  so 
many  of  Montana  citizens,  where  are  they  ?*  Tom  Cover  is  a  wealthy  citi- 
zen of  San  Bernardino  County,  California,  and  one  of  the  original  own- 
ers of  the  beautiful  town  of  Riverside,  recently  written  up  and  illustrated 
in  Harper's  Magazine. 

"Henry  Edgar  makes  brick  in  Missoula  a  few  months  in  summer 
and  spends  the  remainder  of  the  year  and  his  earnings  in  trying  to  dis- 
cover another  gulch. 

"Bill  Fairweather  sleeps  in  a  lonely  and  unmarked  grave. 

"Barney  Hughes  was  the  guest  of  the  writer  a  few  days  ago,  returning 
weary  and  worn,  footsore  and  disheartened,  from  a  trip  to  Bull  river  up 
north  and  across  the  British  line,  where  he  had  been  prospecting  without 
success.  His  whole  earthly  possessions  were  two  horses,  a  pick,  pan  and 
shovel,  his  camping  utensils,  and  provisions  enough  to  last  him  to  reach 
Missoula,  were  he  is  now  looking  for  work  to  earn  enough  money  to 
outfit  him  for  another  prospecting  trip. 

"Old  timers — you  who  have  been  lifted  from  the  log  cabin  and  the 

*  Written  in  1900. 


long-handled  frying  pan  to  blocks  of  brick  and  granite  which  adorn  our 
Montana  cities,  to  Queen  Anne  cottages,  palatial  dwellings  and  happy 
family  surroundings — give  a  lift  to  these  worthy  prospectors,  and  when 
they  go  into  the  mountains  again,  in  search  of  diggings,  let  them  go  at 
least  comfortably  provided  for. 

"Of  the  other  two  comprising  the  party  of  Alder  Gulch  discoverers 
—Harry  Rodgers  and  Bill  Sweeney — I  have  no  knowledge;  but,  what- 
ever their  lot  in  life,  Montana  and  its  early  settlers  owe  each  and  every 
one  of  that  party  a  deep  debt  of  gratitude." 


*  In  the  spring  of  1864,  James  organized  a  second  expedition  to  the 
Yellowstone,  with  the  double  purpose  of  prospecting  the  country  for 
gold  and  avenging  the  murder  of  his  comrades  the  previous  year.  The 
party  consisted  of  seventy-three  men.  James  was  elected  captain;  W. 
Graham,  first  lieutenant;  John  Vanderbilt,  second  lieutenant;  Charles 
Murphy,  orderly  sergeant;  John  Upton  and  James  Dewey,  sergeants  of 
the  guard ;  and  Mark  Post  and  James  Bailey,  corporals.  They  crossed  the 
divide  between  the  Gallatin  and  Yellowstone  rivers  on  the  28th  and  2Qth 
of  March,  finding  the  snow  bad,  for  it  was  a  very  late,  stormy  spring, 
and  it  snowed  upon  them  nearly  all  the  way  down  the  Yellowstone  and 
over  to  the  Stinking  River  fork  of  the  Big  Horn.  So  severe  was  the 
weather  that  they  found  it  well  nigh  impossible  to  prospect,  because  of  the 
frozen  ground;  and  the  snow  was  so  deep  that  they  could  not  get  back 
among  the  mountains  at  all.  Their  horses  grew  very  poor,  and  many 
became  exhausted  and  were  left  behind;  and  as  the  devil  usually  takes 
care  of  his  own,  it  so  happened  that  the  Crows  were  all  over  on  the 
Musselshell  and  Missouri  rivers,  and  the  party  did  not  find  one  in  the 
Yellowstone  valley,  where  they  had  all  been  the  year  before.  Had  the  ex- 
pedition found  them,  it  was  their  intention  to  have  taken  the  village  by 
strategy,  if  practicable,  and  if  not,  to  have  stormed  it  and  killed  as  many 
as  possible — a  fate  they  well  deserved  then  and  now  deserve  still  more, 
for  since  that  time  they  have  killed  many  small  parties  and  individuals 
of  whites,  and  stolen  thousands  of  dollars  of  stock,  all  of  which  they  lay 
on  the  Sioux  and  Blackfeet. 

James'  business  arrangements  not  admitting  of  his  remaining  out 
longer,  he  and  fourteen  others  left  the  main  body  on  Stinking  River  and 
returned  to  Virginia  about  the  i8th  of  May. 


The  story  of  the  gold  discoveries  and  developments  in  Montana  runs 
parallel  with  that  of  the  California  record — in  fact,  with  the  tale  of 
every  series  of  gold  adventuring  in  the  world;  it  is  ever  some  newer 
and  more  distant  field  which  is  most  alluring.  Gold  Creek,  Bannack  City, 

*  Life  of  James  Stuart,  by  Granville  Stuart,  Vol.  I,  p.  56,  Contributions  Mon- 
tana Historical  Society. 

Vol.  1—14 



Virginia  City  and  Helena  is  the  Montana  order.  John  Cowan,  John  Crab, 
D.  J.  Miller  and  Reginald  Stanley,  camping  in  a  Hell  Gate  River  valley, 
in  the  spring  of  1864,  fell  in  with  a  party  headed  by  James  Coleman,  who 
were  returning  from  the  Kootenai  country  with  reports  of  fabulous  dig- 
gings in  that  region.  But  the  Cowan  party  decided  to  prospect  the  Little 
Blackfoot  Valley  and,  failing  good  prospects,  to  pass  over  to  the  eastern 
slopes  of  the  Rockies.  They  did  so  and  emerged  into  the  Prickly  Pear 
Valley  of  the  Missouri,  ranged  farther  north  up  the  Dearborn  to  the 
sources  of  the  Teton  and  Maria's  rivers.  The  farther  north  they  went, 
the  less  promising  became  the  gold  outlook,  and  finally,  almost  discour- 
aged, they  returned  to  the  Valley  of  the  Prickly  Pear,  and  in  July,  1864, 


located  Last  Chance  Gulch.  They  sank  two  holes  to  bed-rock  on  opposite 
sides  of  the  stream.  One  of  these  yielded  flat  nuggets  that  weighed  about 
half  a  dollar — proof  of  a  rich  "strike."  By  the  end  of  July  there  were 
many  busy  miners  at  Last  Chance,  some  from  Bannack  City  and  Alder 
Gulch,  and  others,  like  the  birds  of  the  fields,  mysteriously  scenting  a 
feast  and  appearing  on  the  ground. 

How  the  Last  Chance  Gulch  was  given  the  name  Helena  is  thus 
succinctly  told :  "The  mining  camp  at  Last  Chance  Gulch  was  christened 
Helena  by  John  Somerville,  one  of  the  early  miners  in  the  gulch,  and  who 
had  been  chosen  chairman  of  a  meeting  called  for  the  purpose  of  organiz- 
ing that  mining  district  and  establishing  laws  and  regulations  to  govern 


it.  A  letter  written  by  Thomas  E.  Cooper,  who  was  present  on  the  occa- 
sion, thus  refers  to  it:  'Thomas  Cowan,  from  Georgia,  in  1864,  had  a 
sluice  and  was  mining  in  Last  Chance.  On  September  24,  1864,  the  writer 
and  a  company  of  prospectors  and  Captain  Wood  built  a  cabin  where  the 
heart  of  the  city  now  is.  A  meeting  was  called  to  organize  the  mining 
district,  and  John  Somerville  was  chosen  chairman  and  the  writer 
of  this  letter  secretary.  The  question  of  naming  the  town  came  up  and 
there  being  a  great  diversity  of  opinion  as  to  the  name  the  town  should 
bear,  and  not  being  able  to  agree,  the  chairman,  John  Somerville,  got  up 
and  stated  as  follows :  "I  belong  to  the  best  country  in  the  world ;  I  live 
in  the  best  state  (Minnesota)  in  that  country  and  in  the  best  county 
(Scott)  of  that  state,  and  in  the  best  town  (Helena)  of  that  county— 
and,  by  the  eternal,  this  town  shall  bear  that  name !"  '  This  name  proving 
satisfactory  to  the  majority  of  the  miners  present,  the  name  Helena 
was  accepted." 

Judge  Cornelius  Hedges,  in  his  sketch  of  Lewis  and  Clark  county 
(Montana  Historical  Society's  contributions,  Vol.  II,  p.  109),  gives 
October,  30,  1864,  as  the  date  of  holding  the  meeting,  where,  at  the  sug- 
gestion of  Mr.  Somerville,  Last  Chance  Gulch  was  christened  Helena.  He 
also  presents  other  pertinent  facts,  as  to  this  mining  venture  which  sprung 
from  the  soil  of  desperation  and  prospered  so  abundantly.  "It  was  in 
July,  1864,"  he  writes,  "that  gold  was  first  discovered  in  this  locality 
by  a  party  of  Georgians,  of  which  John  Cowan,  Robert  Stanley  and  Gabe 
Johnson  were  members.  Not  satisfied  with  the  prospect,  they  left  and 
tried  various  localities  as  far  north  as  Sun  river,  but,  finding  nothing 
better,  this  party  returned,  and  in  September  began  regular  mining  opera- 
tions on  a  bar  not  far  from  where  the  Masonic  Temple  now  stands.  The 
lateness  of  the  season  and  the  failure  of  their  undertakings  up  to  that 
time  led  them  to  christen  their  diggings  Last  Chance  gulch,  while  the 
abundance  of  snakes  gave  the  name  to  the  district  of  Rattlesnake. 

"Captain  George  J.  Wood,  who  came  into  the  territory  from  Illi- 
nois by  way  of  Bridger's  cut-off,  reaching  Alder  gulch  in  July,  1864, 
and  not  finding  a  claim  in  that  section  to  suit  him,  started  north 
to  test  for  himself  the  reported  mines  on  the  Prickly  Pear.  He 
induced  Mr.  Mast,  who,  with  his  family,  was  returning  to  Alder  gulch 
from  an  unsuccessful  exploration  of  Wisconsin  gulch,  to  turn  about  and 
accompany  him.  It  so  happened  that  a  hunting  expedition  from  Prickly 
Pear  brought  Messrs.  Wood  and  Mast  into  Last  Chance  about  the  time 
that  the  Georgia  party  made  their  first  successful  clean-up.  The  sight  of 
this  was  enough  to  decide  them  to  remove  at  once  to  this  locality,  and  next 
after  the  two  cabins  erected  by  John  Cowan  and  Robert  Stanley,  were 
those  of  Messrs.  Wood  and  Mast.  Notwithstanding  the  assurance  of  the 
discovery  party  that  there  was  no  gold  in  the  gulch  above  them,  it  was 
found  in  promising  quantities  in  many  localities.  By  the  personal  solici- 
tation of  Mr.  Wood,  a  portion  of  the  Minnesota  train,  just  then  arrived 
and  camped  in  the  valley  of  Ten  Mile,  were  induced  to  stop  and  join  in 
prospecting  the  Last  Chance  mines.  During  the  months  of  October  and 
November  following,  the  extent  and  richness  of  the  mines  became  well 



established  and  their  fame  began  to  draw  miners  from  other  camps. 
Messrs.  Constans  and  Jurgens,  still  our  fellow  citizens  (1876),  recently 
arrived  from  Minnesota,  and  who  had  first  established  themselves  at 
Montana  City,  were  the  first  to  move  their  stock  and  open  a  store  in 
the  new  mines. 

"It  was  at  a  public  meeting  held  in  Captain  Wood's  cabin  October 
30,  1864,  the  minutes  of  which  meeting  are  still  preserved,  that  the  name 
of  Helena  was  selected,  on  motion  and  suggestion  of  Mr.  John  Somerville, 
for  the  name  of  the  rising  city.  If  their  selection  of  the  name  is  to  be 
respected,  why  should  not  also  the  pronounciation  of  the  name,  He-le'-na, 
as  they  universally  called  it,  and  not  Hel'-e-na?  Three  commissioners, 


Messrs.  Wood,  Bruce  and  Cutler,  were  chosen  and  empowered  to  lay  out 
streets,  fix  the  size  of  town  lots  and  establish  all  necessary  regulations 
for  obtaining  and  holding  the  same.  Captain  Wood  was  chosen  recorder, 
and  virtually  discharged  the  duties  of  all  the  commissioners  in  addition. 
The  size  of  lots,  as  fixed  by  the  commissionrs,  was  30  by  60  feet,  and  a 
foundation  would  hold  a  lot  for  ten  days,  and,  if  recorded  besides,  for 
ten  days  longer.  Disputed  titles  were  to  be  settled  by  the  commissioners, 
or  by  arbitration,  until  civil  law  was  established.  Capt.  Wood's  position 
was  a  difficult  and  thankless  one,  and  considering  the  surrounding  diffi- 
culties successfully  filled." 


In  December,  1864,  Confederate  Gulch  and  Montana  Bar  were  dis- 
covered, about  six  miles  from  the  Missouri  River  and  some  thirty-five 
miles  from  Helena.  Wonderful  stories  are  told  of  the  yield  of  both 


mines,  Montana  Bar,  however,  proving  the  richer  of  the  two.  It  is  said 
that  when  bed-rock  on  the  bar  was  reached,  the  enormous  yield  of  $180 
to  the  pan  in  Confederate  Gulch  was  forgotten  in  astonishment  at  the 
marvelous  yield  of  over  $1,000  to  the  pan  taken  from  Montana.  Dia- 
mond City  developed  from  these  two  rich  openings  of  the  Montana 
gold  field. 


Emigrant  Gulch,  Gallatin  County,  was  also  discovered  in  1864,  and 
before  the  close  of  1867  had  yielded  about  $180,000  in  gold.  The  mines 
along  Silver  Bow  Creek,  extending  from  the  present  city  of  Butte  to  the 
town  of  Silver  Bow,  were  opened  in  the  fall  of  1864,  the  gulch  reaching 
the  height  of  its  prosperity  in  1866.  Captain  James  S.  Mills,  explains 
the  naming  of  the  creek :  "Never  prettier  name  was  coined,  and  it  came 
about  thus:  On  the  evening  of  a  cloudy  day  in  January,  1864,  Bud 
Barker,  P.  Allison,  Joe  and  Jim  Ester,  on  a  prospecting  trip  reached  the 
vicinity  of  the  creek  near  Butte  and  a  discussion  arose  as  to  its  name.  As 
the  argument  went  on,  the  clouds  rolled  from  the  sun,  its  bright  glance 
fell  on  the  waters  sweeping  in  a  graceful  curve  around  the  base  of  the 
mountains,  burnishing  them  to  brilliancy  as  they  clasped  the  vale  in  a 
bow  like  silver." 

Deer  Lodge  County  developed  such  gulches  as  German,  in  1864,  and 
Ophir  (very  rich),  Bear  (productive,  rough  and  tough)  and  McClellan's 
(Pacific  City),  all  in  1865.  The  placer  diggings  of  Jefferson  County 
with  some  unimportant  exceptions,  were  not  discovered  until  late  in 
that  year  and  the  early  part  of  1866. 


The  years  1862-68  constitute  the  Bonanza  period  of  Montana's  produc- 
tion of  gold,  and  by  counties  the  output  was  as  follows : 

Madison   $40,000,000 

•     Lewis  and  Clark    19,360,000 

Deer  Lodge 13,250,000 

Meagher 6,949,200 

Jefferson 4,500,000 

Beaverhead    2,245,000 

Other  sources  6,000,000 

Total $92,304,200 

Even  the  veteran,  Fort  Benton,  was  no  more  than  a  fortified  trad- 
ing post  until  the  opening  and  expansion  of  the  gold  fields  attracted 
immigrants  from  everywhere,  many  of  whom  survived  the  excitements 
and  uncertainties  of  the  early  mining  days  and  remained  to  become 
identified  with  the  silver  and  the  copper  industries,  and  the  even  more  last- 
ing developments  of  agriculture  and  livestock. 

In  the  spring  and  summer  of  1864,  when  Bannack  and  Virginia 
City  were  well  under  way  and  Helena  was  about  to  be  founded,  a  number 
of  small  buildings  were  sprinkled  outside  the  fort  as  an  irregular  settle- 
ment. The  largest  of  them  was  the  store  built  by  Matthew  Carroll  and 
George  Steele.  It  was  constructed  of  sawed  logs,  prepared  at  the  Fort 
LaBarge  sawmill.  These  gentlemen  were  at  the  time  clerks  in  the  employ 
of  the  American  Fur  Company,  but  soon  after  began  business  for  them- 
selves under  the  firm  name  of  Carroll  &  Steele.  During  the  same  year 
(1864)  they  bought  a  large  stock  of  goods  and  their  venture  proved  per- 
manently successful.  The  settlement  soon  began  to  assume  the  appear- 
ance of  a  town,  although,  as  yet,  the  buildings  were  located  at  the  fancy 
of  the  owners,  without  regard  to  system.  In  the  spring  and  summer  of 
1865,  however,  the  town  was  regularly  laid  out  according  to  the  present 
plan  by  Capt.  W.  W.  DeLacy,  the  widely  known  western  surveyor,  and 
called  Benton  City.  Several  new  buildings  were  at  once  erected,  with 
their  inclosures,  and  for  the  first  time  defined  streets  and  squares  were 
outlined  on  the  prairie  bottom. 

*"The  name  of  Benton  City  took  but  a  slender  hold  on  the  popular 
opinion,  and  deservedly  so,  for  every  attempt  to  pervert  a  good  name 
already  in  current  use  should  be  met  with  severe  reprobation.  The  name 
of  the  local  postofHce  is  Fort  Benton,  the  business  men  use  the  same  name 
in  their  letter  and  bill  heads,  freight  from  the  lower  towns  is  consigned 
to  Fort  Benton,  and  by  that  name  the  place  is  almost  universally  called 
by  its  inhabitants  and  others.  While  the  adobe  walls  of  old  Fort  Benton 
continue  to  stand,  the  new  name  offers  some  little  advantage  in  distin- 
guishing the  town  from  the  fort,  but  the  walls  must  soon  crumble  and 
the  fort  disappear,  as  has  Campbell  and  LaBarge  already,  and  then  the 
name  of  Benton  City  will  have  no  advantage  whatever,  while  it  will  have 
the  disadvantage  of  veiling  to  its  coming  inhabitants  the  glamor  of  con- 
tiguity attaching  to  the  old  sonorous  name  of  Fort  Benton." 

At  the  conclusion  of   "Affairs  at  Fort   Benton,"  Vol.   Ill,  p.   287, 

*  Bradley's  "Affairs  at  Fort  Benton." 



Arthur  J.  Craven,  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Historical 
Society,  in  1900,  inserts  this  note:  "Here  this  section  of  the  journal 
purchased  by  the  Board  from  Mrs.  Bradley  in  1881,  abruptly  terminates, 
an  incomplete,  succeeding  paragraph  indicating  the  intention  of  the 
lamented  author  to  fully  conclude  the  period  of  time  designated  by  him  in 
the  title  (1831-69).  Upon  what  portion  of  his  numerous  chronicles  he 
was  engaged  when  he  was  summoned  with  his  command  to  his  last  cam- 
paign, the  one  against  the  Nez  Perces  in  1877,  is  unknown.  Possibly  the 
rich  romance  clustering  around  this  old  fort,  which,  as  shown  by  a  re- 
view of  his  manuscripts,  was  evidently  a  favorite  theme,  was  the  last 
which  engaged  his  literary  effort,  before  passing  from  the  quiet  con- 
templation of  the  annals  of  the  frontier  to  the  heroic  martyrdom  of  the 
soldier  on  the  field  of  battle. 

"Contemporaries  and  associates  of  Major  Culbertson  have  fortunately 
transcribed  to  print  memoirs  of  their  experience  in  the  fur  trade  of  the 
Missouri  and  its  tributaries.  These  serve  only  to  increase  the  historic 
value  of  the  foregoing  contribution,  one  which  shows  throughout  the  in- 
valuable assistance  of  Major  Culbertson,  than  whom  no  better  authority 
could  be  found  on  the  events  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  during  the  greater 
portion  of  the  period  treated  by  the  author. 

"It  may  be  of  interest  to  add  that  the  old  fort  is  now  owned  (1900) 
by  the  Hon.  T.  E.  Collins,  present  state  treasurer,  and  that  the  surround- 
ing town,  thronged  with  these  historic  associations,  happily  retains  'the 
old  sonorous  name'  of  Fort  Benton,  in  accordance  with  the  preference 
expressed  by  the  author  in  his  concluding  paragraph." 


But  it  was  the  mining  camp  which  sprung  up  in  Alder  Gulch,  which 
became  the  magic  city  of  the  Montana  gold  fields.  The  stampede  from 
Bannack  City,  in  June,  1863,  brought  several  hundred  to  the  new  findings 
and  before  the  close  of  the  following  year  the  population  of  the  place, 
which  was  housed  in  every  conceivable  shelter  and  camped  under  the  sky 
in  bearable  weather,  had  reached  ten  or  twelve  thousand  people;  a  bed- 
lam of  a  city  with  representatives  of  every  description  and  clime,  all 
madly  rushing  for  gold.  The  most  complete  description  of  the  first  two 
years  of  lusty  infancy  in  the  life  of  Virginia  City  has  been  penned  by 
Judge  Henry  N.  Blake,  one  of  the  ablest  members  of  the  Montana  bench 
and  bar,  and  a  public  character  of  broad  ability  and  worth. 

Judge  Blake,  who  settled  in  Virginia  City,  during  1866,  says  that 
the  first  crowd  of  stampeders  from  Bannack  comprised  over  three  hun- 
dred men.  A  public  meeting  of  the  original  prospectors  and  discoverers 
was  held  June  7th  in  a  cottonwood  grove  upon  the  banks  of  the  Beaver- 
head  River  and  about  ten  miles  south  of  the  Beaverhead  Rock.  Resolu- 
tions were  passed  confirming  the  right  of  each  discoverer  to  two  claims  in 
Alder  Gulch,  with  water  privileges.  The  main  body  of  the  swarm  arrived 
in  Alder  Gulch  on  the  9th  and  Hughes,  who  had  stealthily  left  them, 
piloted  his  friends  during  the  preceding  night  to  the  promised  land. 


Some,  who  wished  to  steal  a  march  on  the  others  but  were  not  familiar 
with  the  country,  wandered  up  the  Stinkwater,  Granite  and  other 
streams  and  were  distanced.  On  the  I2th,  the  miners  adopted  the  laws 
of  the  Fairweather  district. 

"At  this  date,"  says  Judge  Blake,  "there  was  not  a  dwelling  house 
within  the  boundaries  of  Madison  county.  This  was  not  a  municipal 
body  and  was  included  with  the  largest  fraction  of  Montana  in  Idaho 
territory,  which  had  been  organized  by  an  Act  of  Congress,  approved 
March  3,  1863. 

"The  throng  was  increased  daily  during  the  month  of  June  by  the 
arrival  of  citizens,  who  represented  every  part  of  the  Union  and  the  na- 
tions of  both  hemispheres.  On  the  i6th  the  Verona  Town  Company 
recorded  its  claim  to  320  acres  of  land  on  which  Virginia  City  stands. 
The  name  of  Verona  was  used  in  a  number  of  legal  papers  which  were 
executed  at  this  time,  but  this  was  soon  exchanged  for  Virginia  City, 
which  first  appears  upon  the  county  records  on  the  i/th." 

The  first  name  given  to  the  present  capital  of  Montana  was  in 
honor  of  Jeff.  Davis'  wife,  but,  as  stated,  it  was  soon  changed  to  Vir- 
ginia. Dr.  (Judge)  G.  G.  Bissel  was  the  first  man  that  wrote  it  Virginia. 
Being  asked  to  head  a  legal  document  Verona,  he  bluntly  said  he  would 

see  them  d d  first,  for  that  was  the  name  of  Jeff.  Davis'  wife;  and, 

accordingly,  as  he  wrote  it,  so  it  remained.  From  this  little  circumstance, 
it  will  be  seen  that  politics  was  anything  but  forgotten  on  the  banks 
of  Alder  creek;  but  miners  are  sensible  men,  in  the  main,  and  out  in  the 
mountains  a  good  man  makes  good  friends,  even  where  political  opinions 
are  widely  different. 

"Almost*  immediately  after  the  first  freat  rush  from  Bannack — in 
addition  to  the  tents,  brush  wakiups  and  extempore  fixings  for  shelter 
— small  log  cabins  were  erected.  The  first  of  these  was  the  Mechan- 
ical bakery,  now  (1866)  standing  near  the  lower  end  of  Wallace  street. 
Morier's  saloon  went  up  at  about  the  same  time  and  the  first  dwelling 
house  was  built  by  John  Lyons.  After  this  beginning  houses  rose  as  if 
by  magic.  Dick  Hamilton,  Root  &  Davis,  J.  E.  McClurg,  Hall  &  Simpson, 
N.  Story  and  O.  C.  Mathews,  were  among  the  first  merchants.  Dr. 
Steele  was  first  president  of  the  Fairweather  district.  Dr.  G.  G.  Bissel 
was  the  first  judge  of  the  Miners'  Court.  The  duty  of  the  recorder's 
office  was,  we  believe,  performed  by  James  Fergus." 

Continuing  Judge  Blake's  account :  "The  extent  of  the  pay  streak  be- 
ing unknown,  the  object  of  every  person  was  to  secure  mining  ground  in 
the  neighborhood  of  that  which  had  been  prospected  by  the  pioneers.  It 
was  generally  believed  that  the  bars  were  the  golden  safes  of  nature 
and  many  parties  neglected  and  walked  over  as  worthless  the  richest 
deposits  in  the  creek  in  their  eager  search  for  what  they  considered  the 
valuable  claims.  Before  the  bedrock  of  the  creek  had  been  disturbed 
by  the  pick,  the  camp  was  deserted  by  a  number  of  intelligent  miners 
who  informed  their  friends  with  confidence  that  there  were  no  paying 

*  Professor  Dimsdale's  "Vigilantes  in  Montana." 


diggings  in  the  gulch.  But  within  thirty  days  tests  were  applied  by 
hundreds  of  industrious  hands  to  every  place  which  was  accessible,  and 
revealed  to  the  world  the  auriferous  bed  of  an  ancient  river,  which  sur- 
passed in  magnitude  and  the  uniform  distribution  of  its  golden  treasures, 
any  placer  which  has  been  recorded  upon  this  planet.  New  districts  were 
formed,  embracing  the  creek,  bar  and  hill  claims,  and  designated  High- 
land, Pine  Grove  and  Summit,  which  were  above  the  Fairweather,  and 
Nevada  and  Junction,  which  were  below  it.  A  thousand  claims  were 
located  in  the  gulch. 

"During  the  period  when  every  doubt  respecting  the  immense  wealth 
of  Alder  vanished,  the  people  were  living  in  houses  not  made  with  hands. 
Some  constructed  temporary  shelters  of  wakiups  of  alders  and  pine 
boughs,  or  rocks  and  blankets,  others  excavated  caves  or  "dug-outs,"  and 
the  palaces  were  tents  and  wagons.  The  mill  on  which  they  were  de- 
pendent for  sawed  lumber,  was  situated  on  the  stream  above  Bannack 
and  about  seventy  miles  from  Virginia  City.  The  axe  was  the  most  useful 
tool  and  log  cabins  occupied  every  convenient  space  upon  the  banks 
of  the  creek.  If  a  stranger  entered  the  gulch  in  the  prosperous  days  of 
1863  and  1864,  and  traveled  from  Junction  to  Summit,  the  brilliant  lights, 
illuminating  the  road  and  trail,  would  dazzle  his  eyes,  and  cause  him  to 
imagine  he  was  in  a  vast  city." 


The  Legislative  Assembly  of  Idaho  did  not  convene  until  December, 
1863,  this  county  was  not  governed  during  the  interim  by  the  statutes  of 
any  state,  and  a  mining  district  was  an  independent  republic.  A  judge 
and  sheriff  were  elected  by  the  residents  of  the  district,  and  although  the 
miners'  courts  were  neither  in  law  nor  fact  tribunals  of  record,  their  deci- 
sions were  final  and  the  officers  executed  the  judgment  without  opposition. 
In  Fairweather  District  Dr.  G.  G.  Bissel  was  the  first  judge  of  the 
Miner's  Court,  Richard  Todd  was  the  first  sheriff  and  Henry  Edgar  was 
the  first  recorder.  They  were  elected  on  June  9th,  the  day  on  which  the 
mining  claims  were  staked.  J.  B.  Caven  was  chosen  sheriff  September 
3,  1863,  and  resigned  within  a  few  weeks  and  Henry  Plummer,  then 
sheriff  of  the  Grasshopper  District  and  chief  of  the  road  agents,  was 


As  stated,  T.  L.  Luce  erected  the  first  building  in  Virginia  City, 
the  "Mechanical  Bakery,"  on  the  lot  above  the  present  store  of  J.  F.  Stoer, 
Wallace  Street,  Frederick  Root  and  Nathaniel  J.  Davis  the  first  store, 
John  Lyons,  the  first  dwelling  house,  Henry  Morier,  the  first  saloon,  and 
R.  S.  Hamilton  received  the  first  load  of  merchandise.  Col.  Samuel  Mc- 
Lean, the  first  delegate  to  Congress,  drove  the  first  wagon  to  Alder 
Gulch.  The  physicians  who  arrived  during  the  first  week  of  the  inva- 
sion were  Drs.  I.  C.  Smith  and  J.  S.  Click,  and  the  lawyers  were  repre- 


sented  by  H.  P.  A.  Smith,  G.  W.  Stapleton  and  Samuel  McLean.  After 
making  diligent  inquiries,  I  am  satisfied  that  no  clergyman  preached  within 
the  county  in'  1863.  The  first  cobble-stone  store  was  put  up  for  Taylor, 
Thompson  and  Company,  whose  sign  can  be  read  today.  The  first  lumber 
from  Bannack  was  sold  readily  for  $250,  gold,  per  thousand  feet,  more 
than  twelve  times  the  present  price.  The  first  sawmill  in  the  county  was 
set  in  motion  by  Thomas  W.  Cover  and  Perry  W.  McAdow  in  February, 
1864,  on  Granite  Creek,  about  four  miles  above  Junction.  About  the 
same  time  the  sawmill  of  George  N.  Stager  &  Company  was  running  on 
Alder  Gulch,  about  one-fourth  of  a  mile  below  Granite  Creek,  from  which 
the  water  was  conveyed  by  a  ditch.  Other  mills  were  built  afterwards 
by  Holter  Bros.,  on  Ramshorn  Gulch,  House  and  Bivins  of  Meadow 
Creek  and  James  Gemmell  on  Mill  Creek.  The  quarry  within  this  town- 
site,  which  has  furnished  porphytic  stone  for  the  largest  buildings,  was 
opened  by  Joseph  Griffith  and  William  Thompson  in  July,  1864.  The 
first  warehouse,  constructed  of  this  material,  is  now  occupied  by  Ray- 
mond Bros.  The  first  sluice  boxes  were  set  up  about  June  25th,  1863, 
by  the  discoverers  on  Fairweather  Bar,  S.  R.  Blake  in  the  Fairweather 
District,  and  J.  M.  Wood  in  the  Nevada  District.  The  construction  of 
ditches  to  work  the  claims  consumed  time  and  money,  and  eight  months 
passed  away  before  some  of  the  drains  were  completed. 


A  line  of  coaches  to  Salt  Lake  and  Bannack  was  started,  immediately 
after  the  settlement  of  Alder,  by  A.  J.  Oliver  ,&  Co.  No  mail  route  was 
established  by  the  general  government  until  late  in  1864,  and  letters 
and  newspapers  were  forwarded  by  the  express  to  the  recipients,  who  paid 
with  a  grateful  heart  the  charges,  usually  $i,  gold,  for  each  document. 
The  first  postoffice  was  located  at  Virginia  City,  and  George  B.  Parker 
was  the  first  postmaster.  For  a  number  of  years  Virginia  City  was  the 
distributing  postoffice  for  the  territory. 


The  first  election  was  held  under  the  proclamation  of  the  Governor  in 
Idaho,  1863,  for  the  choice  of  members  of  the  Legislative  Assembly. 
The  county  was  represented  by  Jack  Edwards  in  the  council,  and  James 
Tufts,  who  became  the  speaker,  in  the  house.  Mark  A.  Moore,  who  re- 
ceived the  highest  number  of  votes,  was  not  eligible,  and  Doctor  Smith, 
who  stood  next  upon  the  tally  list,  was  not  allowed  to  take  the  vacant 
chair.  The  first  officers  of  the  county  were  commissioned  by  the  gov- 
ernor of  Montana. 


The  weather  during  the  first  two  years  was  favorable  to  the  busy 
gold  diggers,  who  pursued  with  slight  interruptions  their  tasks  upon  the 


surface  and  underground.  The  miner,  in  opening  the  vaults  of  Alder 
Gulch,  realized  the  extravagant  fancies  of  a  miner's  dream,  and  the  pick 
and  shovel  in  his  hands  were  as  potent  as  the  lamp  and  ring  in  the  grasp 
of  Aladdin.  Every  effort  was  rewarded  with  gold.  In  1864,  miles  of 
drain  ditches  penetrated  the  mineral  claims  from  Old  Baldy  to  Granite, 
and  the  product  exceeded  $30,000,000.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  prec- 
ious metal  which  has  been  wrested  from  Alder  Gulch  is  an  unknown 
quantity,  which  cannot  be  determined.  "After  an  examination  of  all  the 
facts,  I  am  satisfied  that  Alder  Gulch  has  increased  the  gold  coin  of  the 
world  $60,000,000,"  says  Judge  Blake.  Candor  requires  me  to  state 
that  this  estimate  is  deemed  too  moderate  by  many  pioneers  of  the 
county,  whose  judgment  merits  grave  consideration.  More  nuggets  were 
saved  in  the  Summit  than  in  all  the  other  districts,  and  the  largest  was 
found  by  Hedge  &  Company,  in  1864,  upon  their  claim  near  the  hill  on 
which  the  Lucas  lode  had  been  staked.  It  was  worth  $715  in  coin  and 
over  $1,700  in  currency.  « 

"The  population  was  multiplied  until  there  were,  in  1864,  at  least 
10,000  and  probably  15,000  persons  who  were  nourished  by  the  golden 
current.  Kate  Virginia  Caven,  the  daughter  of  J.  B.  Caven,  the  first 
child  of  white  parents  within  the  county,  was  born  in  this  city,  February 
20,  1864.  At  the  first  election,  held  October  24,  1864,  after  the  territory 
of  Montana  had  been  formed,  Madison  county  cast  5,286  votes,  Virginia 
City  having  2,310  and  Nevada  1,806  of  this  number." 

Virginia  City  was  incorporated  by  the  Legislature  of  Idaho  Janu- 
ary 30,  1864,  and  on  December  30,  1864,  by  the  Legislative  Assembly  of 
Montana.  Under  the  last  act,  officers  were  -elected  in  the  spring  of  1865, 
and  this  is  the  only  place  in  Montana  which  has  enjoyed  the  blessings  of 
a  municipal  government  and  possessed  mayors  and  aldermen  (written  in 
1896).  During  the  two  years  succeeding  the  important  discovery  on  May 
27,  1863,  Alder  Gulch  was  in  reality  the  territory  of  Montana.  The  capi- 
tal was  removed  from  Bannack  to  Virginia  City  by  the  law  approved 
February  7,  1865,  and  remained  until  January,  1875.  The  conventions  of 
the  republican  and  democratic  parties  assembled  here  in  1864  and  1865, 
and  nominated  candidates  for  Congress  and  other  offices. 

"From  these  districts  went  forth  the  prospectors  to  every  gulch,  seek- 
ing for  another  Alder,  and  many  of  the  founders  of  villages  in  every  part 
of  Montana.  During  the  last  ten  years,  the  decline  in  the  product  of  gold 
has  caused  the  loss  of  the  people, 'and  there  are  now  in  Alder  gulch  hun- 
dreds in  lieu  of  the  thousands  of  1863  and  1864.  The  manifold  resources 
of  Madison  county  are  a  permanent  foundation,  and  I  am  assured  that 
the  wave  of  population  will  recede  no  further,  and  in  the  future  must 


Pioneer  City  was  such  only  in  name,  standing,  as  it  did,  for  Pioneer 
Gulch,  or  Pioneer  Creek — the  Benetsee,  or  Gold  Creek,  of  an  earlier  day, 
and  the  American  Fork,  the  settlement  fathered  by  the  Stuarts.  Although 


James  and  Granville  Stuart  are  acknowledged  to  have  been  the  first 
really  successful  miners  in  Montana,  they  were  always  ready  to  give  credit 
to  others,  and  the  former  mentions  as  a  pioneer  preceding  them  one 
Henry  Thomas  who  sank  a  shaft  thirty  feet  deep,  a  mile  west  of  where 
"Pioneer  City"  afterward  stood,  in  the  summer  of  1860.  He  worked 
alone  with  his- little  windlass  and  four  sluice  boxes,  hewed  out  with  an 
axe,  earning  only  about  $1.50  per  day — and  soon  dropped  out  of  sight. 

*"In  the  fall  of  1860  and  spring  of  1861  Anderson  and  the  Stuarts 
prospected  in  the  dry  gulches  putting  into  Benetsee  creek  and  found  what 
they  considered  good  paying  mines,  but  did  little  toward  working  them 
that  season  for  two  reasons:  First,  they  had  very  few  and  imper- 
fect tools  and  no  lumber  until  they  could  get  it  whipsawed ;  and  second, 
all  the  party,  except  the  writer,  went  to  Fort  Benton  for  the  purpose 
of  purchasing  supplies  from  the  steamboats  expected  up  the  river  that 
year.  The  one  boat  (the  Chippeway)  that  started  up  was  burned  near 
the  mouth  of  Milk  River,  and  the  summer  was  lost  in  waiting  for  her.  On 
this  boat  were  the  Hons.  William  Graham,  of  Phillipsburg,  and  Frank  L. 
Worden,  of  Missoula.  Early  in  the  spring  of  1862,  the  Stuarts,  Adams, 
Burr  and  Powell  began  to  mine,  having  had  lumber  sawed  by  hand  at  10 
cents  a  foot,  and  picks  and  shovels  packed  up  from  Walla  Walla,  425 
miles  distant,  by  Worden  and  Higgin's  train  of  'cayuse'  pack-horses  that 
brought  their  goods  to  Hell  Gate,  and  on  the  8th  day  of  May  they  set  the 
first  string  of  sluices  ever  used  in  Montana  and  began  to  mine  by  the  old 
pick  and  shovel  process. 

"In  '61  the  Stuarts  had  written  to  their  brother  Thomas,  who  was  in 
Colorado  territory,  to  come  out  here,  as  they  thought  this  a  better  and 
richer  country  than  that,  which  opinion,  by  the  way,  they  have  seen  no 
reason  to  change  and  still  adhere  to.  Thomas  showed  the  letters  to 
many  friends  of  his  and  the  result  was  that  quite  a  number  left  there  in 
the  spring  of  '62  for  Deer  Lodge.  The  first  of  these,  a  party  of  twelve, 
arrived  at  Pioneer  about  the  2Oth  of  June,  and  among  them  was  J.  M. 
Bozeman.  The  party  found  good  prospects  in  a  branch  of  Benetsee  or 
Gold  creek  as  it  now  began  to  be  called,  which  branch  took  the  name 
of  Pike's  Peak  gulch  from  the  fact  of  the  discoverers  being  from  Pike's 
Peak,  as  Colorado  was  then  generally  called.  Other  parties  also  began  to 
straggle  in  from  Pike's  Peak  and  Utah,  and  about  the  29th  of  June  Sam'l 
T.  Hauser,  Frank  Louthan  and  Alt  arrived,  being  the  advance  guard  of  a 
number  who  came  up  on  the  steamer  from  St.  Louis,  and  who  were  on 
their  way  to  Florence,  in  the  Salmon  River  mines,  not  having  heard  of 
the  discoveries  at  Gold  creek,  where,  however,  many  of  them  stopped  and 
are  oldest  and  most  respected  citizens." 


Although  James  and  Granville  Stuart  and  Rezin  Anderson,  their  part- 
ner, prospected  some  in  the  Deer  Lodge  Valley,  in  1857,  it  was  not  until 
1862  that  the  new-found  gold  fields  attracted  much  attention.  A  town 

*  Granville  Stuart's  biography  of  James  Stuart. 


sprang  up  in  the  vicinity  of  the  mines  first  called  LaBarge  City,  but  two- 
years  later  named  Deer  Lodge,  followed  soon  by  the  rise  of  Bannack 
City.  Deer  Lodge  was  sometimes  called  Cottonwood  and  sometimes 
Spanish  Fork.  The  Stuarts  and  Anderson  founded  a  settlement  at  the 
mouth  of  Gold  Creek  which  they  called  American  Fork;  Robert  Grant 
started  Grantville,  at  the  mouth  of  Little  Blackfoot  Creek,  and  Robert 
Dempsey  "established"  Dublin  six  miles  below  Gold  Creek.  The  deser- 
tion of  these  incipient  towns  is  thus  stated  by  Granville  Stuart :  "In  the 
summer  of  1863,  Grant  moved  up  to  Cottonwood  and  Grantville  became 
deserted ;  and  after  the  discovery  of  Alder  gulch  the  Stuarts  and  most 
of  the  residents  of  American  Fork  moved  to  Virginia  City;  and  that 
village,  too,  lost  prestige  and  finally  became  extinct.  Dempsey  and  re- 
tainers also  raised  camp  and  went  to  the  Pah-sam-er-ri,  or  Water  of 
the  Cottonwood  Groves,  as  the  Snake  Indians  called  the  Stinkwater 
river,  and  Dublin,  too,  was  left  unto  itself  desolate." 


The  discoveries  which  led  to  the  founding  of  Old  Butte.  in  the  fall 
of  1864,  are  told  by  Col.  Charles  S.  Warren,  the  young  Illinois  man 
who  arrived  upon  the  scene  two  years  after  and  was  long  afterward  a 
leading  figure  in  the  mining  enterprises  and  public  affairs  of  the  state. 
In  his  centennial  address,  published  in  Vol.  Ill,  of  the  Montana 
Historical  Society's  contributions,  he  says:  "In  May.  1^64,  G.  O.  Humph- 
reys and  William  Allison  came  to  Butte  and  camped  above  where  Butte 
City  now  stands,  on  what  is  now  known  as  Baboon  Gulch,  and  pros- 
pected for  a  month  in  the  vicinity,  when  they  returned  to  Virginia  City 
for  provisions.  Early  in  June  they  returned  to  Butte  to  permanently 
reside,  and  located  what  is  now  known  as  the  "Missoula  lode."  During 
the  months  of  June  and  July  they  ran  a  tunnel  upon  the  same,  and 
organized  what  was  known  as  the  "Missoula  company."  consisting  of 
Frank  and  Ed  Madison,  Dent,  G.  Tutt,  Col.  R.  W.  Donnell,  Swope, 
Hawley,  Allison  and  Humphreys.  Soon  after,  Dennis  Leary  and  H.  H. 
Porter,  who  were  fishing  on  the  Big  Hole  River,  followed  the  wagon 
tracks  of  Humphreys  and  Allison  into  the  camp,  having  been  favorably 
impressed  by  the  appearance  of  the  ore  from  the  Missoula  lode.  Probably 
the  first  lead  staked  in  what  is  now  known  as  Summit  Valley  District 
was  the  "Black  Chief,"  formerly  the  old  "Deer  Lodge"  lode,  which  was 
discovered  and  staked  early  in  1864,  by  Charles  Murphy,  Maj.  William 
Graham  and  Frank  Madison. 

"At  the  time  Humphreys  and  Allison  first  came  into  the  valley,  there 
were  no  stakes  struck,  nor  any  signs  of  work  having  been  done  in  the 
camp,  except  upon  what  is  now  known  as  the  Original  lode,  where  there 
was  an  old  hole  sunk  to  the  depth  of  four  or  five  feet.  Near  the  hole 
were  some  elk  horns  used  for  gads,  and  handspikes.  From  all  appear- 
ances the  work  had  been  performed  years  before ;  by  whom  this  work 
was  done,  there  is  no  telling,  nor  will  it  probably  ever  be  known.  In  the 
fall  of  1864  rich  placer  discoveries  were  made  in  the  vicinity  of  Butte,. 


and  in  August  of  the  same  year  the  first  mining  district  was  formed,  with 
William  Allison  as  president,  and  G.  O.  Humphreys  as  recorder.  In 
the  fall  of  1864,  the  old  town  of  Butte  was  located,  on  what  is  known 
as  Town  Gulch,  adjoining  the  present  town  site  of  Butte. 


"During  the  month  of  October,  1864,  rich  placer  discoveries  were 
made  on  Silver  Bow  Creek,  below  where  the  town  of  Silver  Bow  now 
stands,  by  Frank  Ruff,  Bud.  Baker,  Peter  Slater  and  others,  and  people 
began  to  gather  from  all  parts  of  the  territory.  A  new  district  was 
formed  jn  the  lower  end  of  the  gulch,  known  as  Summit  Mountain  Mining 
District,  with  W.  R.  Coggswell  as  recorder,  and  soon  sprang  up  the 
town  of  Silver  Bow  City,  which  was  then  made  the  county  seat  of  Deer 
Lodge  County.  During  the  winter  of  1864-65  there  were  probably  150 
men  in  Silver  Bow  and  vicinity,  and  many  lodes  were  recorded  in  the 
two  districts.  In  the  spring  of  1865,  Summit  Mountain  district  was 
divided,  and  claims  No.  75  to  310,  above  discovery  on  Silver  Bow  Creek, 
were  organized  into  what  is  known  as  Independence  Mining  District.  In 
the  fall  of  1864,  German  Gulch  was  discovered  by  Ed.  Alfield  and  others. 
In  the  spring  of  1865,  a  big  stampede  took  place  for  this  new  discovery, 
and  on  the  ist  of  April,  1865,  there  were  nearly  1,000  men  in  German 
Gulch  and  immediate  vicinity.  During  the  winter  of  1864-65,  Collins 
&  Company  established  a  store  at  Silver  Bow,  and  shortly  after  another 
store  was  started  by  O.  G.  Dorwin." 


In  June,  1860,  Frank  L.  Worden  and  C.  P.  Higgins,  under  the  firm 
name  of  Worden  &  Company,  started  for  Walla  Walla  with  a  stock  of 
general  merchandise  for  the  purpose  of  trading  at  the  Indian  agency,  but, 
upon  their  arrival  at  Hell's  Gate,  they  determined  to  locate  at  that  point, 
and  accordingly  built  a  small  log  house  and  opened  business.  This  was 
the  first  building  erected  at  that  place,  and  formed  the  nucleus  of  a  small 
village  that  was  known  far  and  wide  as  Hell's  Gate,  and  which  in  later 
years  had  the  reputation  of  being  one  of  the  roughest  places  in  Montana. 
During  this  year  400  United  States  troops  under  the  command  of  Major 
Blake  passed  over  the  Mullan  road  from  Fort  Benton  to  Walla  Walla 
and  Colville. 

The  historic  Bitter  Root  Valley  was  the  scene  of  much  activity  in 
the  late  '505,  and,  as  far  as  town-building  is  concerned,  Missoula  was  the 
result.  In  1855,  the  Confederated  Flathead  nation  concluded  the  treaty 
with  the  Government  in  the  large  pine  grove  on  the  river,  about  eight 
miles  below  the  present  town  of  Missoula,  and  the  circumstance  gave 
that  locality  the  name  of  Council  Grove.  In  the  following  year,  a  note- 
worthy influx  of  settlers  commenced  to  come  into  the  so-called  Hell's 
Gate  Ronde,  in  the  upper  part  of  Bitter  Root  Valley.  Among  them  was 
Frank  H.  Woody  (Judge),  who  is  therefore  well  qualified  to  explain 



the  circumstances  attending  the  birth  of  the  town  of  Missoula.  He  says 
in  his  "Early  History  of  Western  Montana,"  (Vol.  II,  p.  94)  :  "The 
large  round  valley  lying  below  and  adjacent  to  the  present  town  of 
Missoula  was  called  by  the  early  Canadian  trappers  who  visited  this 
country,  Hell's  Gate  Ronde  and  the  river,  Hell's  Gate  River.  The  name 


Hell's  Gate  originated  in  this  wise :  In  an  early  day,  when  the  warlike 
Blackfeet  overran  the  whole  of  Montana,  the  romantic  and  picturesque 
pass  or  canyon  where  the  Hell's  'Gate  River  cuts  through  the  mountain 
above  the  town  of  Missoula,  was  a  regular  rendezvous  for  their  war 
parties,  and  so  constantly  did  they  infest  this  place  that  it  was  almost 
certain  death  for  an  individual,  or  even  small  parties,  to  enter  this  pass, 
and  so  great  was  the  dread  and  fear  entertained  by  the  Indians  of  the 


western  tribes  and  the  Canadian  voyageurs  that  it  became  a  saying  with 
them  that  it  was  as  safe  to  enter  within  the  gates  of  hell,  as  to  enter  into 
that  pass;  and  it  was  called  by  the  voyageurs,  in  their  language,  Port 
d'enfer,  Gate  of  Hell,  or  Hell's  Gate,  and  from  which  the  river  and  sub- 
sequently a  village  took  their  names." 

In  the  fall  of  1856  quite  a  number  of  settlers  located  in  the  upper 
part  of  Bitter  Root  Valley,  and  in  December,  Neil  McArthur,  one  of  the 
most  substantial  of  the  new  comers  erected  a  trading  post  in  Hell's  Gate 
Ronde.  A  number  moved  their  stock  to  that  locality  and  a  number  of 
pieces  of  ground  were  broken  for  grain  and  garden  produce.  In  the  fall 
of  1857,  the  "first  houses  were  built  in  the  ronde,  or  valley.  Other  settlers 
came  in,  within  a  few  years,  including  the  widely  known  trader,  Capt. 
Richard  Grant,  so  prominently  identified  with  the  Hudson  Bay  Company. 

"In  December  of  that  year  (1860),  the  Territorial  Assembly  created 
the  county  of  Missoula,  the  polls,  at  which  seventy-four  votes  were  cast, 
being  opened  at  Fort  Owen,  Jocko  Agency  and  Hell's  Gate.  In  1863-64, 
Hell's  Gate  upheld  its  name  as  a  favorite  resort  of  the  road  agents  and 
horse  thieves  who  infested  Montana. 

"The  Kootenai  mines  having  been  discovered  early  in  the  spring  of 
1864,  hundreds  of  men  flocked  to  them,  passing  through  the  village  of 
Hell's  Gate  and  buying  generously  of  its  goods  and  supplies,  at  'war 
prices.'  "  In  this  connection,  Judge  Woody,  who  had  been  in  the  Hell's 
Gate  country  for  a  number  of  years,  remarks :  "Seed  wheat  sold  as  high 
as  $10.00,  and  potatoes  at.  $6.00  per  bushel ;  yeast  powders  were  cheap 
at  $1.50  per  box,  and  coffee  at  $1.00  per  pound,  and  flour  of  the 
poorest  quality  sold  readily  at  $30.00  per  hundred  pounds,  and  every- 
thing else  in  proportion.  In  the  fall  of  1864,  the  ruling  price  for  wheat 
was  from  $4.00  to  $5.00  per  bushel.  Potatoes  from  the  field  sold  readily 
at  $3.00  per  bushel.  The  currency  at  this  time  was  principally  gold  dust. 
These  high  prices  were  caused  by  the  immense  number  of  people  who 
flocked  to  the  mines  of  Alder  and  other  gulches  on  the  East  Side,  and  by 
the  demand  made  by  the  settlers  in  the  Gallatin,  Jefferson  and  Madison 
Valleys  for  seed  grain  and  potatoes.  *  *  * 

"During  the  winter  of  1864-65,  Worden  &  Company  erected  a  saw- 
mill at  the  place  where  Missoula  now  stands,  and  in  the  spring  of  1865 
commenced  the  erection  of  a  grist  mill  and  business  house,  and  in  the 
fall  of  that  year  moved  their  store  from  Hell's  Gate  to  their  new  build- 
ing. Other  buildings  were  put  up  by  other  parties,  and  thus  was  the 
town  of  Missoula  established,  and  was  at  first  called  Missoula  Mills,  but 
eventually  the  last  part  of  the